# How does the angle and area of incident sunlight change as you move away from the Equator towards the poles?

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "How does the angle and area of incident sunlight change as you move away from the Equator towards the poles?"

## Transcription

1 Environmental Literacy Framework Flashlights on Earth Focus Questions: How does the angle and area of incident sunlight change as you move away from the Equator towards the poles? Have you ever wondered why it was so much less bright in the morning and evening than at noon on any given day? Or, if you live in higher latitude regions, such as the northern United States, have you noticed how the sunlight angles change from month to month causing a cooling in the fall? Time 1 class period for set up 1 class period to explore. Materials Preview The Sun s energy travels to Earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation. This solar energy travels 93 million miles (150 million km) through space from the Sun to Earth. We sense solar radiation in the form of heat and light. Solar radiation is the energy that drives many of the processes acting on the surface of Earth as well as life itself. Solar radiation that makes it through the atmosphere to Earth s surface is called insolation. On average, 342 watts/meter squared (W/m2) of solar energy reaches the Earth's outer atmosphere. More energy is received at the equatorial regions than at the poles. The change in the insolation angle is due to the fact that Earth s axis is tilted and Earth is round, not flat. Therefore the equatorial regions of Earth receive light that is nearly perpendicular (90 ) to the surface. As you move toward the polar regions, the angle of light decreases, and the area over which radiation is spread increases. This reduces the intensity of light and therefore the amount of incoming solar radiation per square meter.think for a moment of spreading jam on a bagel the larger the area of the bagel that you cover with jam, the less intense the flavor! Because the angle of incidence is lower at the polar regions, less solar radiation is available to be absorbed by the land and ocean, making them colder. However, thanks to the air and ocean currents, heat energy is transported from one area of Earth to another. This transfer of energy from warmer to cooler regions of the Earth helps to stabilize the climate of the planet. Inflatable globe with continents, 1 large, strong, focusable flashlight, such as a Maglite brand flashlight 3 smaller Maglite type flashlights Several cups or plastic bowls to act as a base for the flashlight and globe Shoebox to hold small flashlights Books, bowls and other objects to help prop up the shoebox and globe Clipboard to hold graph paper Graph paper Ruler and protractor Sharp knife for cutting hole in shoebox (adult supervision needed for this step) Hot glue gun (optional) Masking tape Pen for marking on shoebox Vocabulary (Terms) Angle of incidence Electromagnetic spectrum Insolation Solar radiation 3

2 Environmental Literacy Framework Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Prepare: This activity is presented in three parts. Part 1: Spreading the Light Around 1. Place a sheet of graph paper in the clipboard. Set a protractor on the table. Hold the clipboard and paper at a 90-degree angle to the beam of light (and to the table). This angle is perpendicular to the light beam. 2. In a darkened room, hold the flashlight approximately 50 cm (20 in) away from the paper and measure the distance. It will be important to have the same distance between the light and the clipboard each time. 3. Turn on the flashlight so that it is shining on the paper. Use a pencil to trace around the area on the graph paper that is lit by the light. (This is the 0-degree angle shown in the picture below.) Count the squares that are included in the circle. Partial squares may be included in the count. Record the number of squares on a separate piece of paper. 4. Tip the clipboard away from the flashlight, 45 degrees away from the initial 90- degree (perpendicular) position, or to an angle of 45 degrees on your protractor. Repeat the tracing, measurement and recording of number of squares, or simply observe the change. 5. Repeat the process again at a 30- degree angle from the perpendicular, or to 60- degrees on your protractor. 6. What changes in the circles do you observe? The flashlight remains stationary; all that changes is the angle of the clipboard. 4

3 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Part 2 A: 1. Set your inflatable globe in a bowl on the tabletop. 2. Set the large flashlight on a bowl and tape it in place. Adjust the height of your flashlight to center on the Equator. Adjust the focus of the light to a tight circle by moving the flashlight and bowl closer to or farther away from the globe. 3. Darken the room so that you can see the light on the globe. 4. Explore tilting the axis of the globe towards and away from the light source. How does the circle of light change as you tilt the globe? Globe and flashlight on workbench after the clipboard activity, 5

4 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Part 2 B: After you have explored one light source, use a shoebox to build a simple support mechanism to hold three small flashlights. 1. Measure the length of the shoebox. Locate the center and mark an x with a pen. Measure two inches away on each side of the center mark, and make two more marks. You should now have three equally spaced x marks on your shoebox. 2. Use a sharp knife to cut two perpendicular slices at each mark. Safety Note: Ask an adult for help with the knife. Make the cuts small at first, just large enough for the base of the flashlight to fit through the hole. You can enlarge them as needed. 3. One at a time, insert each of the three flashlights into the holes. Adjust them so that they are level, and make sure that you can turn them on. Once you have them in place, use masking tape to secure them. Optional: Hot glue the lights to the box after you have adjusted them. 4. Set your globe in front of the flashlights, and adjust the height so that the center flashlight is aimed at the Equator. Turn on the flashlights and adjust the focal length, by sliding the globe closer to or farther from the shoebox, so that all three flashlights are creating tight areas of light on the globe. You should see three distinct circular areas on the globe. Look carefully at the globe; are the light areas all the same shape and area? 5. Observe and measure the length and width (area) of each of the light circles. Note how they change from the center of the globe (Equator) to the poles. Record this information in your science journal. Sketch the shape of the circles of light at each location. Compare the shapes of the circles to the circles on the graph paper in Part 1. Photos: Betsy Youngman 6

5 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Practice Got the Big Idea? Solar insolation varies from the Equator to the poles. Due to this variation, the polar regions are colder and the equatorial regions are warmer. Incoming solar radiation measured at Earth's surface averaged over a 10-year period. Colors are values in kilowatt hours per square meter per day. Because the measurements are taken at Earth's surface, clouds (particularly in the tropical regions) have reduced the amount of solar energy. Image source: (Hint: may need to copy link into your browser.) 7

6 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Ponder How are the light circles changing as you move north and south away from the Equator? How about from west to east across the Equator around the globe? Graphic: Rita Thomas, ANDRILL Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Axis Earth is tilted 23.5 degrees from perpendicular North Pole Sun s rays Equator South Pole Sun s rays Direction of Earth s Spin Present Special preparations for this station Make sure that you have plenty of fresh batteries for your flashlight. Place this station in a dark corner of the room or in a separate location for maximum effect. Repeat the previous activity steps to guide your audience's investigation. 8

7 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Background Information for the Teacher 9 Activity In this hands-on activity, learners create a model to show how the angle of the Sun s incoming rays, due to the shape and tilt of the Earth, affect the amount of energy reaching the Earth s surface. Students explore the relationship between solar intensity and the incoming angle of the sunlight, also known as the angle of incidence. NSES 5-8 CLEP ELF Science as Inquiry Std A: Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Physical Science Std B: Energy is transferred in many ways. Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature. Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth's surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches the earth, transferring energy from the sun to the earth. The sun's energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation. Earth Science Std D: The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth's surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle. Seasons result from variations in the amount of the sun's energy hitting the surface, due to the tilt of the earth's rotation on its axis and the length of the day. Principle 1: The sun is the primary source of energy for Earth's climate system. 1C: The tilt of Earth s axis relative to its orbit around the Sun results in predictable changes in the duration of daylight and the amount of sunlight received at any latitude throughout a year. These changes cause the annual cycle of seasons and associated temperature changes. Energy 1: Solar energy is the driving force for Earth s climate system. Energy 1a: Solar energy measured at the Earth s surface (insolation) varies due to Earth s shape, its orientation with respect to the Sun, and the characteristics of its orbit around the Sun. Earth s tilt and orbit cause the annual cycle of seasons and associated temperature changes. Cyclical, long-term changes in Earth s orbit and tilt, called Milankovitch Cycles, have profound effects on insolation and therefore global climate.

8 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth NSES: National Science Education Standards (http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/curriculum/reforms/nses/index.html) CLEP: Climate Literacy Essential Principles (http://www.climatescience.gov/library/literacy/) ELF: Environmental Literacy Framework (www.andrill.org/education/elf) Additional Information: Climate and Earth s Energy Budget Background Information One could say that we live on a solar-powered planet. The solar radiation that reaches Earth s surface is the energy that drives many of the processes acting on the surface of the Earth, including our weather and climate, wind and ocean currents, and life-giving photosynthesis. The Sun s energy travels to Earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Solar energy travels 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) through space, from the Sun to Earth. Because of the distance that it travels, solar radiation contacts the Earth's surface in essentially parallel lines. Solar radiation that makes it to Earth s atmosphere and surface is called solar insolation (this is short for incoming solar radiation). Satellite measurements have shown that on average, 342 watts per square meter of solar radiation reaches the top of Earth s atmosphere. About 70% of that energy (in the form of visible and infrared light) makes it through the atmosphere and enters the Earth s climate system. We sense this incoming solar radiation in the form of heat and light. Because the angle of incoming sunlight is lower at higher latitudes, and it must travel through a greater amount of atmosphere, more energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. For these two reasons, less solar radiation is available to be absorbed by any given area in the Polar Regions, making them colder. However, thanks to the air and ocean currents, absorbed heat energy near the Equator is transported (via convection, conduction, and evaporation) to the Polar Regions. This transfer of energy from warmer to cooler regions of the Earth is important because it helps to stabilize and equalize the climate of the planet. Presently, the Earth s axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 to the plane of its revolution around the Sun. Therefore, over the course of a year, as Earth revolves around the Sun, its inclination angle towards the Sun also changes. This change causes a variation in the light (and heat) intensity that occurs on Earth s surface. 10

9 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Additional Resources: Image source: Image source: 11

10 Activity 1A-Flashlights on Earth Glossary Unit Activity Vocabulary Word Definition Energy Energy Flashlights on Earth Flashlights on Earth Energy Flashlights on Earth Energy Flashlights on Earth Angle of Incidence Electromagnetic Spectrum Insolation Solar Radiation An angular measurement of an object away from 'straight up' (E.g., if a flagpole is perpendicular to the ground, it has an angle of incidence of 0 o. If it is tilted to one side, its angle of incidence is the degrees from perpendicular.) The range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (Short frequency waves, such as x-rays, are high energy; longer waves with lower frequencies, such as radio waves, have lower energy.) The amount of solar radiation received by the Earth in a given area in a given time, usually expressed as watts per square meter, W/m 2 We experience solar radiation as visible light, heat (thermal energy), and ultraviolet light. Its source is the Sun. 12

### The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

### Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

### Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

### Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

### Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

### Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

### Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons If it's cold in winter, why is Earth closer to the Sun? This activity shows the relationship between Earth-Sun positions and the seasons. From The WSU Fairmount Center

### ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

### The Reasons for the Seasons

The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch

### Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

### ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere

### FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

### What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

### Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

### Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction

Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun s energy in a building, we need to

### Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

### Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

### ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

### Earth, Moon, and Sun Inquiry Template Eclipses

One Stop Shop For Educators The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved

### Essential Question. Enduring Understanding

Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons

### How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

### The Seasons on a Planet like Earth

The Seasons on a Planet like Earth As the Earth travels around the Sun, it moves in a giant circle 300 million kilometers across. (Well, it is actually a giant ellipse but the shape is so close to that

### The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

### Geography affects climate.

KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

### PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons Changing Aspect Angle Direct Sunlight is more intense and concentrated. Solar Incidence Angle is Latitude and Time/Date Dependent Daily and Seasonal Variation Zenith There

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

### Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

### Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson.

Lesson 3: Albedo Time: approximately 40-50 minutes, plus 30 minutes for students to paint pop bottles Materials: Text: Albedo (from web site 1 per group) Small thermometers, at least 0ºC to 100ºC range

### CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

### Physics/Science *P41764A0120* Edexcel GCSE P41764A. Unit P1: Universal Physics. Higher Tier. Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Physics/Science Unit P1: Universal Physics Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour You must have: Calculator, ruler Candidate Number

### Seasons on Earth LESSON

LESSON 4 Seasons on Earth On Earth, orange and red autumn leaves stand out against the blue sky. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) PHOTO LIBRARY/NOAA CENTRAL LIBRARY INTRODUCTION Nearly

### Which month has larger and smaller day time?

ACTIVITY-1 Which month has larger and smaller day time? Problem: Which month has larger and smaller day time? Aim: Finding out which month has larger and smaller duration of day in the Year 2006. Format

### The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

### Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

### Sunlight. and space travel

Sunlight and space travel Distances If you drive on a motorway at 70 miles per hour in one hour you may get to Stafford. Steady speed! If you keep on driving after 3 hours you would reach London. Steady

### CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

### INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

### TEACHER Worksheet: Latitude, Angle of Sun and Solar Energy

Names: Partner 1 Partner 2 TEACHER Worksheet: Latitude, Angle of Sun and Solar Energy Subject: Astronomy & Physics Grades levels: 6-10 Description: Students massage (by sorts) spreadsheet data to tease

### Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test

Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test 1) It takes one day for the Earth to make one complete on its axis. a. Rotation 2) It takes one year for the Earth to make one around

### Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle

Noon Sun Angle Worksheet Name Name Date Subsolar Point (Latitude where the sun is overhead at noon) Equinox March 22 nd 0 o Equinox September 22 nd 0 o Solstice June 22 nd 23.5 N Solstice December 22 nd

### Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

### CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

### After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position?

Light Waves Test Question Bank Standard/Advanced Name: Question 1 (1 point) The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called A. radio waves. B. gamma rays. C. X-rays. D. visible light.

### Clouds and the Energy Cycle

August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

### The Atmosphere and Winds

Oceanography 10, T. James Noyes, El Camino College 8A-1 The Atmosphere and Winds We need to learn about the atmosphere, because the ocean and atmosphere are tightly interconnected with one another: you

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

### SOLAR ENERGY How much strikes the earth? How much can my building get? When is it too much?

SOLAR ENERGY How much strikes the earth? How much can my building get? When is it too much? The sun: friend of foe? Drawing by Le Corbusier ENGS 44 Sustainable Design Benoit Cushman-Roisin 14 April 2015

### Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

### Solar Energy for Space Exploration Teacher s Guide

Solar Energy for Space Exploration Teacher s Guide GRADE LEVEL: 6 to 12 SUBJECT: Physical Science eacher s Resources 1 Solar Energy for Space Exploration Table of Contents Introduction... 4 Objectives...

### Transferring Solar Energy

activity 14 Transferring Solar Energy BROWARD COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCIENCE BENCHMARK PLAN Grade 4 Quarter 2 Activity 14 SC.B.1.2.2 The student recognizes various forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, and electricity).

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

### Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

### Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

### Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: )

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to

### 8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

### Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

### Solar energy and the Earth s seasons

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Name: Tilt of the Earth s axis and the seasons We now understand that the tilt of Earth s axis makes it possible for different parts of the Earth to experience different

### Chapter 3 Earth - Sun Relations

3.1 Introduction We saw in the last chapter that the short wave radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere and heats the earth, which in turn radiates energy in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic

### Newton s laws of motion and gravity

Newton s laws of motion and gravity 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement of this law is that

### Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the

### Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

### Hatch a Plot to Track Some Satellites!

Hatch a Plot to Track Some Satellites! Overview There are literally hundreds of satellites that are currently orbiting Earth, including the International Space Station. Clearly, satellites are important

### How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light?

Essential Question How Do Lenses and Mirrors Affect Light? What reflective surfaces do you see in your classroom? What are the different properties of these surfaces that make some reflections better than

### Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary Students create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet s temperature. Students will explore some of the same principles scientists

### SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING Kedir, Mohammed National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia Introduction The application(uses) of satellite sensing data deals to obtain information about the basic

### The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

II The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation The Sun s energy has traveled across space as electromagnetic radiation, and that is the form in which it arrives on Earth. It is this radiation that determines

### Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

### Practice final for Basic Physics spring 2005 answers on the last page Name: Date:

Practice final for Basic Physics spring 2005 answers on the last page Name: Date: 1. A 12 ohm resistor and a 24 ohm resistor are connected in series in a circuit with a 6.0 volt battery. Assuming negligible

### M O N T E R E Y B A Y A Q U A R I U M

Topics Biodiversity, Measurement Grades K-2 Sites Schoolyard, Classroom Duration 15-30 minutes each month throughout the school year Materials Quadrats (see Teacher Preparation, page 2) Thermometer Tape

### Spectroscopy: Colors of Light

Spectroscopy: Colors of Light IN THE WORKSHOP SPECTROSCOPY: COLORS OF LIGHT YOUR STUDENTS WILL EXPLORE ONE OF THE WAYS THAT ASTRONOMERS STUDY DISTANT OBJECTS IN THE UNIVERSE AS THEY BUILD SIMPLE SPECTROSCOPES

data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence recycle dispose reuse goggles air cloud precipitation temperature weather wind precipitation property season temperature weather

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves

Adapted from State of Delaware TOE Unit MAKING SENSE OF ENERGY Electromagnetic Waves GOALS: In this Part of the unit you will Learn about electromagnetic waves, how they are grouped, and how each group

### Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

### Reflection Lesson Plan

Lauren Beal Seventh Grade Science AMY-Northwest Middle School Three Days May 2006 (45 minute lessons) 1. GUIDING INFORMATION: Reflection Lesson Plan a. Student and Classroom Characteristics These lessons

### Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9

Light Energy Grade Level: 5 Time Required: 1-2 class periods Suggested TEKS: Science - 5.8 Suggested SCANS: Information. Acquires and evaluates information. National Science and Math Standards Science

### 2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

### Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

### Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy.

Electromagnetic Radiation Energy that comes to us from the sun is transported in the form of waves known as electromagnetic energy. This combines electricity and magnetism such that setting up an electric

### a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

### 3 Temperate and Polar Zones

Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

### MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

### Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

### 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

### Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic

Graphing Sea Ice Extent in the Arctic and Antarctic Summary: Students graph sea ice extent (area) in both polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) over a three-year period to learn about seasonal variations

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological

### Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

### The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

### Physics PH1FP. (Jun15PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June 2015. Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Question Mark Science A Unit Physics P1 Physics Unit Physics P1 Friday 12 June 2015 General

### Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors