Remember: We decided to attack Hitler first

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1 Remember: We decided to attack Hitler first But, we sent a small force to the Pacific to attempt to keep Japan busy until we could focus on them and for a little payback Write the Purple on Chart- (a#4) And the Green/White into Prez NB

2 Early Pacific Front A. After the assault on Pearl Harbor, Japan launched widespread attacks on various areas in the Pacific and East. B. Included: Guam, Wake, and the Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya, and Burma. C. The United States was sending supplies to Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kei-Shek) in China to help with resistance against Japan.

3 Japan, Philippines, Hawaii

4 General Douglas MacArthur

5 (29) Bataan Death March A. General Douglas MacArthur commanded the US in the Philippines and slowed the Japanese for 5 months. 20,000 American Soldiers and a large number of Filipinos withdrew to Bataan near Manila.

6 B. The force held off Japan until April 9, 1942 MacArthur was ordered to leave for Australia until more forces could come but he proclaimed I shall return. C. The men he left behind were treated with vicious cruelty and were forced to march 65 miles to a prisoner-of-war camp known as the Bataan Death March.

7 Bataan Death March 11,700 Americans and as many as 65,000 Filipinos began the 65-mile march from the Bataan Peninsula to San Fernando. Of those, between 600 and 700 Americans and between 5,000 and 10,000 Filipinos died on the march. One of the highest rates of POW death in World War II Liberation for most came by August 1945.

8 We move to defeat Germany and Italy

9 THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC Jan 1941-May 1945 After America s entry into the war, Hitler was determined to prevent foods and war supplies from reaching Britain and the USSR from America s east coast. He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the Atlantic. During the first four months of 1942 Germany sank 87 U.S. ships. The power of the German submarines was great, and in two months' time almost two million tons of Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor. Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs' activities.

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11 In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic. Something had to be done or the war at sea would be lost. First, Allies used convoys of ships & airplanes to transport supplies. Destroyers used sonar to track U- boats. Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean surfaces. With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted huge losses on German U- boats. ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January Almost two-thirds of all U-boat sailors died during the Battle of the Atlantic.

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13 THE EASTERN FRONT & MEDITERRANEAN Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad, Soviet Union a major industrial center. In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the offensive in the southern Soviet Union. By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see victories on land as well as sea. The first great turning point was the Battle of Stalingrad.

14 For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad. Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing summer uniforms. The Germans surrendered in January of Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the battle (more than twice the number of deaths the U.S. suffered in all the war).

15 (31) THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT- Operation Torch American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and defeat German and Axis forces. Operation Torch an invasion of Axis -controlled North Africa --was launched by American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in November The Allies wanted to attack the soft underbelly of Europe- through Italy. Allied troops landed in Algeria. They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led by German General Edwin Rommel the desert Fox.

16 Allied troops landed in Casablanca, Oran and the Algiers

17 TUSKEGEE AIRMEN Among the brave men who fought in Italy were pilots of the all-black 99 th squadron the Tuskegee Airmen. The pilots made numerous effective strikes against Germany and won two distinguished Unit Citations. On May 31, 1943, the 99 th Squadron, the first group of African-American pilots trained at the Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa.

18 Moving North to Italy- the Soft Underbelly of Europe The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as the Allies easily took Sicily. At that point King Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power and had him arrested. However, Hitler s forces continued to resist the Allies in Italy. Heated battles ensued and it wasn t until 1945 that Italy was secured by the Allies.

19 German-Italian army surrendered in May 1943 in North Africa the focus then turned to Italy. September 1943 Allied troops moved into Italy. Rome was taken on June 4, 1944 Rome was first Axis capitol to fall. It took until May 2, 1945 for the rest of the Axis troops to stop fighting in Italy.

20 h. Mussolini tried to escape with his mistress to Switzerland both were shot to death on April 28 their bodies were brought to Milan and dumped into a large square, mobs of angry Italians trampled the bodies. The bodies were then strung with wire and hung upside down.

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22 D-DAY: ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they would attack here. We actually landed on 5 beaches in Normandy, France. Utah, Juno, Omaha, Gold, Sword Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they began plans on a dramatic invasion of France. It was known as Operation Overlord and the commander was American General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Also called D-Day, the operation involved 3 million U.S. & British troops and was set for June 6, 1944.

23 D-Day Invasion of France a. Teheran, Iran (November 28 December 1, 1943) conference between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt to plan for an Allied invasion of France. b. Britain and the U.S. would attack France from the west and the Soviets would attack from the east at the same time.

24 General Dwight D. Eisenhower was in command of all Allied forces.

25 (36) June 6, 1944 D-day Operation Overlord a surprise landing on the beaches of Normandy, France- for an Allied invasion to take France back from Hitler and begin Germany s defeat. e. 100,000 Allied troops landed in 2 days by July 1, over 1 million men were inside the beachhead.

26 D- Day Invasion- Operation Overlord June 6, 1944

27 D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944 D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in military history. Despite air support, German retaliation was brutal especially at Omaha Beach. Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles. D-Day was an amphibious landing soldiers going from sea to land

28 OMAHA BEACH 6/6/44

29 Landing at Normandy

30 Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at Normandy, France

31 Losses were extremely heavy on D-Day. There is no "official" casualty figure for D-Day. Estimates are 10,000 casualties, including 2,500 dead. Casualties refers to all losses suffered by the armed forces: killed, wounded, missing in action (meaning that their bodies were not found) and prisoners of war. The breakdown of US casualties was 1,465 dead, 3,184 wounded, 1,928 missing and 26 captured. The total German casualties on D-Day are not known, but are estimated as being between 4,000 and 9,000 men.

32 FRANCE FREED By September 1944, the Allies had freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg. Our focus moved to Berlin, Germany. That good news and the American s people s desire not to change horses in midstream helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4 th term. General George Patton (right) was instrumental in Allies freeing France.

33 (37) Presidential Election of 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) VP: Harry Truman and Thomas Dewey(R)

34 November 1944 Election FDR wins 4 th term! Electoral votes: FDR 432 to Dewey 99 Red=Roosevelt Blue=Dewey

35 BATTLE OF THE BULGE Dec 16, Jan 25, 1945 In October 1944, Americans captured their first German town (Aachen) the Allies were closing in. Hitler responded with one last ditch massive offensive. Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line would break up Allied supply lines.

36 (39) BATTLE OF THE BULGE The Battle of the Bulge was Germany s last gasp The battle raged for a month the Germans had been pushed back. Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the Germans had sustained heavy losses. Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes. From that point on the Nazis could do little but retreat.

37 (41) Yalta Conference Second meeting between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt -agreement that the priority was the defeat of Germany, her unconditional surrender, with a partition into four occupied zones, with a division occupation of Berlin as well.

38 Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin Yalta Conference; Feb 4-11, 1945

39 (43) On April 12, 1945 FDR died. He suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage and stroke and died (at Warm Springs, GA The Little White House ) (Truman#1) his VP Harry S Truman became the nation s 33rd president.

40 Final Days of Hitler a. March 1945 American troops reached Germany s Rhine River. b. Americans were horrified to find the German concentration camps of the Jews. c. Nazis engaged in mass murder of the undesirables an estimated 6 million Jews were murdered. d. It was not known until the war s end about the atrocities of the Holocaust.

41 LIBERATION OF DEATH CAMPS While the British and Americans moved westward into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into German-controlled Poland. The Soviets discovered many death camps that the Germans had set up within Poland. The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps within Germany.

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43 e. The Soviets reached Berlin first and were very vengeful to the Germans. f. April 29 Hitler married his long-time mistress Eva Braun, April 30 Hitler and Eva committed suicide (poisoned her and shot himself) aides burned the bodies in the Chancellery garden (#2 Truman.)

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45 Not really him dead- the soviets put this picture out as propaganda

46 j. May 8, 1945 Victory in Europe VE Day The celebration of official surrender of Germany in Berlin celebrated the 7 th in Paris- (#3 Truman) Celebrating in New York City Streets

47 Now we go back to take care of Japanblister those britches!!!

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