Pre-Lab Exercises Lab 1: Scientific Measurement

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1 Pre-Lab Exercises Lab 1: Scientific Measurement Name Date Section 1. What is a hypothesis? 2. One meter equals millimeters. 3. Which has a larger volume, a liter or a quart? 4. If a cube had a volume of one liter, what would be the length of each side? 5. What can paper chromatography be used for? Page 1 of 5

2 Chemistry 100 Lab 1: Scientific Measurements DISCUSSION In this lab, you will practice measuring length, mass and density. You will also observe how bleach works and propose a hypothesis to explain your observations. Using paper chromatography, you will look at the various colors of food coloring used in the bleach section and see how they behave. Paper chromatography is a technique used to separate solutions into their component parts. The solutions, food coloring in this case, are placed on a piece of chromatography paper and then the paper is placed in a solvent that slowly moves up the paper. The dye travels with the solvent up the paper. Smaller molecules of dye travel farthest because they have an easier time being pulled through the paper. Larger molecules don t travel very far because they have a hard time being pulled through the paper. The paper chromatography procedure separates the dye molecules based on size. PROCEDURES Each lab partner will need to do a paper chromatography. Paper Chromatography 1. To test your hypothesis, obtain a piece of chromatography paper. 2. With a pencil (not a pen), put equally spaced dots along one of the long sides (which is now the bottom), about 2.5 cm from the bottom. At the top, write R, Y, B, and G in pencil as in illustration a. 3. Next, using a small piece of capillary tubing, place a small drop of food color on each dot below the appropriate letter (R = red, etc., illustration b). Be careful not to mix the food colors as you put them on the paper. 4. Then make a cylinder by bringing the two sides together and stapling them (illustration c). Do not let the edges overlap. The colored dots should now be about 2.5 cm from the bottom of the cylinder. 5. Pour some chromatography solution into a jar to a depth of about 1 cm. 6. Insert the paper cylinder into the jar after making sure that the colored dots will not be submerged in the liquid. Do not let the paper touch the sides of the jar. 7. Put a lid on the jar. Do not agitate the liquid, but leave the jar undisturbed as the liquid slowly climbs up the paper, carrying the food color along with it. (This may take up to 30 minutes or so.) Go on to the rest of the lab while your chromatography is running. 8. Each food color you begin with should separate into at least 2 individual colors. When the liquid is near the top of the paper, remove the paper from the jar and let it dry. When it is dry, remove the staples, flatten it, and staple it to your report sheet. Pour the chromatography solution into the container provided. 9. Once your chromatography paper is dry, draw a circle on the paper around each individual color that has separated out from the original food color. Illustration a Illustration b Page 2 of 5

3 Length 1. With the help of your partner, use a meter stick to measure your height to the nearest centimeter. Record the amount on your report sheet. 2. Convert the measurement from part one into meters and millimeters. Record your results. Mass 1. Turn on a balance, wait for it to start up, and press the 0/T button. This tares the balance, or sets it to zero. Make sure the display shows 0 before putting any object on the pan. Carefully place a small object (a pen, a set of keys, etc.) on the pan of a balance (shown at right).record the mass of the object to 1 decimal place. 2. Convert this mass to milligrams and kilograms. Volume and Density Beakers, flasks, and graduated cylinders are commonly used to measure volumes of liquids in the laboratory. Become familiar with them (see illustrations at right). Record all your masses to 1 decimal place. Be sure to include units with all your data! 1. Add 30 ml of tap water, no more, no less (approximately one fluid ounce, or two tablespoons, or six teaspoons, or one eighth of a cup) to a 50 ml graduated cylinder. The lowest point of the curved water surface (the meniscus) should be just even with the 30 ml mark when your eyes are at the same level. 2. Pour the water first into a 50 ml beaker, then into a 50 ml flask. Look at the marks on all three containers, and decide which one allows you to measure volume most accurately. 3. Weigh the flask and water, then discard the water, shaking out as much of it as you can. Weigh the empty flask and determine the mass of water in the flask. 4. Compare the mass of the water in grams to the volume of water in ml from part a. Are they about the same, or much different? Do you think this is a coincidence, or might it be generally true? 5. Repeat steps 1-4 on different volumes of water. Do these tests support or refute your generalization from step 4? 6. Is your generalization true for liquids other than water? Test it by repeating steps 1-5 on another liquid, denatured alcohol. (Return the used denatured alcohol to the container provided.) Using a balance Graduated cylinder Beaker & flask Bleaching Action 1. Place 25 ml of water (measured with a graduated cylinder) into each of three small beakers that have been rinsed well with water. 2. Add one drop of red food color to one beaker, one drop of yellow food color to another beaker, and one drop of blue food color to the third beaker. Stir each mixture with a stirring rod to obtain a uniform color throughout. 3. Add 10 ml of household bleach to each beaker and stir. (CAUTION - household bleach is corrosive. Avoid contact with skin, clothing, and especially eyes.) Observe the beakers for two or three minutes at least. You should see a change in at least one of the beakers. Record your observations on the report sheet. 4. Now repeat steps 1-3 with green food color. Observe the beaker for several minutes, then record your observations and propose a hypothesis to explain them. Discuss your hypothesis with your instructor. 5. Take your chromatography paper, lay it on the bench, and line up the beakers with the bleach solutions above it, with the colors in the same order as they appear on the chromatography paper. Compare the colors on the paper with the colors remaining in the bleached beakers. Do you notice any similarities? Do the chromatography results support your hypothesis about how bleach works? 6. Discard the contents of the beakers in the sink and rinse the beakers, stirring rod, and graduated cylinder with water. Page 3 of 5

4 Lab Station Check Out # Paper Chromatography REPORT Name Lab Partner Date Section 1. Staple your paper chromatography to this lab report. What were your observations as the chromatography was taking place? 2. What colors separated out of each original food color? Write in parenthesis which color(s) is a smaller molecule and which is a larger molecule. Length a. Red b. Yellow c. Blue d. Green Report your height in centimeters Convert your height to millimeters Convert your height to meters Mass What object did you weigh? Mass of object (grams) Convert mass to milligrams Convert mass to kilograms Volume and Density 1. Are you able to measure volume most accurately with a graduated cylinder, a flask, or a beaker? Page 4 of 5

5 Volume of liquid Water Denatured Alcohol Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 1 Volume 2 Mass of liquid and flask Mass of empty flask Mass of liquid Density of liquid 2. Compare the mass of water in grams to the volume of water in ml. How similar or different are they? Can you state a generalization? 3. Based on your observations and measurements, how are water and denatured alcohol similar? How are they different? Bleaching Action Red food color Yellow food color Blue food color Green food color Color before adding bleach Color after adding bleach 1. Describe what happened as you added bleach. 2. Propose a hypothesis to explain the color change. Discuss it with the instructor or lab assistant. 3. Do the results of your paper chromatography support or refute your hypothesis from the previous section? Why? Page 5 of 5

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