1 Same-Day PCI: Guidelines & Best Practices for In-N-Out Procedures Michael Guiry, PA-C, MBA AVP, Cardiovascular Services North Shore LIJ Health System New York
2 I, Michael Guiry, DO NOT have a financial interest/arrangement or affiliation with one or more organizations that could be perceived as a real or apparent conflict of interest in the context of the subject of this presentation.
3 Overview How do we define patient status; inpatient vs. outpatient? Does shortening length of stay after PCI have an impact on patient safety and quality of care? What patients qualify for early discharge? How do we implement a same day PCI discharge program?
4 CMS Guidelines Inpatient vs Outpatient Inpatient care, rather than outpatient care, is required only if the patient s medical condition, safety, or health would otherwise be significantly and directly threatened if care was provided in less intensive setting. The physician or other practitioner responsible for patient s care at the hospital is also responsible for deciding whether the patient should be admitted as an inpatient. 3
5 Defining Outpatient vs. Inpatient Outpatient Duration of hospitalization is NOT the qualifier What s the 2 Midnight Rule? (i.e. less than 24 hours doesn t equate to OP) Defined: decision to admit as Inpatient Ambulatory Payment Classification (APC) code based on expected stay of at least 2-midnights Limits use of inpatient and observation stays Documentation (latter grew drives from the 3 decision in 2006 to 8% in 2011) Effective date delayed until March 2015 Inpatient Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) code Same-day (aka Day case ) Would by definition qualify as outpatient Discharge the same calendar day as the PCI
6 Shift from Inpatient to Outpatient 1. Elective admissions dropped during recession and have been slow to recover 2. Health reform pressure on hospital readmissions and avoidable admissions. 3. The growth of observation status. 4. Long-term continuing movement towards outpatient models of care 5. Shift toward fee-for-value away from fee-for-service 6. Growth of technology, particularly when it comes to imaging, surgery and anesthesia. 7. An ongoing birth rate decline.
7 NEW YORK-PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL -- specific DRG Description NYP National 1 D Stays to 1 D Stays Total D/C s to Total D/C s NY State PEPPER Reports - NYP specific data Other vascular procedures w/o CC/MCC Perc cardiovasc proc w drug-eluting stent w/o MCC Perc cardiovasc proc w/o coronary artery stent w/o MCC Hospital Avg LOS for DRG 78.9% 37.8% % 35.0% % 35.0% 2.3
8 Medicare RAC and ADR Audits on One Day Stay Encounters Purpose of ADR process Prevent improper payments before they are made Medicare started requesting prepayment documentation January 1, steps before final disposition (initial review, appeal, administrative law judge decision) If case is denied IP and not re-billed as ambulatory surgery within one year of DOS no opportunity to bill case Procedures being targeted Angioplasty, Uncomplicated stent placement Providers have 30 days to send additional documentation requests (ADR) If documentation not received within 30 days admission will be denied 7
9 Documentation for Inpatient Documentation Points to uphold an inpatient decision: Severity of the signs and symptoms exhibited by the patient Medical predictability of something adverse happening to the patient Complications during/after an amb surg procedure Treatment plan for a specific medical condition/ monitoring 8
10 Overview How do we define patient status; inpatient vs. outpatient? Does shortening length of stay after PCI have an impact on patient safety and quality of care? What patients qualify for early discharge? How do we implement a same day PCI discharge program?
11 Preparation of Patients for Intra Vascular Catheterization Patient should be prepared emotionally and psychologically Henry A. Zimmerman, MD The patient is given a cleansing enema the night before &..250 mg V penicillin t.i.d. the day of catheterization to prevent the possibility of any local or general infection p. 5 Ref: Intra Vascular Catheterization. Henry A Zimmerman, ed. 1950, Charles C Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Il Slide courtesy of Ian Gilchrist MD
12 Risks of PCI Death MI CVA Coronary dissection or perforation hours Arrhythmia of PCI Contrast reactions Renal Failure Vascular Complications Overall, PCI has become a lower risk procedure. Elective patients typically discharged within 24 Same Day PCI occurred as early as 1997 Kiemeneij et al. Outpatient coronary stent implantation. JACC 1997;29:323-7 Slagboom et al. Actual outpatient PTCA: OUTCLAS pilot study. CCI 2001;53: Ziakas et al. Safety of same day discharge radial PCI. Am Heart J 2003;146: Slagboom et al. Outpatient coronary angioplasty: feasible and safe. CCI 2005;64:421-7.
13 Same Day Discharge after PCI Why not? Possible reasons: Medical Legal Psycho-social/cultural Financial
14 Same Day Discharge after PCI Medical reasons: Cardiac complications Acute stent thrombosis Arrhythmia Vascular complications Access site bleedings Other vascular complications Other complications
15 Length of Stay In Patients Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction Worcester Heart Attack Study Saczynski, JS et al, Am J Med. 2010
16 Early Discharge After Primary PCI for STEMI Single-center analysis of 2,448 patients, 63% were released early (within 2 days of the procedure) vs. late (after 2 days). Conclusion: Discharge within 2 days is feasible and safe in almost two thirds of patients with STEMI receiving primary PCI. Noman A et al. European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care 2013;
20 Same Day Discharge after PCI Legal reasons: Efficacy and safety of outpatient PCI has been demonstrated and described in a large series of publications from different groups in the past 15 years. (largely outside US) In several countries outpatient PCI has become clinical routine.
21 Same Day Discharge after PCI Psycho-social/cultural reasons: Dependent patients Elderly patients Insecure patients Preference for staying overnight
22 Same Day Discharge after PCI Financial: Inpatient Outpatient PCI Reimbursement $18,970 $12,000 Avg Total Costs $12, 500 $11,300 Outpatient PCI is reimbursed at 28-38% less than inpatient PCI Reimbursement is the same regardless of LOS for outpatient PCI Net Margin approximately $6,500 vs. $1,000 for IP vs OP, respectively On 250,000 PCI/year = $1.8 Billion decrease in revenue However, hospitals experience $600 Million in direct costs savings AND potential for increased revenue due to bed availability Heyde, GS et al. Circulation 2007
23 Overview How do we define patient status; inpatient vs. outpatient? Does shortening length of stay after PCI have an impact on patient safety and quality of care? What patients qualify for early discharge? How do we implement a same day PCI discharge program?
24 SCAI Guidelines for Outpatient PCI Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 73: (2009)
25 SCAI Guidelines for Outpatient PCI Stable angina with (-) biomarkers No significant comorbidities 100 patients discharged the same day after Normal renal function and LVEF elective PCI 80% did not meet SCAI criteria. Successful, uncomplicated procedure None were readmitted within 30 days Appropriate home support and access to emergency care - Gilchrist I, et. al. SCAI 2010 Single vessel PCI with < 28mm stent (no POBA and no adjunctive devices) Immediate access site stabilization with closure device or radial artery approach or brachial cut down Chambers CE, et. al. CCI 2009
26 Same-Day Discharge: Dimensions to consider Patient Procedure Program Cognitively Intact Adequate social support Successful No post procedure bleeding Medically Stable No need for prolonged antithrombotics Education 24-hour Hotline Dual Antiplatetherap y RX
27 Sample Same-Day Discharge Protocol Elective PCI Successful PCI with stent (< 20% residual stenosis, TIMI 3 flow, no dissection or thrombus) No recent CHF Adequate access site hemostasis No requirement for GP 2b/3a Inhibitors Pt. resides 60 miles from PCI center and does not live alone No other comorbidity precluding same-day discharge as determined by attending
28 Sample Same-Day Discharge Protocol Recovery area staff provide education Procedure Disease state Secondary prevention Follow-up appointment Educational materials Fellow or attending evaluate patient before discharge Patient and caregiver MUST have thienopyridine in hand before leaving
29 Selection of patients for Same Day Discharge after PCI All ARU patients screened for eligibility (Baseline Screening) Angiogram Exclusion Criteria Left Main >6F Guide Referred for CABG Exclusion Criteria ACS Troponin (+) EF<30% GFR<50% >60 min away Bleeding Diathesis Chronic Anticoagulation Hb<10 Hemostasis PCI Exclusion Criteria Suboptimal result >20% residual stenosis (stent),>40% POBA Any Untreated dissection Thrombus No-reflow Persistent Slow flow Branch compromise (>1mm) Persistent CP (20 min) Perforation (including wire) >300 cc of dye Use of IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Complicated hemostasis 2 hours of Observation if closure device is used 4 hours of observation if manual hemostasis 1 Hour after Ambulation Discharge Exclusion Criteria Persistent/Recurrent CP EKG changes Hypertension/Hypotension (Excluding vagal) Any groin complications (hematoma >3cm, new bruit) Anticipated Discharge after 6 PM
30 Overview How do we define patient status; inpatient vs. outpatient? Does shortening length of stay after PCI have an impact on patient safety and quality of care? What patients qualify for early discharge? How do we implement a same day PCI discharge program?
32 Same Day Discharge for Elective PCI New York Presbyterian Hospital Columbia University Medical Center
33 Hurdles to clear prior to initiating Same Day Discharge Pre-Admission Post-Procedure Pre-Discharge Stakeholder Buy-In
34 Process Flow Map Expected: 50/month
35 Criteria for Hospital Admission post PCI
36 Pre-Admission Criteria The following is completed by the Physician/NP/PA in the pre-admission area and follows the patient through to discharge. MAJOR CRITERIA Acute Coronary Syndrome Clinical Heart Failure within 7 days Creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dl, GFR less than 60 ml/min, Hemodialysis Inability to ambulate due to poor coordination, vasomotor instability, dizziness or suspected neurologic issues or events Need for therapeutic anticoagulation (i.e. Coumadin) Left Ventricular dysfunction (Ejection Fraction less than 30%) Antiplatelet or contrast allergy (uncontrolled) Prior stent thrombosis
37 Pre-Admission Criteria MINOR CRITERIA Age greater than 75 years Patient lives or will be staying greater than 60 minutes from hospital Patient does not live with or have the ability to stay with, another responsible adult on the evening of intended discharge History of recent ventricular arrhythmia Uncontrolled Diabetes (HgA1c > 7% or Fasting Blood Sugar > 180 mg/dl) Poorly controlled Hypertension (SBP > 160 mmhg) COPD (Home Oxygen dependent or requiring acute treatment) Morbidly obese Severe valvular heart disease ( ie-severe AS, Severe MR) Prior organ transplant/immunosuppressive therapy
38 Procedure Criteria (To be completed by the Interventional Cardiologist) MAJOR Complex Anatomy: Unprotected Left Main, PCI performed in 2 or more vessels, Bifurcation Lesion or Long Lesion ( > 28 mm), Support device (i.e. Balloon Pump, Impella) Suboptimal angiographic results (i.e. residual dissection) Use of GPIIb-IIIa Inhibitors (i.e. Abciximab, Eptifibatide) Side branch occlusion No-Reflow requiring treatment Significant Hypertension or Hypotension during procedure (SBP < 100mmHg or > 160mmHg) Total contrast volume/calculated CrCl (CCC) ratio >3 Intra-procedural access site complication Significant brady or tachy arrhythmia requiring treatment
39 Procedure Criteria (To be completed by the Interventional Cardiologist) Rotablator, Laser Chronic Total Occlusion Proximal LAD lesion SVG PCI Fluoro > 60 minutes or > 5 Gy MINOR Diffuse in-stent restenosis with restenting Left Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure > 25mmHg
40 Criteria for Admission INPATIENT Admission (1 MAJOR criteria / 2 or more MINOR criteria) Patient required an inpatient admission due to their co-morbid conditions and complex/high risk nature of their procedure and was considered to be at increased risk of major adverse cardiac and vascular events if discharged. Physician Signature: Date / / Time : AM / PM Ambulatory Encounter: SAME DAY DISCHARGE EXTENDED RECOVERY (Patient requires overnight recovery)
41 Pre-Discharge Flow Map
42 Pre-Discharge PRE-DISCHARGE YES NO RN Have post-pci ECG and labwork (CBC, BMP, CPK) been performed? Has the dedicated caregiver been involved in the discharge teaching and do you feel he/she understands instructions? Is the vascular access site without complication? Has the patient been ambulatory for 60 minutes? Was discharge teaching performed; including medication management, access site management and emergency management of complications post discharge?
43 Recommendations Start slow pilot with only a few operators Examine your own practice.. consider discharging lowest risk patients Develop a protocol which fits the culture of your institution Patients should feel comfortable going home; if they are not comfortable, keep them Patient should have supervision at home Geographically close to a medical center. Follow up phone call A way to close the loop. Ensure they have their DAPT
44 Next Phase
45 BCIS Autumn Elective PCI in elderly patients
46 BCIS Autumn Elective PCI in elderly patients
47 BCIS Autumn Elective PCI in elderly patients
48 Conclusion Patient care is increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. While Same Day PCI has been demonstrated to be safe in select patient populations, it is important to develop a comprehensive same day PCI program. Keys to success in developing a program: Careful patient selection Establish guidelines and protocols Involve all stakeholders including patients, families, staff and physicians
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