2 DNA CLONING: amplification of unique DNA molecules In vitro-pcr In vivo-in different host cells
3 POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)
4 PCR THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) PROVIDES AN EXTREMELY SENSITIVE MEANS OF AMPLIFYING RELATIVELY LARGE QUANTITIES OF DNA FIRST DESCRIBED IN 1985, NOBEL PRIZE FOR KARY MULLIS IN 1993
5 PCR THE LENGHT OF THE AMPLIFIED DNA SEQUENCE CAN BE AS LONG AS 40 KB. ONLY APPROX. 20 BP SEQUENCE FROM BOTH ENDS OF THE DNA TO BE AMPLIFIED IS NEEDED TO BE KNOWN. SINCE THE HUMAN GENOM AND MANY OTHER GENOMES ARE FULLY SEQUENCED, IT IS EASY TO AMPLIFY ANY WANTED PIECES OF DNA.
6 Taq POLYMERASE The technique was made possible by the discovery of taq polymerase, the DNA polymerase that is used by the bacterium thermus aquaticus that was discovered in hot springs
7 Taq POLYMERASE The technique was made possible by the discovery of taq polymerase, the DNA polymerase that is used by the bacterium thermus aquaticus that was discovered in hot springs
8 BEFORE AND AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF Taq POLYMERASE
9 COMPOSITION OF A PCR REACTION DEOXIRIBOSE NUCLEOTIDE TRIPHOSPHATES (dntp-s), the building blocks for the new DNA TEMPLATE DNA, the DNA sequence that you want to amplify PRIMERS, single-stranded dnas between 20 and 50 nucleotides long (oligonucleotides) that are complementary to a short region on either side of the template DNA HEAT STABLE DNA POLYMERASE that catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA BUFFER, WATER
10 PCR THERE ARE THREE MAJOR STEPS IN A PCR, WHICH ARE REPEATED FOR 20 TO 40 CYCLES. THIS IS DONE IN AN AUTOMATED THERMO CYCLER, WHICH CAN HEAT AND COOL THE REACTION TUBES IN A VERY SHORT TIME.
11 THE STEPS OF A PCR CYCLE DENATURATION at around 94 C : During the denaturation, the double strand melts open to single stranded DNA, all enzymatic reactions stop (for example the extension from a previous cycle). ANNEALING at around 54 C : Hydrogen bonds are constantly formed and broken between the single stranded primer and the single stranded template. If the primers exactly fit the template, the hydrogen bonds are so strong that the primer stays attached EXTENSION at around 72 C : The bases (complementary to the template) are coupled to the primer on the 3' side (the polymerase adds dntp's from 5' to 3', reading the template from 3' to 5' side, bases are added complementary to the template)
12 THE STEPS OF A PCR CYCLE
14 EXPONENTIAL INCREASE OF THE NUMBER OF COPIES DURING PCR
15 EXPONENTIAL INCREASE OF THE NUMBER OF COPIES DURING PCR EVERY CYCLE RESULTS IN A DOUBLING OF THE NUMBER OF STRANDS DNA PRESENT AFTER THE FIRST FEW CYCLES, MOST OF THE PRODUCT DNA STRANDS MADE ARE THE SAME LENGTH AS THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE PRIMERS THE RESULT IS A DRAMATIC AMPLIFICATION OF A THE DNA THAT EXISTS BETWEEN THE PRIMERS. THE AMOUNT OF AMPLIFICATION IS 2 RAISED TO THE N POWER; N REPRESENTS THE NUMBER OF CYCLES THAT ARE PERFORMED.
16 OVERVIEW OF THE FIRST THREE CYCLES 72 O 72 O 72 O
17 VERIFICATION OF PCR PRODUCT
18 PCR AND CONTAMINATION The most important consideration in PCR is contamination Even the smallest contamination with DNA could affect amplification For example, if a technician in a crime lab set up a test reaction (with blood from the crime scene) after setting up a positive control reaction (with blood from the suspect) cross contamination between the samples could result in an erroneous incrimination, even if the technician changed pipette tips between samples. A few blood cells could volitilize in the pipette, stick to the plastic of the pipette, and then get ejected into the test sample Modern labs take account of this fact and devote tremendous effort to avoiding cross-contamination
19 APPLICATIONS OF PCR DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIONS design primers which amplify the pathogens sequences, but no human sequence perform PCR with sample from patient used as template (presumably containing the pathogen s DNA) gel electrophoresis of the PCR reaction product if the expected size DNA is amplified, the infection is verified. Diagnosis can be done in a FEW HOURS, before PCR it might have taken days/weeks
20 DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS Appropriate primer pairs are commercially available for many pathogenic bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea Chlamydia trachomatis Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TBC) Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy lepra)
21 DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS HIV HPV CMV EBV herpes viruses rota virus Calici virus
22 APPLICATIONS OF PCR DIAGNOSIS OF GENETICALLY INHERITED DISEASES Mutations in any gene can be detected if the gene is PCR amplified, then sequenced. CYSTIC FIBROSIS-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) BREAST CANCER-BRCA RETIONOBLASTOMA-RB P53
23 APPLICATIONS OF PCR PRAENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF GENETICALLY INHERITED DISEASES DNA template for PCR can be obtained from the developing embryo by: PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING AMNIOCENTESIS
24 APPLICATIONS OF PCR PRAENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF GENETICALLY INHERITED DISEASES IN VITRO FERTILIZATION, coupled with PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS, can eliminate the risk that adults who are carriers of genetic diseases will produce affected children. It is possible to take a cell from a blastocyst at the 4- or 8-cell stage without damaging its developmental potential. The sampled cell can be subjected to molecular analysis to determine whether it carries the harmful gene.
25 APPLICATIONS OF PCR PRAENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF GENETICALLY INHERITED DISEASES CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING Information about genetic defects can be obtained from chorionic tissues. The fetus and placenta are imaged by a sonogram to guide a catheter, which samples a chorionic villus.
26 APPLICATIONS OF PCR PRAENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF GENETICALLY INHERITED DISEASES AMNIOCENTESIS: Cells slough off of the developing human embryo and float in the amniotic fluid that bathes it. A small sample of the amniotic fluid may be sampled with a needle as the first step of a process called. Cells from the fluid can be cultured and used for biochemical and genetic analyses that can reveal the sex of the fetus, as well as genetic diseases.
27 APPLICATIONS OF PCR FORENSIC MEDICINE
28 APPLICATIONS OF PCR FORENSIC MEDICINE ANY PERSON CAN BE IDENTIFIED BY THE PCR BASED VNTR TECHNIQUE. FOR TEMPLATE, A DROP OF BLOOD, SEMEN, A PIECE OF HAIR IS SUFFICIENT.
29 STR/ SHORT TANDEM REPEATS 2-7 base is repeated 7-40 times. The number of repeats might be different: VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) 10 STR gives a person specific pattern.
30 THE FBI s STR LOCI
31 VNTR One set of VNTR locus are inherited from the mother and one set from the father. The genes are amplified using PCR, and then run through electrophoresis. The position of the two bands on the electrophoresis gel depends on the exact number of repeats at the locus.
32 VNTR Three VNTR loci from suspects, along with the DNA from the scene of the crime are run through PCR amplification, and then through electrophoresis. This gives six bands, which can have common bands for some individuals, but the overall pattern is distinctive for each person.
33 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY DNA fragments from different sources can be joined together
34 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY DNA fragments from different sources can be joined together
35 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
36 MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
37 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES DNA CUTTING ENZYMES
38 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES ANTI PHAGE DEFENSE
39 THE RESTRICTION-MODIFICATION SYSTEM RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE + MODIFICATION METHYLASE
40 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES RECOGNTION/ /RESTRICTION SITE: 4-8 bp palindrome sequence
41 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES restriction endonuclease-dna interaction at non-specific site restriction endonuclease-dna interaction at specific recognition site
42 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES EcoRI cuts the double stranded DNA at its recognition sequence
43 THE RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES blunt ends sticky ends
44 AGAROSE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS Marker DNA separation of DNA molecules according to their molecular weight
45 DNA CLONING amplification of unique DNA molecules For cloning you need: - the purified fragment (with ends produced by a known restriction enzyme) - the vector DNA opened (linearized) by the same restriction enzyme -DNA ligase enzyme -Host cell
46 DNA CLONING RESTRICTION DIGESTION LIGATION TRANSFORMATION RECOMBINANT PLASMID ISOLATION
47 DNA CLONING Cloning vectors expression vectors
48 DNA CLONING-LIGATION
49 DNA CLONING Selection of the recombinant vector containing cells: Plasmids with two antibiotic resistance genes Plasmids with LacZ
50 DNA CLONING recombinant plasmid gene of interest lacz digestion ligation transformation R1 spread on petri dish with antibiotic 1 and X-gal Isolate white colony Grow ON purify plasmid white colony: no X-gal breakdown, recombinant plasmid Plasmids with LacZ
51 RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION Recombinant proteins can be produced in bacterias in huge quantities. The protein encoding gene is cloned into a plasmid containing an inducible bacterial promoter.
52 RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION The recombinant proteins are isolated by various methods (AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY).
53 RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION Many eukaryotic protein can not be produced in bacteria because of the posttranslational modifications (which are essential for the protein s function) happenig only in eukaryotes. In these cases eukaryotic expression systems are used.
55 RECOMBINATIONAL CLONING: CLONING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ENZIMES
56 RECOMBINATIONAL CLONING: CLONING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ENZIMES
57 RECOMBINATIONAL CLONING: CLONING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ENZIMES
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