COSC243 Part 2: Operating Systems

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1 COSC243 Part 2: Operating Systems Lecture 25: Revision Zhiyi Huang Dept. of Computer Science, University of Otago Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 1 / 11

2 Overview What s going to be in the exam? Some quantitative questions. Some questions that require written answers. You have to answer every question. 50% of marks are for Architectures questions. 50% of marks are for OS questions. You will write answers directly into the exam booklet. You can bring in a (non-programmable) calculator, but you don t really need it. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 2 / 11

3 How to answer exam questions Remember: Check the global format of the paper to make sure how many questions need to be answered. Always read the question very carefully. Pay attention to the number of marks awarded to questions. Always give yourself time to read over your answers. Do any easy questions first. Make your handwriting legible. THE STANDARD OF MARKING WILL BE HIGHER THAN FOR QUIZ QUESTIONS. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 3 / 11

4 How to answer exam questions For quantitative questions: - show your working. Partial marks will be awarded for correct intermediate results. For written answers, if they re worth several marks, don t just write a single sentence with the answer stated badly. - Give appropriate background context for the answer. - Define any technical terms you need to use. - Give examples if it ll help show you understand something. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 4 / 11

5 How to study for the exam You need to have read and understood the material given in the course handouts. You need to have done all the Tutorial Exercises. You need to read the relevant bits of the textbooks. When you re ready, you need to practice by doing some past papers, which you can get from the library. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 5 / 11

6 OS: Processes and threads What s a process control block? What s a heavyweight process? What s a lightweight process (thread)? What s context-switching? Concepts such as zombie & orphan processes, spooling, OS kernel, system calls, time-sharing system, etc How can heavyweight processes communicate with each other? How can lightweight processes communicate with each other? User-level threads and kernel-level threads, their advantages and disadvantages. Process management such as process creation and termination. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 6 / 11

7 OS: CPU scheduling What are the criteria for evaluating CPU scheduling algorithms? What is a preemptive scheduling algorithm? What are the different scheduling algorithms, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? Quantitative questions: No Gantt charts in the exam. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 7 / 11

8 OS: Process synchronisation and deadlock Concepts such as race condition, critical section, etc. The three requirements of a critical section. 2-process software synchronisation solutions, e.g. Peterson s solution. Atomic instructions by hardware such as testandset, CAS. Semaphores Busy waiting vs. queueing semaphores The producer-consumer and single-writer-multiple-reader problems using semaphores What s a deadlock state? What s a safe state? Resource allocation graphs Graph-based deadlock detection algorithm Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 8 / 11

9 OS: Memory management Address binding methods: compile-time, load-time, run-time... Concepts such as logical/virtual and physical addresses, page table, swapping... Memory allocation methods: contiguous (best-fit, worst-fit), noncontiguous... Paging mechanism and segmentation, and their benefits and drawbacks... Virtual memory with demand paging Quantitative questions: Page replacement algorithms (FIFO, optimal, LRU) Memory access time Thrashing, its causes and its remedies The working set and locality models Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture 25 9 / 11

10 OS: Storage management and I/O subsystem Concepts like inode, file, directory, DMA, I/O ports, etc. Methods of file access (sequential, random) Semantic for system calls for file like read() and write(). Memory-mapped files Handshaking between CPU and I/O devices Disk allocation methods (contiguous, linked, indexed, FAT-based; multilevel indexing) plus their advantages and disadvantages I/O device types and their characteristics Disk scheduling algorithms, their advantages and drawbacks. Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture / 11

11 Where to go from here? TELE301 System/network management Hands-on experience with Linux system administration Hands-on experience with network management 50% lab assessment Rated as most useful paper by CS graduates COSC440 Advanced Operating Systems Linux kernel programming Unix version 6 source code reading Programming on Raspberry Pi hardware OS research issues and articles 100% internal assessment TELE402 Internetworking Socket API Network Programming TCP/IP protocol suite 50% internal assessment Zhiyi Huang (Otago) COSC243 Lecture / 11

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