Import volumes and unit values for a range of essential oil imports into the US are given in the Tables below.

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1 US Imports of Essential Oils, 2009 to 2013 Part Two Import volumes and unit values for a range of essential oil imports into the US are given in the Tables below. Care is needed in assessing import price information as in many cases the data presented will cover a range of qualities. In some cases, the data will cover several different oil types clove oil data will include both clove bud oil, clove stem oil, and clove leaf oil, and prices are different for each of these oils; cassia oil data covers both cassia and true cinnamon oils, etc. However, not withstanding these complications, the data give an indication of prices, volumes and trends. In general the European import market is larger than the US market for essential oils, with France having a controlling position in the import of many essential oils. European imports will be 30 to 50% higher than US imports in many cases. However, the EU only gives a breakdown of imports for a restricted range of essential oil, so the US provides a better data set. 1. The Mint Oils The 3 main types of mint are peppermint, spearmint, and cornmint. While peppermint and spearmint are used as flavourings in their own right, cornmint is primarily used as a source of menthol (and de-mentholised mint oil) and is the dominant form cultivated. Over the past 20 years India has come to dominate the global production of mint oils current annual production totals for cornmint oil in India are estimated at around 45,000 tonnes. Peppermint and spearmint command higher prices than cornmint oil which has become a commodity. 1.1 Peppermint oil: Mentha x piperita

2 1.2 Spearmint oil (Mentha spicata) 1.3 Cornmint (Mentha arvensis) 1.4 Mints NESOI

3 2. Lavender oil (Lavandula spp.) Supply of lavender oil is dominated by France. France is the largest global origin for lavender oil, and plays a central and controlling role in the trade for all different lavender oils. Prices had been firming steadily, reaching US$34/kg in 2012, but fell back sharply in A number of small origins are selling at substantially higher prices. 3. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Supply of rosemary oil is dominated by Mediterranean origins (Spain, France, Tunisia, Morocco), with Spain commanding a very significant price premium (around double) over the other origins.

4 4. Petitgrain oil (C. aurantium var. arama) (From the leaves and green twigs of bitter orange tree) Supply of petitgrain is traditionally dominated by Paraguay, although Egypt is increasing production, and Spain and France make steady supplies. Paraguay sells at a substantial discount to all other origins. 5. Rose attar (Rosa spp.) Data for rose oil (rose attar) mixes product of very different qualities, ranging from more or less pure rose oil (at around US$10,000/kg) to heavily manipulated product (at less than $500/kg) and everything in between. Supply is dominated by France due to its position in the fragrance trade, but Bulgaria is the major production origin.

5 6. Nutmeg oil (Myristica fragrans) Supply of nutmeg oil is dominated by Indonesia, with India and Sri Lanka making small supplies. Grenada no longer makes significant supplies. Oil prices have increased consistently since Grenadian production was lost after the hurricane in 2004 and are currently around US$100/kg. 7. Spice Oleoresins 7.1 Paprika oleoresin Production of paprika oleoresin is now dominated by India using moderately coloured/moderately pungent capsicums as a feedstock for the production of paprika and capsaicin oleoresins. Spain still has a role in the trade, both from its own production and as an entrepot center for African and S American production, but increasingly India has a clear competitive advantage in both production and extraction over all other origins.

6 7.2 Black pepper oleoresin India also dominates the supply of black pepper oleoresin. 7.3 Other oleoresins The breadth and scale of spice production in India, and the scale of its extraction industry, has enabled India to develop a dominant position in the export supply of the full range of spice oleoresins.

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