TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Tense. Verb Tense"

Transcription

1 TOEIC Grammar Guide - Verb Verb Introduction Every sentence has a subject and a main verb. Verbs describe what the subject is doing. To be able to show exactly what the subject does at any time, verbs have different forms and tenses. In order to speak and write English correctly, you must learn the various verb forms and tenses. Learning Hint: To use verbs accurately, learn the standard verb forms and tenses. Memorize common irregular verb forms that do not follow standard forms. Verb Forms Verbs have five forms: Form Verb Example Irregular Verb Example Infinitive walk run Past tense walked ran Past participle walked run Present participle walking running -s or -es form walks runs The only verb with more than 5 forms is be Form Verb Infinitive be Past tense was (for I / he / she / it); were (for we / you / they) Past participle be, been Present participle being -s / -es form -- The verb be also has 3 present tense forms (am, is, are) while all other verbs have one. Infinitive Form The infinitive form is the plain or dictionary form. It is used when the verb's action happens in the present and the subject is a plural noun or the pronouns I, we, you, or they: I go to work. You cook very well. We live downtown. They help me. Past Form The past tense shows the verb's action happened in the past. It is usually made by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. The past tense is formed differently for most irregular verbs: We lived downtown. Page 1 sur 6

2 They helped me. I went to work. (Irregular verb) Past Participle and Present Participle Form The past participle is used with the verb have (have / has / had) to create the present and past perfect tenses. The past participle form is also used to modify nouns and pronouns. One example is the phrase sliced bread. The past participle is usually the same as the past tense form. Only some irregular verbs have a past participle that is different than their past tense form. We have lived downtown. They have helped me. I have gone to work. (Irregular verb) The present participle is made by adding -ing to a verbs infinitive form: Working Buying Eating The present participle can modify nouns and pronouns. One example is the phrase running water. When used as a noun (example: smoking is bad), the present participle is known as a gerund. The present participle is also used to create the progressive tense. -S Form The -s form of a verb is made from the infinitive of the verb. This form is used when the verb's action is in the present and the subject is third-person singular. Third-person singular is a singular noun (examples: desk, John), or a singular indefinite pronoun (examples: everybody, someone), or the personal pronouns he / she / it. How the -s form is made depends on the last letter of the verb: Verb Ending To Make Third Person Singular Example s add -es Pass - It passes sh add -es Wish - Everyone wishes ch add -es Watch - She watches consonant + y change y to i and add -es Try - He tries Any other letter add -s Drink - He drinks Verb Types Irregular Verbs Many verbs do not follow the rules to make the different forms. They are called irregular verbs. No single rule explains how to make their past tense and past participle forms. The irregular verbs must be memorized. These are some of the common irregular verbs: Infinitive Past Past Participle choose chose chosen do did done drink drunk drank eat ate eaten give gave given forget forgot forgotten lie lay lain Page 2 sur 6

3 let let let see saw seen sleep slept slept throw threw thrown write wrote written Helping Verbs Another important type of verb is the helping or auxiliary verb. Helping verbs show tense and can show person, number, voice or mood. These verbs combine with a main verb to form a verb phrase. A main verb is an infinitive, a present participle or past participle. These are verb phrase examples: will give has been working can go Some helping verbs combine with main verbs to show time and voice. These helping verbs are shall, will, have (has / had), do (does / did) and the forms of be (am / is / are / was / were / been / being): We will live downtown. They shall help me. I have been working. We did not live downtown. They were helped. I had worked. Modal Verbs Helping verbs such as can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, and would are used to add extra meaning to main verbs. These helping verbs are called modals. They show a necessity, possibility, ability, permission, prediction or responsibility: You should write that report. He can carry heavy objects. We must go. I might leave. The helping verb do (does) or its past tense did is used together with the infinitive of a verb to ask questions, make the negative form, or to show added importance: Does she work this week? Where does he live? She does not sleep well. You do work every day. Do they go to school? Where did they live? She did not sleep well. He does run on weekends. Verbals A verbal (nonfinite verb) is no longer a verb. It is a verb form used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. A verbal can never be a main verb. Verbal Example Verb Form Noun Running is great exercise. present participle Adjective Blocked printers cannot print. past tense Adverb We were ready to work. to + infinitive Page 3 sur 6

4 Verb s shows the time of a verbs action or being. There are three verb tenses: simple, perfect, and progressive. Each tense has past, present and future forms. Note: Because tense shows time, a time word in a sentence helps to decide what tense is being used. Most time words can only go with a certain tense. These are some examples: Present Past Future Progressive often yesterday tomorrow now every hour / day / week last week / month next week / month today every month/year last year next year this month usually amount of time + ago in + amount of time for + amount of time sometimes today for + amount of time Simple The simple tenses show that an action or state of being is past, present, or future. The present tense shows action that is happening now as a person speaks or writes. The present tense is also used to describe actions that are factual or habitual (commonly repeated over a period of time). The present tense uses the verbs infinitive or the -s form for third person singular subject. The past tense shows action that has finished as a person speaks or writes. The past tense uses the verbs past tense form. The future tense shows action that has not happened yet as a person speaks or writes. The future tense uses the helping verb will or shall plus the verbs infinitive. Regular Verb: Walk Irregular Verb: Run Present I / you / we / they walk. He / she / it walks. I / you / we / they run. He / she / it runs. Past I / you / we / they / he / she / it walked. I / you / we / they / he / she / it ran. Future I / you / we / they / he / she / it will walk. I / you / we / they / he / she / it will run. Perfect The perfect tenses show that an action was or will be finished BEFORE another time or action happens. The perfect tenses are made with the helping verb have (have / has / had) plus the verbs past participle. All subjects use had for the past perfect tense. All subjects use will have or shall have for the future perfect tense. The infinitive have or has for singular third person is used for the perfect present tense. Examples: Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect Regular Verb: Walk I / you / we / they have walked. He / she / it has walked. I / you / we / they / he / she / it had walked. I / you / we / they / he / she / it will have walked. Present Perfect Irregular Verb: Run I / you / we / they have run. He / she / it has run. Page 4 sur 6

5 Past Perfect Future Perfect I / you / we / they / he / she / it had run. I / you / we / they / he / she / it will have run. The present perfect tense can also show that an action started in the past and is still going on in the present. Examples: He has lived downtown. (Action is finished at the time it is written.) He has worked for three hours. (Action started in the past and is still going on.) She has always written in a diary. (Action started in the past but continues now.) Progressive The progressive tenses show continuing action. They can also show how long an action has been going on for an amount of time in the present, past, or future. A verb's present participle joins with some forms of the verb be (am, is, are, was, were) to make the simple progressive tenses. Present Progressive Example I am working. You / we / they are working. Past Progressive Future Progressive He / she / it is working. I / he / she / it was working. You / we / they were working. I / he / she / it / they / we / you will be working. The past progressive can show an action that happened in the past and was not finished: He was doing his work. (He was working, but he may not have finished the work.) The perfect tense form plus been plus the verbs present participle makes the perfect progressive tenses: Present Perfect Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive Example I / you / we / they have been working. He / she / it has been working. I / he / she / it / they / we / you had been working. I / he / she / it / they / we / you will have been working. Not all verbs can make a progressive tense. Verbs that have qualities not able to show change cannot make the progressive tense. These are some of the verbs: be guess seem see believe include think smell cost like understand taste desire love want need doubt remember wish have Examples: Incorrect: She is being pretty. Page 5 sur 6

6 Correct: Incorrect: Correct: Incorrect: Correct: She is pretty. That is owning to him. He owns that. They are wanting a raise. They want a raise. Page 6 sur 6

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number

More information

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

Language at work To be Possessives

Language at work To be Possessives Unit 1 Language at work To be Possessives To be Positive: I am / m a receptionist. You / We / They are / re Polish. He / She / It is / s from Brazil. Negative: I am not / m not a team leader. You / We

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items In this unit we will finish our look at English grammar. Please be aware that you will have only covered the essential basic grammar that is commonly taught

More information

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Contents A Cheat Sheet on the Tenses in English... 2 Conditionals... 3 Past Participles... 5 Present Perfect Tense... 6 Present Perfect Continuous... 6 Past

More information

1. Present Tense (used to express action in the present). Singular 1 st person

1. Present Tense (used to express action in the present). Singular 1 st person *Use the back button to navigate away from this page. Standard Verb Forms Verbs change to show differences in time; this is called tense. Verbs have many tenses. Below are six tenses for the regular verb

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry (Subjects are in bold typeface and verbs are underlined) Subject-Verb Agreement means that subjects and verbs must always agree in

More information

Grammar Workshop Verb Tenses*

Grammar Workshop Verb Tenses* Grammar Workshop Verb Tenses* J O S E P H I N E B O Y L E J E N N I F E R R A M P U L L A A C A D E M I C S U P P O R T A N D A C C E S S C E N T E R A M E R I C A N U N I V E R S I T Y F E B R U A R Y

More information

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense * Past Perfect Continuous Tense *What is past perfect continuous tense? * Tense that is used to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. *Formula Past perfect

More information

Tenses ENGLISH GRAMMAR, TENSES. The English Tense System

Tenses ENGLISH GRAMMAR, TENSES. The English Tense System Tenses The English Tense System The links below are to lessons for each of the 12 basic tenses. In each lesson we look at two aspects of the tense: Structure: How do we make the tense? Use: When and why

More information

Active and Passive Voice

Active and Passive Voice GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS and Voice Voice refers to the form of a verb that indicates when a grammatical subject performs the action or is the receiver of the action. When a sentence is written in the active

More information

SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES INTERMEDIATE (B1) LEVEL

SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES INTERMEDIATE (B1) LEVEL SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES INTERMEDIATE (B1) LEVEL This is a summary showing verb conjugations in English. For each verb tense you will find the following information the affirmative verb form most common

More information

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8 Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,

More information

SIMPLE PAST & PRESENT PERFECT

SIMPLE PAST & PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PAST & PRESENT PERFECT Complete the sentences with your own words 1. I got up at today. (time) 2. I have been awake since. (time) 3. I have come to this class times so far this month. 4. I took

More information

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing.

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns. Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives

More information

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test Answers and Explanations The ESL Language Use test measures your proficiency in using correct grammar in English sentences. There are five content areas measured on this

More information

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations Sentence Parts Daily Grammar Practice Day 2 Tuesday what do I do with all those labels from Monday? First, don t ignore what you did yesterday. Use Monday s labels as a guide. 1. Label any prepositional

More information

Lesson 4 Parts of Speech: Verbs

Lesson 4 Parts of Speech: Verbs Lesson 4 Parts of Speech: Verbs Verbs are a sentence's "action" or "being" words; that is, they tell what happens or what is. Verbs may consist of one or several words wrote and would have written, for

More information

How to form the Present Perfect

How to form the Present Perfect The present perfect verb tense is a little difficult in English it is used in several different ways, and there are lots of rules to remember. This lesson will teach you everything you ever wanted to know

More information

The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities

The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities Subject-Verb Agreement AmLa and English 67 Student Name: Date: Instructor: Course: IMPORTANT NOTE: All the activities (3) in the DLA must be completed in

More information

Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet

Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet Gerund and Infinitive Worksheet In this printable worksheet, the rules for using gerunds and infinitives will be explained in detail. The explanation will be followed by two practice activities with these

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary

ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary ENGLISH GRAMMAR Elementary A cura di NADIA TOSI Centro IDA ITE Enrico Tosi Busto Arsizio CONTENTS DEFINITE ARTICLES 3 INDEFINITE ARTICLES 3 PERSONAL PRONOUNS SUBJECTS 4 PLURALS. 5 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

More information

1. Why do we use adjective clauses?

1. Why do we use adjective clauses? ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 1. Why do we use adjective clauses? to give more information about a noun or noun phrase I saw the movie. ( Which one??? ) to give more specific information about a noun or noun phrase

More information

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Past perfect continuous

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Past perfect continuous BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Past perfect continuous This is not a word-for-word transcript Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me,. And me,. Today, we're talking about the past perfect

More information

Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles

Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles 43a GERUNDS, INFINITIVES, AND PARTICIPLES CHAPTER 43 Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles PARTICIPLES are verb forms (see 8b). A verb s -ing form is its PRESENT PARTICIPLE. The -ed form of a regular verb

More information

Can May Must Shall Will Could Might Should Would. Be able to Be supposed to Have to Ought to Have better Be going to Be to Have got to Used to

Can May Must Shall Will Could Might Should Would. Be able to Be supposed to Have to Ought to Have better Be going to Be to Have got to Used to MODAL AUXILIARIES Modal auxiliaries are auxiliary verbs that lend different shades of meaning to the main verb to which they are attached. Modals help to express the mood or attitude of the speaker and

More information

POLITE ENGLISH. Giving advice FREE ON-LINE COURSE. Lesson 2: version without a key SZKOLENIA JĘZYKOWE DLA FIRM ZREALIZUJEMY TWÓJ CEL!

POLITE ENGLISH. Giving advice FREE ON-LINE COURSE. Lesson 2: version without a key SZKOLENIA JĘZYKOWE DLA FIRM ZREALIZUJEMY TWÓJ CEL! POLITE ENGLISH FREE ON-LINE COURSE Lesson 2: Giving advice version without a key WARM UP THINK Do you like giving advice? Do you often ask for advice? WATCH OUT! Do you know the difference between: ADVICE

More information

English auxiliary verbs

English auxiliary verbs 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,

More information

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

More information

VERB TENSES. The simple form of the verb is the base form, with no endings.

VERB TENSES. The simple form of the verb is the base form, with no endings. VERB TENSES Verb tense is used to designate when an action takes place in time in relation to the subject of the sentence. The verbs denote whether the action refers to the present, past or future. There

More information

Irregular Past Tense Verb Chart

Irregular Past Tense Verb Chart Introduction Irregular past tense verbs are the most interesting type of verb in the English language. They don t have the monotonous ed that is common to the regular verbs. Instead they take on different

More information

The Super Noun. c. Direct Object is found after an action verb, and it receives the action of the v

The Super Noun. c. Direct Object is found after an action verb, and it receives the action of the v 1. A NOUN is a word that names a a. p - b. p - c. t - d. i /quality- The Super Noun 2. In a sentence, a noun functions or acts like a a. s or b. an o 3. Nouns as a Subject a. A s is who or what the sentence

More information

1 Grammar in the Real World

1 Grammar in the Real World U NIT 31 Adjectives and Adverbs Making a Good Impression 1 Grammar in the Real World A Do you know how to give a presentation? What do you do to prepare? Read the article How many of your ideas are in

More information

EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6

EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6 EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6 Grammar Committee Representatives: Marcia Captan, Maria Fallon, Ira Fernandez, Myra Redman, Geraldine Walker Developmental Editor: Cynthia M. Schuemann Approved:

More information

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense

7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense Chapter 7 Verb Usage 211 7.5 Emphatic Verb Tense The emphatic tenses of a verb are used to add emphasis. In addition, the emphatic tense can be used with the word not in negative sentences and to form

More information

Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs

Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs Students should master at least ten of the sentences per day, ideally, and be able to write them at once

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

Grammar Boot Camp. Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses. (click mouse to proceed)

Grammar Boot Camp. Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses. (click mouse to proceed) Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed) Your Mission: To Study Phrases To Study Clauses To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with Question

More information

The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5.

The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5. Year 5 Glossary The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5. The first column indicates the year group in which the

More information

Verb Tenses - Past. TENSE TIMELINE TIMEFRAME EXPLANATION FORM VERB Past Tense. Past action action is over and has no

Verb Tenses - Past. TENSE TIMELINE TIMEFRAME EXPLANATION FORM VERB Past Tense. Past action action is over and has no I talked to him yesterday. X Verb Tenses - Past TENSE TIMELINE TIMEFRAME EXPLANATION FORM VERB Past Tense Past action action is over and has no is finished connection to present Use ed for regular verbs

More information

Activity Underline the preposition in each sentence. Tell if it describes time, location, direction, or detail.

Activity Underline the preposition in each sentence. Tell if it describes time, location, direction, or detail. Prepositions : Prepositions and A preposition is a word that shows the connection between other words in the sentence. Some prepositions are used to show time, location, and direction. Other prepositions,

More information

IGCSE English Language

IGCSE English Language IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.

More information

englisch-hilfen.de LEARNING ENGLISH ONLINE

englisch-hilfen.de LEARNING ENGLISH ONLINE Tense Signal words Use Form affirmative negative interrogative every day sometimes always often usually seldom something happens repeatedly how often something happens one follows another things in general

More information

English for Life. E l e m e n t a r y. Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started. Student s Book 3 Date. Workbook. MultiROM. Test 1 4

English for Life. E l e m e n t a r y. Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started. Student s Book 3 Date. Workbook. MultiROM. Test 1 4 Lessons 1 4 Checklist Getting Started Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 What do you do? The alphabet Posession Introducing yourself Classroom language Plurals: regular and irregular this / that Useful

More information

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY H National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY EP42/H/02 Mark Spanish Directed Writing FOR OFFICIAL USE Date Not applicable Duration 1 hour and 40 minutes *EP42H02* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed

More information

Before starting the activities, be sure to go over the directions with your child.

Before starting the activities, be sure to go over the directions with your child. Note to Parents The activities and games in this book have been designed to give your child a challenging and fun way to learn the parts of speech and simple sentence-building skills. Encourage your child

More information

I. Prepositional Phrases

I. Prepositional Phrases Unit 7 Phrases and Clauses A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. There are several types of phrases, among them prepositional, appositive,

More information

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning

Morphology. Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning Morphology Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. Some observations about words and their structure: 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning 2. many

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

Reporting verbs. The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are:

Reporting verbs. The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are: Reporting verbs Summary The most important basic aspects of reported speech that you have to remember are: changes in verb tenses "I'm going home" He said he was going home changes in expressions of time

More information

A. Look at the forms in italics in the text below. Decide which forms are Past Simple and which ones are Past Continuous.

A. Look at the forms in italics in the text below. Decide which forms are Past Simple and which ones are Past Continuous. University of the Aegean School of Sciences Course: English Group: 1 Instructor: E. Landrou / elandrou@aegean.gr GRAMMAR 2: PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS A. Look at the forms in italics in the text below.

More information

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is

More information

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

More information

Haunted Castle on Hallows Eve

Haunted Castle on Hallows Eve Magic Tree House #30 A Merlin Mission Haunted Castle on Hallows Eve By Mary Pope Osborne A Book Unit www.bookunitsbyteachers.com Scroll down for free lesson plans for the book The Magic Tree House: Haunted

More information

Lecture 5. Verbs and Verb Phrases I

Lecture 5. Verbs and Verb Phrases I Lecture 5. Verbs and Verb Phrases I 1 Finite and Nonfinite Verb Forms Finite verb forms: o Finite verb forms express tense and/or mood (see Lecture 6 for details on mood). They may also express number

More information

Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense

Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense Unit 18: Present Perfect Tense vs. Past Tense THE PROBLEMS She has lived there last year. They didn t call yet. Exercise 1: 1) Circle the verbs (auxiliary verbs, main verbs and past participles). 2) Write

More information

Reported speech: On the other hand, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech:

Reported speech: On the other hand, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech: Reported Speech Reported Statements When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the

More information

Verb Tenses. We use different verb tenses to indicate the various points in time.

Verb Tenses. We use different verb tenses to indicate the various points in time. Verb Tenses Verbs express the action of a person or an object in a sentence, e.g., John runs, or they tell us the condition of someone or something, e.g., Mandy seems ill. Each sentence expresses an idea

More information

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face

Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face Estudios de Asia y Africa Idiomas Modernas I What you should have learnt from Face2Face 1A Question Forms 1.1 Yes-No Questions 1. If the first verb is an auxiliary verb, just move it in front of the Subject:

More information

Grammar & exercises NA englishpage.com

Grammar & exercises NA englishpage.com FORM [has/have + been + present participle] * You have been waiting here for two hours. * Have you been waiting here for two hours? * You have not been waiting here for two hours. USE 1 Duration from the

More information

Session 11 Vocabulary

Session 11 Vocabulary English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] Session 11 Vocabulary A quick review of Session 10 What are collocations and why are they useful? Groups or chunks of words Learning words in chunks helps

More information

Übungsblatt. Klasse 6c. Musterlösung Abgabedatum: Donnerstag, 03.03.2005

Übungsblatt. Klasse 6c. Musterlösung Abgabedatum: Donnerstag, 03.03.2005 Übungsblatt 12 Klasse 6c Musterlösung Abgabedatum: Donnerstag, 03.03.2005 r Aufgabe 1 10 Aufgabe 2 10 Aufgabe 3 10 Aufgabe 4 12 Aufgabe 5 90 Ergebnis 132 www.englisch.de.tc 1 present perfect 10 Bildung

More information

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun.

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun. Final Exam Grammar Review Nouns 1. Definition of a noun: person, place, thing, or idea 2. Give four examples of nouns: 1. teacher 2. lesson 3. classroom 4. hope 3. Definition of compound noun: two nouns

More information

Simple Present, Simple Past and Present Perfect Tenses

Simple Present, Simple Past and Present Perfect Tenses Simple Present, Simple Past and Present Perfect Tenses This is a list of. I will read the base form, the simple past tense and the past participle of the verb. Then, I will read the verb in three sentences,

More information

Proloquo2Go 4.0 How do I find the words?

Proloquo2Go 4.0 How do I find the words? Proloquo2Go 4.0 How do I find the words? Introduction Proloquo2Go 4.0 s Crescendo vocabulary gives you easy access to core words those words that account for about 80% of what we say or write every day.

More information

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

More information

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online

Straightforward Pre-intermediate Practice Online Macmillan Practice Online is the easy way to get all the benefits of online learning and with over 100 courses to choose from, covering all competence levels and ranging from business English to exam practice

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

Grammar Unit: Pronouns

Grammar Unit: Pronouns Name: Miss Phillips Period: Grammar Unit: Pronouns Unit Objectives: 1. Students will identify personal, indefinite, and possessive pronouns and recognize antecedents of pronouns. 2. Students will demonstrate

More information

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Future perfect continuous

BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Future perfect continuous BBC LEARNING ENGLISH 6 Minute Grammar Future perfect continuous This is not a word-for-word transcript Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Grammar with me,. And me,. Today s programme is all about the future

More information

Sample only Oxford University Press ANZ

Sample only Oxford University Press ANZ Word level: the parts of speech Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea. Australia is a noun. Fun is a noun. There are many kinds of nouns. The four main ones are: common nouns, proper

More information

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases Jafar Asgari English Department Kashan University of Medical Sciences Structure of Complex Sentences Every Complex sentence is

More information

MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE

MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE MODALVERBS: STRUCTURE& USE What are modal verbs? Can Could May Might Must Shall Should Ought to Will Would They are Auxiliary verbsthat provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the sentence

More information

English Language Lesson: Verbs

English Language Lesson: Verbs English Grammar: ESL Resources Pg 1 English Language Lesson: Verbs Just as nouns, the first of the eight parts of speech, play a key role in a sentence, so do verbs. In this lesson, we ll look at verbs

More information

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. SENTENCE STRUCTURE An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. A dependent clause cannot be a complete sentence on its own. It depends on the independent clause

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

Level 3 Shirley English

Level 3 Shirley English Level 3 Shirley English SEPTEMBER: Chapter 1 Pages 1-9 Lesson 1 Long- term goals and short- term goals Lesson 2 Beginning setup plan for homeschool, WRITING (journal) Lesson 3 SKILLS (synonyms, antonyms,

More information

SOMMAIRE NIVEAU 1 - DEBUTANT

SOMMAIRE NIVEAU 1 - DEBUTANT SOMMAIRE NIVEAU 1 - DEBUTANT Unit A Lesson 1 - People and places Greetings; introductions; saying where you're from Grammar: Pronouns; Present tense of to be ; short forms; This is... Listening: Photos

More information

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals Advanced Conditionals Explained A conditional is made up of two parts: the if-clause and the main clause. We can put either one first and it doesn t change the meaning. We usually use a comma if we put

More information

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center Parts of a Sentence I. SUBJECT The subject is what the sentence is about. Also called the naming part of the sentence, the subject answers the question, "Who or what?"

More information

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further

More information

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull Parts of Speech Skills Team, University of Hull Language comes before grammar, which is only an attempt to describe a language. Knowing the grammar of a language does not mean you can speak or write it

More information

Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs

Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs Rethinking the relationship between transitive and intransitive verbs Students with whom I have studied grammar will remember my frustration at the idea that linking verbs can be intransitive. Nonsense!

More information

Structure of Clauses. March 9, 2004

Structure of Clauses. March 9, 2004 Structure of Clauses March 9, 2004 Preview Comments on HW 6 Schedule review session Finite and non-finite clauses Constituent structure of clauses Structure of Main Clauses Discuss HW #7 Course Evals Comments

More information

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet 7th Grade Grammar Review Packet KEY 1. Nouns 1. A noun is defined as a: person, place, thing or idea 2. A proper noun is: a specific person, place, thing or idea 3. A proper noun always starts with a:

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

Nouns Singular and Plural... 7 Plural Forms: -s, -es... 8 Plural Forms: y to ies...9 Plural Forms: f to ves Irregular Plural Forms...

Nouns Singular and Plural... 7 Plural Forms: -s, -es... 8 Plural Forms: y to ies...9 Plural Forms: f to ves Irregular Plural Forms... Nouns... 5-6 Singular and Plural... 7 Plural Forms: -s, -es... 8 Plural Forms: y to ies...9 Plural Forms: f to ves... 10 Irregular Plural Forms... 11 Plural Forms Review... 12 Action Verbs... 13 Plain

More information

WHY DO WE NEED GRAMMAR?

WHY DO WE NEED GRAMMAR? Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 7: Teaching Grammar in Context When we teach grammar, we not only help our learners to express themselves, but we also fulfil their expectations

More information

Cursos de gramática inglesa (Grammar Practice)

Cursos de gramática inglesa (Grammar Practice) Cursos de gramática inglesa (Grammar Practice) Los cursos Grammar Practice de Net Languages son cursos muy atractivos y entretenidos, diseñados para ser de gran utilidad como recursos de auto-aprendizaje.

More information

The Reading- Writing Poster Pack. by Steve Peha

The Reading- Writing Poster Pack. by Steve Peha The Reading- Writing Poster Pack by Steve Peha Good Writing Has all of these traits Ideas that are interesting and important. Main Idea Details Showing Purpose Surprises Organization that is logical and

More information

4th Grade Sentence Structures

4th Grade Sentence Structures Name 4th Grade Sentence Structures 1. Complete Sentences A complete sentence is a set of words that contains a subject and a predicate. Here is a basic complete sentence: Fish swim. It is possible to have

More information

Unit 1. Unit Vocabulary. Before You Read. How to Study for a Test

Unit 1. Unit Vocabulary. Before You Read. How to Study for a Test Unit 1 Before You Read Before you read a text, you should look at the title and the pictures and think about what you know about the topic. These questions will help you prepare to read the text on this

More information

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3

Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2. Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Table of Contents Quick and Handy Grammar Review: Adverb Clauses 2 Time words and phrases chart 2-3 Exercise 1: Error Correction. Correct the errors in the sentences. 4 Exercise 2: Insert the correct adverb

More information

ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES

ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES ESSENTIAL GRAMMAR GUIDE FOR YOUR TEFL CLASSES Your invaluable classroom guide for teaching English grammar to a TEFL class. Check your understanding of grammar and look at ways in which the topics can

More information

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language.

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. REPORTED SPEECH USE Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. STRUCTURE Formal aspects We can find different ways

More information