Structure and roofs. Structural reinforcement of the walls

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1 Structure and roofs Structural reinforcement of the walls Any walls that had large cracks or were structurally weakened due to the wearing effect of time were reinforced and restored using timber or brick masonry. Removal of cladding and examination of cracking in corners Filling in with brick Removal of cladding and examination of cracking caused by concentration of loads Repair of cracking using traditional masonry Crumbling of mortar and partial collapse of the wall Reinforcement of the wall structure and the traditional rendering Removal of cladding and direct examination of the wall structure Removal of cladding and preservation of heritage elements Consolidation of rammed earth walls using a common brick partition 45

2 Structure and roofs Repairing the floors After removing the faulty waterproofing work, the stonemason substitutes damaged beams and consolidates the supporting masonry. This horizontal framework is given a roof battening of reeds overlaid with a slope built of earth, sand and a little lime; then comes a screed of concrete with a mix of clayey sand and lime, topped by a coat of trowelled lime. Initial state of the floor Removal of the ceiling and lightening of the all-in material Repair of the walls that support the joists Laying the joists The layers of reeds Implementing the all-in layer Making the lime mortar screed, 2/3 sand and 1/3 lime Smoothing the lime mortar screed, 1/2 sand and 1/2 lime Lime waterproofing work 46

3 Structure and roofs Waterproofing work The waterproofing work is carried out using lime which is well sifted before being left to ferment for a while. The mason then removes the existing waterproofing layer, which has to be replaced after repairing the surface beneath. When the lime has been well mixed, it is spread out over the roof and then smoothtrowelled. Sifting the lime Sprinkling the lime The lime is left to ferment in plastic sacks Removal of the faulty waterproofing work Recreating the waterproofed slope Preparing the lime mortar Levelling, preparing the slope and laying the first layer of lime Rubbing down and smoothing the lime Finished appearance 47

4 Structure and roofs Repairing the parapet walls This simple procedure consists of removing the old parapets and low walls, and repairing weak points in the masonry. It is then levelled up with a sand and lime render coat, followed by the lime-based waterproofing work. Repairing the parapets using traditional brick masonry Smooth-trowelling the lime mortar Lime-based waterproofing work Initial state of a damaged parapet Repairing the parapets with bricks and earth-lime mortar Smoothing the surface Smoothing the lime The completed parapet Completed work on the parapets 48

5 Facilities Drainage work The houses had to be provided with a drainage system or the slope of the existing system had to be improved. In the latter case, the ground level had to be raised to create a steeper gradient up to the manhole. The old guttering system Connecting the house to the branch sewer Digging a trench to examine the mains PVC pipes were laid Increasing the gradient of the drain Central manhole in the courtyard Old and new pipes before the final installation Installation of new drainage pipes New drainage system 49

6 Facilities Plumbing work All the taps were given new PVC pipes, particularly the communal toilets and washbasins. The overhead pipes before repair work Pipes leading to the first floor New pipes Installation pipes in the new toilets Connection and supply of a communal sink Reinstalling the mains from the meter The old water installation The communal sinks Washbasins in the new toilets 50

7 Facilities Electrical work The old installations were completely replaced, giving each household a protection box to minimize damage in the event of power failure. The general power supply Replacing the old cables Chasing in the walls Installing tubes Replacing old cables Installation of a protective switchboard Installation of electrical fittings Electrical installation in a room Interior of a room with the new installation 51

8 Claddings Rebuilding the floors The floors of the courtyards, toilets and rooms were paved with cement tiles, earthenware and dess, respectively. The flooring had to be laid on an appropriate bedding of concrete. Floor of the courtyard before work Laying tiles in the courtyard The tiles in the galleries Grouting The floor of the courtyard before work The courtyard was paved with cement tiles Floor of a room before work Repairing the floor of a room using dess, made of lime and colouring The floor of a room after restoration 52

9 Claddings Restoring the interior renderings The renderings were repaired using traditional materials: earth, sand, lime and gypsum. After removing the old render coats that had been damaged by damp and condensation, the mason sprayed the bare wall and left it to dry before applying a levelling coat and, finally, a sand and lime or gypsum render coat. Stripping and cleaning the walls Levelling work using lime mortar, 2/3 screened sand and 1/3 slaked lime Levelling Using a pole float Spraying the mortar First phase of smoothing Smooth-trowelling the final coat Finished appearance Gypsum rendering of the interior 53

10 Claddings Restoring the façades The restoration of the façades required particular attention to the preservation of heritage elements. Fragile stretches of rendering were consolidated before the damaged render was removed and reproduced, including the original motifs. The timber and tile awnings that protect the windows and the main door were also repaired. A façade before work Removing damaged renderings Spraying the bared stretches Applying the new rendering Levelling the surface with a trowel Smoothing the rendering Marking out the design and delimiting the different areas of the render coat The finished rendering The partially restored façade 54

11 Claddings Building false ceilings For reasons of cleanliness, comfort and visual quality, the structural beams that form the ceiling are often concealed. False ceilings of gypsum are common in traditional architecture. The liquid gypsum is poured onto plastic sheathing Reinforcing the gypsum with plant fibres Smoothing the surface The plasterboard, ready to be fitted The plasterboard is suspended from the ceiling A gypsum render was used to create a uniform surface A false ceiling made of reeds attached to the beams The completed false ceiling The finished walls and ceiling 55

12 Joinery Restoration of timber elements The timber elements were of particular heritage interest and were restored to preserve their integrity. Poor restoration work was corrected and metal was replaced by timber for the doors, windows, lintels and trellised screens. Restoring the jambs of the front door The front door, after restoration Restoring the anchorage of a balustrade in the masonry Restoration of timber elements in a wrought-iron balustrade Wooden balustrade element Recovery of the original balustrades, substitution of poorly restored features and widespread introduction of openwork wooden screens Restoration of the sculpted wood in the façade Repairing the window awnings in the street façade Wooden-trellis screens or mamouni allow ventilation and protect privacy 56

13 Recuperation of heritage elements Restoration of awnings Tile and timber awnings are important elements in the traditional house. They testify to a building s age and heritage interest, and must be recovered whenever possible. Stockpiling materials The state of the awning before work Reconstructing the parapet Replacing tiles Rebuilding the sloping bed that supports the tiles Restoring the undersides Bonding the joints with lime mortar Final appearance The final appearance of the awning, seen from the courtyard 57

14 Recuperation of heritage elements Recuperation of arches and inscriptions Particular attention is required when stripping frames from arched doorways in large rooms. They are often bordered by decoration and inscriptions that have been concealed over the years by different coats of rendering or paint. Careful removal may lead to the recovery of these very important heritage elements. An archway The arch once the jambs of the doorway are removed Recovering the original form Rebuilding the archway using gypsum Sculpting the lobes and scallops Recovering the old inscriptions Consolidating and restoring the inscriptions The archway restored A new and much enhanced living space 58

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