ED 628W: Week 5. Education, Gender, & Health in Development

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1 ED 628W: Week 5 Education, Gender, & Health in Development

2 What is gender? What key issues are relevant to understanding about gender? What are the models and gender analysis frameworks? What is the relationship among gender, health, education and development?

3 Gender is a socially constructed and intersectional identity: it always intersects with social class, ethnicity, religion, culture, disability, sexuality, age, and care status (i.e. whether one is a carer or not). Policy implications and recommendation: Gender equality policies in education need to take account of social class, ethnic, cultural and other status differences within gender groups. (Gender and education - lessons from research for policy makers- An independent report submitted to the European Commission by the NESSE networks of experts, 2012)

4 An Integrated Approach to Gender- Based Analysis, Status of Women Canada, 2004): Gender equity means being fair to women and men. To ensure fairness, measures are often needed to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from otherwise operating as equals. Equity leads to equality. Gender equality means that women and men enjoy the same status and have equal opportunity to realize their full human rights and potential to contribute to national, political, economic, social and cultural development, and to benefit from the results.

5 Same treatment does not yield equal results. Gender equality: equal valuing by society of both the similarities and the differences between women and men, and the varying roles they play.

6 Gender Analysis frameworks A. Harvard Analytical Framework B. DPU10 Frameworks a.) Moser (triple roles) Framework b.) Levy (web of institutionalisation) Framework C. Gender Analysis Matrix (GAM) D. Equality and Empowerment Framework (Longwe) E. Capacities and Vulnerabilities Framework (CVA) F. People Oriented Framework (POP) (Developed by Moser & Levy, UNDP)

7 Policy & analytical approaches for addressing women needs: Welfare Equity Anti- poverty Efficiency Empowerment

8 Specific concepts in gender analysis: Sex and gender Gender relations Changes in gender identity and gender relations Gender division of labour Gender roles and responsibilities Productive work Reproductive work Differential access to and control over resources and benefits

9 Concepts in general gender analysis Women in Development (WID)- focus on wn Gender in Development (GID)- focus on gender relations Equity Equity and Sustainable Development Understanding Gender Equity Equality Gender Equality Gender Equality as a Development Objective Discrimination Systemic Discrimination Equality of Outcome (Substantive Equality)

10 An analysis provides: Gender Awareness: understanding of gender relations and their implications for development policy and implementation Analysis of the division of labour: Activities, access and control A Review of women s priorities: Restraining and driving forces Recommendations to address women s practical needs and/or strategic Interests

11 What is masculinity? Men and masculinity in gender analysis. The contributions of men to gender relations in gender analysis Biological destiny Cultural construction Discourse(s) of power

12 Canadian Evaluation & implementation of gender policies: gender equality policy- support the achievement of equality between women and men to ensure sustainable development. Objectives- The policy aims to: To advance women's equal participation with men as decision makers in shaping the sustainable development of their societies; To support women and girls in the realization of their full human rights; and To reduce gender inequalities in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development.

13 The Story of the Fox and the Crane (equal treatment does not mean the same treatment) The Fox invited the Crane to dinner. He served the food on a large flat dish. The Crane with her long, narrow beak could not eat. The Crane invited the Fox to dinner. She served the food in a deep vase, and so the Fox with his short, wide face could not eat. Both friends had an equal opportunity for nourishment, but each time one of them could not take advantage of this opportunity. The development challenge in every case is to identify barriers to the opportunities that exist, and custom design the adjusted interventions that will lead to equality of outcome.

14 In groups of 3, brainstorm some reasons for current trends in terms of gender equity in education and health, Create a concept map as outlined below (10 minutes)

15 Canadian Council for International Co- operation (1991) Two Halves make a Whole: Balancing Gender Relations in Development, Ottawa, CCIC, Canada. pp Critical Questions: How and to what extent do project/program activities and organisational policies contribute to improving the conditions of women and of men? How and to what extent do they contribute to improving women s position in society?

16 Gender & health Gender based differences in access to or control over resources, in power or decision making, and in roles and responsibilities, have implications for women s and men s health status.

17 Gender may influence health status in the following ways: exposure, risk or vulnerability, nature, severity or frequency of health problems ways in which symptoms are perceived health seeking behaviour access to health services ability to follow prescribed treatments long term social and health consequences (Source: Health Canada sc.gc.ca

18 Gender & Education: Qs from international research How are gender inequalities created and reproduced within and around contemporary schools, in employment and in wider society? Why do boys drop out of school more often than girls? Why, in spite of increasingly high performances, girls and young women in many countries do not identify with mathematics, science and technology subjects and related careers?

19 How does gender interface with immigration in creating inequalities in education? Why is the cultural imperative on women to do care work and on men to do "dominance" so important for understanding the dynamics of educational choices and occupational outcomes?

20 What role do parents and peers play in determining the gendered outcomes of education? How to challenge gendered choices and inequalities in education (and employment)?

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27 Gender representation in Science and Mathematics (DeCoito, 2014) Stereotypes can lower girls' aspirations for science and engineering careers over time. Negative opinions of women in "masculine" positions, like scientists or engineers, socio cultural factors, girls assess their mathematical ability lower than do boys.

28 Socio Cultural Factors

29 Gender Equity in Science Three different approaches to increase gender equity in science education (Sinnes, 2006): 1) Gender neutral: Girls and boys are equal in their engagement in science education 2) Female friendly: Girls and boys are different in their engagement in science education 3) Gender sensitive: The differences in science engagement among pupils of the same sex are as important as the differences between the two sexes

30 Curriculum Educational Material Teacher Development Gender Neutral Science Education - Curriculum should be gender neutral and hence be equally relevant to both boys and girls Develop gender neutral education materials either through: - Equal number of the words he and she, and equal number of illustrations showing males and females, or - Remove all references to sex, or - Portray males and females in untraditional gender roles Teachers should be sensitised not to discriminate against girls: - Teachers should give equal attention to girls and boys in class - Teachers must avoid saying anything that could be understood as discriminatory to girls - Preferably there should be an equal number of female and male science teachers - Teachers must make sure that girls are given equal

31 Curriculum Educational Material Teacher Development Female friendly Science education - Curriculum should be developed to accommodate girls - Build on research regarding how girls learn in science education - Be responsive to feminist critique of science and incorporate the contributions of women and other oppressed groups Teaching materials should be female friendly: - Build on girls special interests and experiences - Incorporate scientific knowledge developed by females and oppressed - Show examples of how scientific knowledge is biased by its developers - Be political in terms of visualising the oppression of females and non western people Teachers should be responsive to girls special interests, and sensitised on how girls learn: - Teach in small groups - Develop a non-competitive environment in science class - Focus on health/body and personal development whenever possible - Link science education to girls out of school experiences - Link science education to societal/environmental issues - Visualise the masculine bias in scientific knowledge and priorities - Visualise the special contributions of females to science - Pay extra attention to females in class - Separate into girls/boys groups - Separate schools for girls/boys

32 Curriculum Educational Material Teacher Development Gender -sensitive science education -Curriculum should be developed to accommodate a broad variety of interests - Curriculum should visualise the social, political and psychological dimensions of science - Curriculum should incorporate other knowledge systems Teaching materials should be gendersensitive: - Teaching material should reflect differences in interest in science - Teaching materials should visualise the relations between science and society and how social and political factors impact science - Teaching materials should include science developed by minorities and other cultures and visualise the differences between different types of scientific inquiry - Teachers should be responsive to the different perspectives of all pupils irrespectively of their sex - Teachers should build on pupils experiences irrespectively of their sex/ apply constructivist teaching methods - Teachers should visualise that scientific knowledge is constructed by human beings and hence influenced by its creators - Teachers should acknowledge that all pupils are different and that great differences in interests exist also within groups of pupils of the same sex - Teachers should introduce questions of sex, race and class when it is relevant - Teachers should not divide pupils into groups based on sex, but rather on interests

33 References 2001 UNDP Learning and Information Pack Gender Analysis- Beck, T. (1999). Using Gender- sensitive Indicators: a reference manual for Governments and other stakeholders. Commonwealth Secretariat, London DeCoito, I. (2014). Gender representation in STEM

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