HELIOSTAT II - MEASURING THE SOLAR ROTATION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HELIOSTAT II - MEASURING THE SOLAR ROTATION"

Transcription

1 HELIOSTAT II - MEASURING THE SOLAR ROTATION SYNOPSIS: In this lab you will map sunspots, and from the movement of the spots over several days, you will determine the rotation rate of the Sun. EQUIPMENT: The heliostat, sunspot record forms, Stonyhurst disk overlays, protractor, ruler, and a pencil. WARNING: The intense solar light from the heliostat can cause instant eye damage! Do NOT look back up the beam of sunlight! Part I. Mapping Sunspots Mapping and counting sunspots is a principal method for studying solar activity. I.1 Your instructor will use the heliostat (solar telescope) to focus an image of the Sun on the wall chart holder. Position your sunspot record form in the holder so that the Sun's image is centered on the circle. Carefully trace with a pencil all of the sunspots that are visible. The diameter of the circle on your sunspot record corresponds to the average apparent size of the Sun as seen with our heliostat. Since the 's orbit is somewhat elliptical, the solar image will appear larger or smaller than the circle at different times of the year due to our changing distance from the Sun. I.2 Are we nearer or farther from the Sun than our average distance (one astronomical unit)? Explain your answer. I.3 North is not necessarily at the top of the image. You can determine direction by noting which way the image shifts when the heliostat is driven in a known direction. Without disturbing your drawing, drive the heliostat briefly in the west direction, using the direction toggle on the heliostat control box. Since the field of view is now westward of its original position, the solar image appears to have shifted to the east. Follow the motion of a single sunspot. When the spot clears the disk circle, make an "X" at its new position and label it "earth east" (see the attached example).

2 I.4 Remove the form from the holder. Record the date, time, and the name(s) of the observer(s) on the form. I.5 Draw a line from the original position of the selected sunspot to its final location. This line is parallel to the 's equator. Use a protractor to draw a second line perpendicular (90 ) to the equatorial line and through the center of the solar disk. The new line marks the projection of the 's axis of rotation onto the disk of the Sun. Label the upper end of the line N earth (for "earth north") and the lower end S earth (for "earth south"). The 's and the Sun's axes of rotation are not aligned with each other: the 's north pole is aimed approximately towards Polaris in Ursa Minor, while the Sun's north pole is oriented about 26 away towards the star Delta Draconis. As a result, when we view the Sun from the at different times during the

3 year, the Sun's north pole may appear tilted eastward or westward of the 's, or tipped towards or away from us. The number of angular degrees of tilt and tip are defined by two angles, P and Bo, as described below. The angle P describes how much the north pole of the Sun is tilted, in the plane of the sky (or the plane of your paper), towards the east (or west) from north. A positive angle P means the Sun's north pole lies to the east of N earth. N sun P North + - Looking towards the Sun from the East Sun West Plane of sky and drawing paper South S sun

4 The angle Bo describes how much the north pole of the Sun is tipped towards (or away from) you, the observer on. A positive angle Bo means that the north pole of the Sun is tipped towards the (so that the north pole of the Sun would, at least theoretically, appear on your drawing). B o - + N sun North Sun Looking sideways at the Sun and South S sun Plane of sky and drawing paper I.6 On your form, record the orientation angles P and Bo for the day of your observation. The angles are listed in Section C of the Astronomical Almanacfor each day of the year. I.7 Use a protractor to draw a line through the center of the solar image at an angle P from the N earth -S earth line; remember, the line should lie to the east (left) of north if P is positive, and to the west (right) if negative. This line marks the solar meridian, the north-south line dividing our view of the Sun into eastern and western hemispheres. Mark the upper end of the solar meridian N sun (solar north) and the lower end S sun (solar south). The Stonyhurst disk overlay will help you find the latitude and longitude of the sunspots. The grid is marked every 10 in latitude north and south of the solar equator, and every 10 east or west of the solar meridian line. I.8 Choose the Stonyhurst overlay with a Bo closest to the actual value corresponding to your observation. Center the circle of the Stonyhurst disk over your circular drawing, with the axis aligned with the solar meridian. Be sure that the correct sign (+ or -) for Bo appears at the top of the overlay. I.9 Number the prominent sunspots (see the attached example). Estimate, to the nearest degree, the solar latitude (N or S of

5 the solar equator) and solar longitude (E or W of the solar meridian) of every numbered spot. Part II. The Sunspot Cycle The number of sunspots is observed to grow and decline over a period of approx-imately 11 years; this phenomenon is known as the sunspot cycle. (The polarities of the sunspot magnetic fields reverse with each visible cycle, so the true cycle actually takes 22 years to repeat.) At the beginning of a new 11-year cycle, sunspots first appear at high latitudes (approximately 40 north and south of the solar equator). As the cycle progresses, the average latitude of sunspot occurrance slowly shifts to lower latitudes, so that near the end of the cycle, the majority of the sunspots appear around 10 north or south of the equator. The chart below shows the latitudes at which sunspots have occurred over the past 80 years. Although spots can appear at nearly any latitude, note the trend from high to low latitudes in each cycle; the appearance of the distribution has given the chart its name: the butterfly diagram.

6 SUNSPOT NUMBER SOLAR LATITUDE DATE The lower chart shows the annual average sunspot number; it clearly illustrates the cyclical nature of solar activity. The number is computed as follows: { (# of Spots) + (# of Groups x 10) } x Correction Factor = Sunspot Number. Every visible spot is counted, including each tiny individual spot as well as those appearing in groups. To this is added the number of distinct sunspot groups, which count as an additional 10 spots each. The sum is multiplied by a correction factor which takes into account the size of the telescope, the location, and the experience of the observer. II.1 Analyze the distribution of today's sunspots with latitude. What is the highest latitude (in either hemisphere) at which a spot occurs? The lowest latitude? Estimate the average latitude of all sunspots, regardless of northern or southern hemisphere.

7 II.2 Estimate the sunspot number according to the formula; assume a correction factor of 2.0. Compare your sunspot number with the official count from the previous day (your instructor will show you how to get this data from the GOES satellite link in the classroom). Although a single day's (or even month's) data is insufficient to characterize the solar activity, it is frequently possible to get a rough estimate of the current phase of the sunspot cycle from a single observation. II.3 What do you estimate is the current phase of the 11-year sunspot cycle, based upon the observation and drawing you have just made? Critically analyze your data and defend your assessment in writing, taking into account both the latitude distribution of spots and the sunspot number. Do the observations agree with what you would expect for this date, based an extrapolation of the trends in the above diagrams? Part III. Solar Rotation Over the course of several days, sunspots are observed to move across the disk of the Sun. By observing the day-to-day motion of the sunspots, we can determine the solar rotation rate. III.1 III.2 Obtain a copy of a Solar Record Form from your lab instructor that contains sunspot observations of the Sun made about two to three days ago. The two maps must have several recognizable sunspots in common. Repeat steps I.5 through I.9 for the previously-made drawing in order to establish the lines of latitude and longitude (be sure to check the Astronomical Almanac for the P and Bo values on that date). Identify sunspots that appear on both maps, and assign them the same spot label; use the appearance, relative location, and latitudes of the spots to aid in the identification. Measure the latitude and longitude of these spots as before, using the appropriate Stonyhurst overlay.

8 III.3 III.4 III.5 Confirm that individual sunspots do not shift significantly in latitude over time, suggesting that any apparent change in longitude is due to the rotation of the Sun rather than random spot movement. For each sunspot, determine the angle that it appears to have rotated between observations (treat E longitudes as negative, W longitudes as positive, and subtract the first longitude measurement from the second). Average your measurements from the different spots to produce your best estimate of the observed rotation angle. Determine the number of hours between the two observations, and convert the time interval into fractional days. Divide the observed rotation angle by the elapsed time in days to determine the apparent solar rotation rate in degrees per day. The orbits around the Sun at a rate of 360 in one year (365 days), or an average motion of almost exactly 1 per day (this is probably not a coincidence; it is generally assumed that ancient astronomers/mathemeticians divided the circle into 360 parts for just this reason!). Since we orbit the Sun in the same direction that it rotates, our motion "chases after" the sunspots; thus, the apparent movement of spots is less than their actual rotation by about 1 per day. III.6 Compensate for the orbital motion of the by adding 1 to your computed apparent daily rotation. III.7 Use your daily solar rotation rate to compute the average rotational period of the sunspots: the number of days that it takes for a sunspot to travel 360 around the Sun. Compare your measurement of the rotational period of the Sun with the textbook. Discuss known or suspected sources of error in your measurement.

9 SUNSPOT RECORD FORM Observers Names: EXAMPLE (Finished Drawing) N sun N earth Date Time P B o August 18th, :45 am MDT o o P East #1 #4 #3 #2 Major Sunspots S earth S sun o 25 N 12 o W 1 o 12 o S 38 E o S o 16 S 11 o W 41 o W

10 SUNSPOT RECORD FORM Observers Names: Date Time P B o Major Sunspots

11 SUNSPOT RECORD FORM Observers Names: Date Time P B o Major Sunspots

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

More information

The Reasons for the Seasons

The Reasons for the Seasons The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch

More information

Which month has larger and smaller day time?

Which month has larger and smaller day time? ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

More information

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth.

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. INSIDE LAB 2: Celestial Motions OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. DISCUSSION: As seen from a point of view centered

More information

Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions

Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions Chapter 2 Orientation to the Sky: Apparent Motions 2.1 Purpose The main goal of this lab is for you to gain an understanding of how the sky changes during the night and over the course of a year. We will

More information

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

More information

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation

4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4.1 Details on Great Circles In fig. GN 4.1 two Great Circle/Rhumb Line cases are shown, one in each hemisphere. In each case the shorter distance between

More information

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun) Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10 Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

More information

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'.

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'. is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - ''. Learning Connections Primary Science Interactives are teaching tools which have been created

More information

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun.

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun. SKYTRACK Glossary of Terms Angular distance The angular separation between two objects in the sky as perceived by an observer, measured in angles. The angular separation between two celestial objects in

More information

Celestial Observations

Celestial Observations Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon

Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon Measuring Your Latitude from the Angle of the Sun at Noon Background: You can measure your latitude in earth's northern hemisphere by finding out the altitude of the celestial equator from the southern

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON

APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the motion of the Moon and its relation to the motions of the Sun and Earth.

More information

Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars

Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars Pre and post-visit activities - Navigating by the stars Vocabulary List Adult Education at Scienceworks Pre-visit Activity 1: What is longitude and latitude? Activity 2: Using the Southern Cross to find

More information

The Size & Shape of the Galaxy

The Size & Shape of the Galaxy name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of

More information

Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon

Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon Lesson 1: Phases of the Moon The moon takes 29.5 days to revolve around the earth. During this time, the moon you see in the sky appears to change shape. These apparent changes, which are called phases,

More information

The Classroom Astronomer Magazine s Transit of Venus Lab Exercise

The Classroom Astronomer Magazine s Transit of Venus Lab Exercise Transit of Venus starting photo taken in Marietta, GA June 5, 2012 Transit of Venus ending photo taken in Marietta, GA June 5, 2012 Transit of Venus starting photo taken in Cairns, Australia June 6, 2012

More information

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

More information

The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law. 260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

More information

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

More information

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

More information

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 INVESTIGATION 4 : The Sundial Project Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 EALR 4: Earth and Space Science Big Idea: Earth in Space (ES1) Projects: Tether Ball Pole Sundial Globe and a Light Indoors

More information

PROFESSIONAL REFRACTOR MODEL 78-0040 25

PROFESSIONAL REFRACTOR MODEL 78-0040 25 30 0 30 60 90 1 2 3 4 PROFESSIONAL REFRACTOR MODEL 78-0040 25 24 22 21 20 19 5 9060 18 6 7 17 16 15 8 14 13 9 11 12 10 Figure 1 1. Objective Lens 2. Mounting Screws (2) 3. Declination Axis 4. Equatorial

More information

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics SOAR: The Sky in Motion y Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride Phases of the Moon Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics Kiva December 1997 October 27, 2009 Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: )

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: ) Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to

More information

Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

More information

Hatch a Plot to Track Some Satellites!

Hatch a Plot to Track Some Satellites! Hatch a Plot to Track Some Satellites! Overview There are literally hundreds of satellites that are currently orbiting Earth, including the International Space Station. Clearly, satellites are important

More information

Geographic Grid. Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3

Geographic Grid. Locations Feature 1 Feature 2 Feature 3 Geographic Grid Name The geographic grid refers to the internationally-recognized system of latitude and longitude used to location positions on Earth's surface. Accurate use of this coordinate system

More information

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

More information

Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy

Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy by Frank Barrett 7/6/008 Abstract: In order to photograph dim celestial objects, long exposures on the order of minutes or hours are required. To perform this

More information

APS 1030 Laboratory 1 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON

APS 1030 Laboratory 1 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON APS 1030 Laboratory 1 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the motion of the Moon and its relation to the motions of the Sun and Earth.

More information

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions

Note S1: Eclipses & Predictions The Moon's Orbit The first part of this note gives reference information and definitions about eclipses [14], much of which would have been familiar to ancient Greek astronomers, though not necessarily

More information

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons? Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

More information

3 Phases of the Moon. 3.1 Introduction. Name(s): Date:

3 Phases of the Moon. 3.1 Introduction. Name(s): Date: Name(s): Date: 3 Phases of the Moon 3.1 Introduction Every once in a while, your teacher or TA is confronted by a student with the question Why can I see the Moon today, is something wrong?. Surprisingly,

More information

Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES

Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES Exercise 5.0 LUNAR MOTION, ELONGATION, AND PHASES I. Introduction The Moon's revolution in orbit around the center of gravity (barycenter) of the Earth- Moon System results in an apparent motion of the

More information

lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape?

lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape? Name: Tuesday, September 23, 2008 lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape? 1. The Sun has a spherical shape. 3. Star trails photographed

More information

Activity 10 - Universal Time

Activity 10 - Universal Time Activity 10 - Universal Time Teacher s Guide Scientists use the Universal Time reference to talk about data that is taken around the globe. Universal Time is the time kept in the time zone centered on

More information

Polar Alignment by Iterating on One Star and Polaris

Polar Alignment by Iterating on One Star and Polaris Polar Alignment by Iterating on One Star and Polaris Michael A. Covington Artificial Intelligence Center The University of Georgia Working paper; this copy printed April 8, 2001 This document is: http://www.covingtoninnovations.com/astro/iterating.pdf

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity

Newton s Law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

More information

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott?

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time

More information

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Magnetic Fields and Their Effects Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

More information

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation

More information

The Analemma for Latitudinally-Challenged People

The Analemma for Latitudinally-Challenged People The Analemma for Latitudinally-Challenged People Teo Shin Yeow An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours in Mathematics Supervisor : Associate

More information

Astromechanics. 1 solar day = 1.002737909350795 sidereal days

Astromechanics. 1 solar day = 1.002737909350795 sidereal days Astromechanics 13. Time Considerations- Local Sidereal Time The time that is used by most people is that called the mean solar time. It is based on the idea that if the Earth revolved around the Sun at

More information

Calculating Astronomical Unit from Venus Transit

Calculating Astronomical Unit from Venus Transit Calculating Astronomical Unit from Venus Transit A) Background 1) Parallaxes of the Sun (the horizontal parallaxes) By definition the parallaxes of the Sun is the angle β shown below: By trigonometry,

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics

Geometric Optics Physics 118/198/212. Geometric Optics Background Geometric Optics This experiment deals with image formation with lenses. We will use what are referred to as thin lenses. Thin lenses are ordinary lenses like eyeglasses and magnifiers, but

More information

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0 Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

More information

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:

More information

The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual

The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual The Revolution of the Moons of Jupiter Student Manual A Manual to Accompany Software for the Introductory Astronomy Lab Exercise Document SM 1: Circ.Version 1.1.1 Department of Physics Gettysburg College

More information

Local Sidereal Time is the hour angle of the First Point of Aries, and is equal to the hour angle plus right ascension of any star.

Local Sidereal Time is the hour angle of the First Point of Aries, and is equal to the hour angle plus right ascension of any star. 1 CHAPTER 7 TIME In this chapter we briefly discuss the several time scales that are in use in astronomy, such as Universal Time, Mean Solar Time, Ephemeris Time, Terrestrial Dynamical Time, and the several

More information

Orion Atlas. EQ Mount INSTRUCTION MANUAL #9830. Customer Support (800) 676-1343 E-mail: support@telescope.com. IN 177 Rev. A 11/02

Orion Atlas. EQ Mount INSTRUCTION MANUAL #9830. Customer Support (800) 676-1343 E-mail: support@telescope.com. IN 177 Rev. A 11/02 INSTRUCTION MANUAL Orion Atlas EQ Mount #9830 Providing Exceptional Consumer Optical Products Since 1975 Customer Support (800) 676-1343 E-mail: support@telescope.com Corporate Offices (831) 763-7000 P.O.

More information

Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon

Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon The Science and Technology of WWII Moon Phases and Tides in the Planning the D-Day Invasion Part I: The Phases of the Moon Objectives: 1. Students will determine what causes the moon to go through a cycle

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere 1. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through telescopic observations of other planets photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite observations of the Sun's altitude

More information

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Discovering stars. LAB: Analyzing the geometric pattern of constellations. POST: Exploring

More information

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation EARTH'S MOTIONS 1. Which hot spot location on Earth's surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21? A Iceland B Hawaii C Easter Island D Yellowstone 2. The Coriolis effect is

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

Activity 3: Observing the Moon

Activity 3: Observing the Moon Activity 3: Observing the Moon Print Name: Signature: 1.) KEY. 2.). 3.). 4.). Activity: Since the dawn of time, our closest neighbor the moon has fascinated humans. In this activity we will explore the

More information

6.4 Normal Distribution

6.4 Normal Distribution Contents 6.4 Normal Distribution....................... 381 6.4.1 Characteristics of the Normal Distribution....... 381 6.4.2 The Standardized Normal Distribution......... 385 6.4.3 Meaning of Areas under

More information

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

More information

Seasons on Earth LESSON

Seasons on Earth LESSON LESSON 4 Seasons on Earth On Earth, orange and red autumn leaves stand out against the blue sky. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) PHOTO LIBRARY/NOAA CENTRAL LIBRARY INTRODUCTION Nearly

More information

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below

More information

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

More information

Lines of Latitude and Longitude

Lines of Latitude and Longitude ED 5661 Mathematics & Navigation Teacher Institute Keith Johnson Lesson Plan Lines of Latitude and Longitude Lesson Overview: This lesson plan will introduce students to latitude and longitude along with

More information

Artificial Satellites Earth & Sky

Artificial Satellites Earth & Sky Artificial Satellites Earth & Sky Name: Introduction In this lab, you will have the opportunity to find out when satellites may be visible from the RPI campus, and if any are visible during the activity,

More information

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons If it's cold in winter, why is Earth closer to the Sun? This activity shows the relationship between Earth-Sun positions and the seasons. From The WSU Fairmount Center

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

Precise Polar Alignment (Drift Alignment)

Precise Polar Alignment (Drift Alignment) Precise Polar Alignment (Drift Alignment) OCA AstroImagers Boot Camp March 23, 2006 Dick Greenwald 1 Overview Basics Definition Why drift align? Basic polar alignment methods Error sources Precise polar

More information

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

More information

Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide

Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.

More information

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

More information

Unit 6 Direction and angle

Unit 6 Direction and angle Unit 6 Direction and angle Three daily lessons Year 4 Spring term Unit Objectives Year 4 Recognise positions and directions: e.g. describe and find the Page 108 position of a point on a grid of squares

More information

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane

The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The ecliptic - Earth s orbital plane The line of nodes descending node The Moon s orbital plane Moon s orbit inclination 5.45º ascending node celestial declination Zero longitude in the ecliptic The orbit

More information

THE 2014 EQUATORIAL SUNDIAL GEOGRAPHIC SOUTH POLE MARKER

THE 2014 EQUATORIAL SUNDIAL GEOGRAPHIC SOUTH POLE MARKER THE 2014 EQUATORIAL SUNDIAL GEOGRAPHIC SOUTH POLE MARKER J. Dana Hrubes Design Steele Diggles Fabrication An equatorial sundial is the simplest sundial to construct and visualize. The sundial surface is

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance Theory Consider a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1. If the wire is very long compared

More information

SkyView Pro EQ Mount. instruction Manual #9829. Customer Support (800) 676-1343 IN 195 Rev. B 03/09

SkyView Pro EQ Mount. instruction Manual #9829. Customer Support (800) 676-1343   IN 195 Rev. B 03/09 instruction Manual Orion SkyView Pro EQ Mount #9829 Providing Exceptional Consumer Optical Products Since 1975 Customer Support (800) 676-1343 E-mail: support@telescope.com Corporate Offices (831) 763-7000

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative

More information