Food Science Perspectives of HFCS

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1 Food Science Perspectives of HFCS School Nutrition Association 62 nd Annual Conference High-Fructose Corn Syrup: A Science Based Discussion July 20, 2008 John S. White, Ph.D. White Technical Research Argenta, Illinois

2 HFCS in perspective Surprising attention Dietary component for eons Similar to sucrose Expert reviews: no concerns Predictable Obesity solution sought Historical precedent Discovery of honey ~ Piero de Cosimo 1462, Worcester Art Museum Distrust of government/agriculture/industry White, JS 2

3 I hope to convince you HFCS is similar to sugars from natural sources HFCS is similar to other caloric sweeteners HFCS is a highly functional and valued ingredient HFCS use equals sucrose in the US; it s a sucrose world Perspective is lacking in the HFCS debate White, JS 3

4 What is HFCS? HFCS = monosaccharides = free sugars Fructose + glucose Sucrose = disaccharide = bound sugars Fructose Glucose White, JS 4

5 HFCS is similar to sugars from natural sources Fructose (% total sugars) 66 Fruit, vegetables, nuts, dairy Apples, pears Asparagus, raspberries, spinach, watermelon Almonds, apricots, bananas, blackberries, blueberries, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrots, cashews, cherries, Clementines, sweet corn, cucumbers, currants, dates, figs, filberts, grapefruit, grapes, hazelnuts, honeydew, melon, kiwi fruit, lentils, lettuce, lime juice, macadamias, nectarines, sweet onions, navel oranges, peaches, peanuts, peas pecans, sweet peppers, persimmons, pineapple, pistachios, raisins, summer squash, strawberries, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, walnuts, cooked wild rice Artichokes, celery, okra, plums, radishes, turnip greens Source: NutritionData.com. Conde Nast White, JS 5

6 HFCS is similar to other caloric sweeteners % Total sugars Sweetener Physical form Total fructose Total glucose Crystalline fructose Dry max HFCS-42 Syrup HFCS-55 Syrup Honey Syrup Crystalline sucrose Dry Medium invert Syrup Total invert Syrup Grape juice+ conc. Syrup Apple juice+ conc. Syrup Pear juice+ conc. Syrup Agave nectar+ Syrup White, JS

7 HFCS is similar to other caloric sweeteners Composition Sugars ratio Production unit operations Functionality (some differences) Absorption Metabolism White, JS 7

8 Fructose-glucose sweeteners are interchangeable Once absorbed into the bloodstream, they deliver the same sugars at the same ratios to the same tissues within the same timeframe to the same metabolic pathways White, JS 8

9 HFCS/fructose is highly functional Stability in acid Ease of handling Flavor enhancement Control of freezing Fermentable sugars Resistance to crystallization Sugars for browning reactions Sweetness equivalent to sucrose Moisture retention White, JS 9

10 Sweetness sucrose = HFCS-55 Sugars Fructose Sucrose Sweetness Intensity (crystalline) HFCS-55 Glucose Schallenberger & Acree Sugar Chemistry. AVI Pub. Co., Westport CT. 2 White & Parke Cereal Foods World. 34(5): White, JS 10

11 Sweetness sucrose = HFCS-55 Sugars Fructose Sweetness Intensity (crystalline) Relative Sweetness (10% ds) Sucrose HFCS Glucose Schallenberger & Acree Sugar Chemistry. AVI Pub. Co., Westport CT. 2 White & Parke Cereal Foods World. 34(5): White, JS 11

12 HFCS is a versatile ingredient Carbonated soft drinks, juices, fruit drinks Cereals, breakfast drinks Condiments Dairy products Meats Sauces, dressings, marinades Snack foods Syrups, toppings White, JS 12

13 Perspective is lacking in As HFCS, sucrose the HFCS debate We eat more of everything now than 35y ago HFCS = sucrose in lab tests HFCS is not uniquely responsible for obesity in the US or abroad Replacing HFCS with sucrose will not reduce obesity or improve health; they are the same White, JS 13

14 US availability: sucrose = HFCS Sucrose HFCS White, JS Year 14 Source: USDA-ERS 2007 Per capita caloric sweeteners data set, loss-adjusted availability

15 It s a sucrose world % Consumption (million tons, dry basis) HFCS Sucrose % 51% 8% 0.0 White, JS USA Worldwide 15 Source: Fereday et al. Sweetener analysis. LMC International Ltd., 2005.

16 Calorie intake up 24% since 1970 Year , % 2,700 USDA-ERS Nutrient food category 2,600 2,500 2,400 2,300 2,200 Per capita daily calories (kcal) Change in percent of total daily per capita calories by category: 1970 to ,100 White, JS 16 Source: USDA-ERS 2007 Caloric nutrients data set

17 We eat more of everything Year ,800 Added sugars ( = -1%) +24% Added fats 2,700 USDA-ERS Nutrient food category Dairy Flour, cereal products Vegetables Fruit 2,600 2,500 2,400 2,300 Meat, eggs, nuts 2, Change in percent of total daily per capita calories by category: 1970 to ,100 White, JS 17 Source: USDA-ERS 2007 Caloric nutrients data set, loss adjusted

18 I hope I convinced you HFCS is similar to sugars from natural sources HFCS is similar to other caloric sweeteners HFCS is a highly functional and valued ingredient HFCS use equals sucrose in the US; it s a sucrose world Perspective is lacking in the HFCS debate White, JS 18

19 finis White, JS 19

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