# Safety Goggles must be worn. The materials are nontoxic, but are not to be eaten. Do not leave these materials in a carpet or on furniture.

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1 Preparation of a Viscous Solution Quantitative wet lab; students work in pairs and individually. Objectives The student will become proficient in calculations involving units of concentration, and in the use of the analytic balances and laboratory glassware. Safety Goggles must be worn. The materials are nontoxic, but are not to be eaten. Do not leave these materials in a carpet or on furniture. Lab Notebook Content Your notebook should include the title, date, purpose, procedure; and data tables. Questions must be workout in detail in the lab notebook. Your instructor must initial this work when you turn in your data sheets. Prelab Questions 1. What mass is 0.2% of 30 g? 2. If the density of water is g/ml at 27.1 ⁰C, what is its volume of 1.5 g of water at this temperature? Equipment Borax Polyvinyl alcohol DI Water Food Coloring Beakers Graduated cylinder Lab balance Xanthan gum powder Salad Oil Digital thermometer Hot Plate

2 Introduction In this lab you will increase your proficiency with the lab glassware and analytical balances by preparing two semi solid solutions. A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more components. When substances dissolve in water, an aqueous solution is formed. Water (H 2 O, H-O-H) is a polar molecule because it has an unequal distribution of electronic charge. The electronegative oxygen atom has a greater attraction for electrons than the electropositive hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom maintains a partial negative charge relative to the partial positive charge on the hydrogen atoms. This uneven charge distribution gives water the ability to dissolve many compounds. The principle of like dissolves like is a useful way to predict if a substance will dissolve in water; polar compounds or those that form pairs of positively and negatively charges ions are likely to dissolve in water to some extent. Chemicals used for chemistry procedures are called reagents, and must meet standards of purity that specify that contaminates are below a certain level. The assay (often printed on the chemical label), lists the type and amounts of contaminates present. Chemicals that are suitable for use in the laboratory are known as ACS grade (meets American Chemical Society specifications), Analytical Grade or Reagent Grade. D.I. Water used in this lab to prepare reagents is freed of ions, and particulate matter (dust) by passing tap water through a filter and a bed of mixed resins (the deionizing medium). DI water is preferred for use in laboratory experiments. Reagent solutions are made by transferring a weighed amount of chemical reagent (solid or liquid) to a volumetric flask, then dissolving it in enough solvent to the calibration mark. Most reagents are dissolved in DI water to form aqueous solutions. The dissolved reagent is called the solute; the DI water is the solvent.

3 A solution is described in terms of its composition with respect to volume. The composition may be expressed as mass, number of moles or other quantities. The concentration of solution is the ratio of solute per unit volume of solvent. Concentration is a density = mass/volume). The concentration of a solution can be calculated in several ways: Weight to Volume (w/v), (m/v) A percent 1 solution that is weight to volume (w/v) or mass to volume (m/v) is prepared by weighing a given mass of solute, and dissolving it in a known volume of solvent. The ratio of the mass of solute to the volume of solvent is the mass percent of the solution, multiplied by 100. mass = Grams of solute x100 = mass% (m/v) (7-1) volume ml of solution A solution that contains 10.0 grams of solute in a total volume of 100 ml of solution is a 10% (m/v) solution. Proportional amounts can also be prepared; thus 3.0 g of solute, dissolved to form 30 ml of solution is also a 10% (m/v) solution. 1 Percent = per 100.

4 Weight to Weight (w/w), (m/m) This type of percent solution designates the mass of solute per 100 g of final solution. If 10.0 grams of solute are dissolved in 90 g of DI water the resulting solution is 10% (m/m). Considerable ambiguity can arise when a label designates a percentage concentration, but fails to specify if weight to volume (w/v) or weight to weight (w/w) units of concentration apply. An example is a commercially prepared, aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (used for cleaning wounds and bleaching) which gives the concentration of hydrogen peroxide as 3%. Molarity (moles/liter) The SI unit for expressing the number of molecules in a solution that are available to react with other molecules is moles of solute per liter of solution and is called the molarity of the solution. This concentration unit is expressed as mol/liters or mol /1000 ml of solution. The mole is the amount of a substance that contains Avogadro s number of objects x 10 23, thus a one molar solution (1 M) contains Avogadro s number per liter. A 0.6 M solution will contain 60% of Avogadro s number per liter of solution or x objects per liter.

5 When a solution is prepared by diluting a stock solution of known concentration, there is a mathematical relationship between the concentration of the stock solution and the diluted solution. This relationship is given by the dilution equation: M stock V stock = M dilution V dilution (7-2) Where: M stock V stock M dilution V dilution is the concentration of the stock solution is the volume of the stock solution is the concentration of the diluted solution is the volume of the diluted solution Example 1: What mass of sodium chloride is needed to prepare 90.0 ml of a 0.35% (w/v) solution? This problem is solved by recognizing that 100 ml of a 0.35% solution contains 0.35 g of solute. A solution of 90 ml must contain a proportional mass of solute. Thus: 0.35 g = X g ml 90.0 ml Solving for X we find that the required mass g x 90.0 ml = X g = 0.32 g ml

6 Example 2: What mass of sodium chloride is needed to prepare g of a 0.35% (w/w) solution? The total mass of the solution is to be 100g. We will assume that the density of the water is 1g/mL. 100g -0.35g = 99.65g Dissolve 0.35 g of sodium chloride in g (~99.65 ml) of water to make this solution. Preparation of Slime (mass/volume percent) Slime, a traditional Halloween party favor, is a polymer of polyvinyl alcohol. It is used to create eerie ambience and for frightening parlor tricks. In a beaker prepare 25 g of 4% (w/w) sodium borate solution. Calculate the mass of sodium borate required to prepare the solution. Heat the solution and stir with a clean glass rod until all sodium borate is completely dissolved. Rinse and dry the stirring rod. In a beaker, prepare 50 ml of a 10% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA ) solution. Heat the DI water to ~80⁰C. Gradually transfer the PVA to the hot water with stirring until the solid is dissolved. Add a few drops of food coloring, and allow the solution to cool to ~30⁰C. Add the sodium borate solution to the PVA solution and stir vigorously until a viscous gel clings to the stirring rod. The glue molecules join

7 together to form large molecules called polymers. The sodium borate acts as the cross linking agent or "connector" for the polyvinyl alcohol molecules causing them to stick together. Describe the both the appearance and consistency of the solution result from a mix of 10% (m/v) polyvinyl alcohol and 4% sodium borate. Package the gel in a Ziploc bag. You may take it home; it is nontoxic. Store it in the refrigerator. At home, Elmer s glue (a solution of PVA) and commercial borax make an excellent slime. See the internet for recipes. Critical Thinking 1. What changes would you make to produce slime with a drier, more rubber like consistency? Experiment on your own by changing the concentration of one of the reagents. Make a additional solutions of the sodium borate solution or the PVA solution. at a concentration that you choose. Describe your results in your notebook. Clean Up Wash and dry all glassware including the vials. Return the vials to the cart. Turn off thermometers and return them to the instructor. Unwanted slime goes in the trash can. Unwanted slime- to the trash can. End of Experiment

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### Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:

Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams