VERB FORMS AND TENSES (1) COMBINED ARMS AND SERVICES STAFF SCHOOL FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS

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1 VERB FORMS AND TENSES (1) COMBINED ARMS AND SERVICES STAFF SCHOOL FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS

2 FRAME 1 This programmed learning material will teach you some of the basic concepts regarding verb forms and tense. Most frames require a response; the correct answer is in a box at the beginning of the next frame. In English verbs have three main forms or principal parts. We mention a fourth form in frame 24 of this instruction, but we will concentrate on the three main forms. English verbs have three or. FRAME 16 no response The present tense uses the present form of the verb. We will use the verb work as an example. The present form is work. Sometimes the present form has an s at the end. Note the examples. They work in the mine. He works in the mine. The present tense uses the form of the verb. -1-

3 FRAME 2 forms principal parts The three principal parts of a verb are present, past, and past participle. The present form of the verb is the common form of the verb; another name for it is the infinitive form. Another name for the infinitive form of a verb is form. FRAME 17 present We use the present tense: to show action that is presently happening. to describe a situation that is presently true. to make a statement of generalization. Examples of each follow. (1) I write for the newspaper. (2) Henry is sick. (3) Fresh apples taste good. In the item that follows, how is the present tense used? Kelly does good work. -2-

4 FRAME 3 present The infinitive form of a verb is the form used with the infinitive, to. Examples: to know, to believe, to study, to grow, to talk. Name the three principal parts of a verb FRAME 18 statement of generalization The past tense uses the past form of the verb. Past tense refers to action completed in the past. We will use the regular verb, talk, as an example. The past form: talked. Example: The captain talked to the secretary. The example shows action already completed. Identify the tense of each of the sentences below. 1. Henry believed everything his boss told him. 2. Joyce knows how to fix the machine. 3. Betty was ready when I arrived. -3-

5 FRAME 4 1. present (or infinitive) 2. past 3. past participle All verbs have three forms: present, past, and past participle. We will use the verb work as an example. The forms, or principal parts, of the verb are the following: present... work (or works) past... worked past participle... worked Since the verb work (or works) is a regular verb, you can make both the past and past participle forms by adding ed. This is true for all regular verbs. Write the forms of the regular verb talk in the table below. present past past participle FRAME past 2. present 3. past The other simple tense is the future tense. It refers to action that will occur in the future. To form the future tense, use the present form of the verb and a helping verb either will or shall. Example: The colonel will promote them on Tuesday. Identify the tense of each sentence below. 1. Harry worked at the factory. 2. He will return before John will prepare all of the ingredients. FRAME 5 present talk past talked past participle talked -4-

6 Regular verbs are verbs that add ed to make the past and past participle forms. This can serve as a test as to whether a verb is regular or irregular. If you can add ed to make the past and past participle forms, then the verb is regular. Underline the regular verbs in the following group of words. 1. move 2. think 3. grow 4. believe 5. turn 6. erase 7. know FRAME past 2. future 3. future Let s review. There are three simple tenses: present, past, and future. The past tense uses the past form of the verb. Both present and future tenses use the present form of the verb. Next, we will consider the three perfect tenses: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. All the perfect tenses use the past participle form of the verb. All the perfect tenses require one or more helping verbs. The perfect tenses use the form of the verb. -5-

7 FRAME 6 1. move 4. believe 5. turn 6. erase Irregular verbs change in several different ways to make the past and past participle forms. For a small number of verbs such as burst and hit, all three principal parts are the same. Sometimes the past and past participle forms are the same; some verbs change their internal spelling to make past and past participle forms. Because the principal parts form in varying ways, we use the word irregular to describe such verbs. A verb is irregular when its past participle forms do not end with ed. We classify verbs according to the way it changes to make the past and past participle forms. The two categories are and verbs. FRAME 21 past participle The present perfect tense refers to action recently completed. We use helping verbs, has or have, to make the present perfect tense. Examples: I have written to my mother. John has finished the last course. Identify the tense of each of the following sentences: 1. They sing in the choir. 2. Edward will see the picture next week. 3. Hal has seen all of the equipment. -6-

8 FRAME 7 regular irregular Here is a pattern, or system, to follow that will determine the three principal parts of a verb. Select a verb such as the verb, fly. Insert the correct form in each of the three blanks. Today they fly. Yesterday they flew, etc. This system works on both regular and irregular verbs. Present form Today they. Past form Yesterday they. Past participle form They have for a long time. (NOTE: The word have is a helping verb.) When we fit the verb know into the pattern, we find that the principal parts are know, knew, known. What are the principal parts of the verb, see? Present: Past: Past participle: FRAME present 2. future 3. present perfect The past perfect tense, like all the perfect tenses, uses the past participle form of the verb. Use the helping verb, had, to form the past perfect tense. The past perfect tense shows action completed in the past before some other action or event occurred. Examples: I had broken all the eggs before the cook arrived. We had pushed the wall into place before it became a hazard. Identify the tense of each of the following sentences. 1. He has painted the steps and deck. 2. She painted the trim around the windows. 3. Bob had painted the overhang before he left. FRAME 8 present see past saw past participle seen -7-

9 Let s practice on a few common irregular verbs. The table below shows the present form; use the pattern to determine the past and past participle forms. Complete the table. Present Past Past Participle 1. speak 2. eat 3. go 4. lose 5. drink 6. give 7. are 8. do 9. dive FRAME present perfect 2. past 3. past perfect The future perfect tense uses two helping verbs, will and have (or shall and have), along with the past participle form of the verb. It refers to action completed at some future time. Example: By Tuesday I will have finished all the exercises. Identify the tense of each of the following sentences. 1. She had worked in the bakery before being fired. 2. They worry all the time. 3. Ken will have completed the task by next week. FRAME 9 Present Past Past Participle -8-

10 1. speak 1. spoke spoken 2. eat 2. ate eaten 3. go 3. went gone 4. lose 4. lost lost 5. drink 5. drank drunk 6. give 6. gave given 7. are 7. were been 8. do 8. did done 9. dive 9. dived (or dove) dived Note that the past and past participle forms of lose are the same. Note that dive is either a regular or an irregular verb. FRAME past perfect 2. present 3. future perfect At this point we have learned that verbs have three principal parts used in the six tenses. Sometimes the present form ends in s or es. This is important when studying about agreement of subject and verb. At this time note that you can add ing to the present form of the verb. The ing form is the present participle. (This is the fourth part mentioned in frame 1.) Although used in other ways, you can use it to construct sentences in the present tense. Examples: He is talking. I am thinking about it. You are considering the offer. The present participle form of a verb ends in. FRAME 10 no response -9-

11 Let s review what we have learned. There are three different forms, or principal parts, of a verb. The names of the principal parts are present (or infinitive), past, and past participle. We classify verbs according to the formation of principal parts. If the past and past participle is formed by adding ed, the verb is a regular verb; all other verbs are irregular verbs. Classify these verbs as regular or irregular; the left column shows present form. Present form of verb Classification 1. break 2. think 3. believe 4. worry 5. swim 6. weigh FRAME 25 ing If you apply what you have learned, you will be able to avoid errors in tense. Let s look at some examples. Example of an error: He drawed a picture of the thief. This is an error because draw is an irregular verb with principal parts of draw, drew, drawn. The sentence is in past tense; it should use the past form which is drew. The example corrected: He drew a picture of the thief. Here is another example of an error: She knowed all the answers. Write the sentence correctly. -10-

12 FRAME 11 Classification 1. irregular 2. irregular 3. regular 4. regular 5. irregular 6. regular In the next few frames we will review some problem verbs. One such verb is pay; the principal parts are pay, paid, paid. It sounds like it is a regular verb, but it is not since the spelling is paid rather than payed. FRAME 26 She knew all the answers. Here is another example of an error. Ben had drove the car into the ditch. This is an error because drove is the past form of the verb; the past form does not require a helping verb. Use helping verbs with the past participle forms. Correct the error by removing the helping verb: Ben drove the car into the ditch. Correct the following sentence. I have saw many unusual things. FRAME 12 no response -11-

13 Set and sit are a pair of problem verbs. Set means to put or place. The principal parts are set, set, and set. Examples: They set the table. Yesterday she set the table. They have set the table many times. Sit refers to resting or being seated. The principal parts are sit, sat, and sat. Examples: They sit in their places. Yesterday, they sat at their places. They have sat in their places. 1. If you intend that the meaning is to put or to place, then use the verb. 2. If you intend that the meaning is to refer to resting or being seated, then use the verb. FRAME 27 I have seen many unusual things. or: I saw many unusual things. Another kind of error is a shift in tense. Example: Because he likes pizza, Joe ate at John s Pizza House. In the first part of the sentence the verb likes is in the present tense; the other verb, ate, is in the past tense. Avoid such shifts in tense. Here is a correct version: Because he liked pizza, Joe ate at John s Pizza House. Correct this sentence. John walked in the house and speaks to his wife. FRAME set 2. sit -12-

14 Lie and lay are another pair of problem verbs. Lay means to set, put, or place. The principal parts are lay, laid, and laid. Examples: They lay the books in place. They laid the books in place. They have laid the books in place. Lie means to rest or recline. The principal parts are lie, lay, and lain. Examples: They lie on the beach. Yesterday, they lay on the beach. They have lain on the beach all afternoon. 1. If you intend that the meaning is to rest or recline, then use the verb. 2. If you intend that the meaning is to put or place, then use the verb. FRAME 28 John walked in the house and spoke to his wife; or: John walks in the house and speaks to his wife. Frame 29 will be a short test of some of the things you have learned. First, let s review several important points. 1. Regular verbs are verbs that make their past and past participle forms by adding ed. 2. Irregular verbs make their past and past participle forms in an irregular way according to no particular rule. 3. Past participle forms always require the use of one or more helping verbs. FRAME lie 2. lay -13-

15 The reason for learning about the principal parts of verbs is that one should know about principal parts before learning about tense. When you have mastered both topics, you will be able to avoid errors related to verb forms or tense. There are six tenses. Of the six tenses, three are simple tenses and three are perfect tenses. There are six tenses; three of the tenses are tenses and three are tenses. FRAME 29 no response TEST Complete the table (questions 1 to 4) Present Past Past Participle 1. demand 2. threw 3. fly 4. done 5. Sharon (broke, has broke) the vase. 6. Paul (speak, spoke) to the crew. Identify the following as regular or irregular verbs. 7. begin 8. resign 9. move 10. see FRAME 15 simple perfect Here are the names of the six tenses. -14-

16 simple tenses present past future perfect tenses present perfect past perfect future perfect (GO TO FRAME 16 ON PAGE 1) FRAME 30 Present Past Past Participle 1. demand demanded demanded 2. throw threw thrown 3. fly flew flown 4. do did done 5. broke 6. spoke 7. irregular 8. regular 9. regular 10. irregular (INSTRUCTION COMPLETED) -15-

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