# Bioenergy: A Part of Yukon s Energy Future. Fernando Preto CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada

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1 Bioenergy: A Part of Yukon s Energy Future Fernando Preto CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada Yukon Energy Charrette March, 2011, Whitehorse

2 Introduction: CanmetENERGY Biomass Conversion Laboratories Thank You!

3 A Role For Bioenergy Biomass-derived fuels can substitute for fossil fuels in existing energy supply infrastructure without contributing to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Intermittent renewable sources, such as wind and solar energy, are more challenging to fit into existing distribution and consumption schemes. The potential resource base is significant but must be sustainably managed and restricted to residues and use of land not required or unsuitable for food production. An assessment of potential bioenergy development must also address potential health and environmental issues.

4 Yukon: Window of opportunity Clean energy deficit by 2014 when Faro Surplus will be gone New supply for diesel generated electricity has been pegged at ~30 cents per kwh What should YEC Do?

5 What should Yukon Energy Do? Build a Wood Pellet Plant?

6 Energy Conversion Energy Content Dry Wood 18 MJ/kg Diesel 45 MJ/kg Wood Stove Roaring Fire 3 kg/h Thermal Efficiency (75% of heat stays in house) Net = 3 kg/h * 18 MJ/kg * (75/100) = 40.5 MJ/h Watts? 40.5 MJ/h * 1 h/3600 s) = MJ/s 1 Watt = 1 J/s so we have MW Or kw [of heat]

7 Electrical Efficiency How much of the energy in the fuel is converted to electricity? Efficiency of converting kw of heat to kw of electricity Large Coal Plant ~ 35% Large Biomass Plant ~25% Diesel Generator L/kWh(e) (~25%)

8 Provide 10 kwh of Heat 10 kw wood stove (3 kg/h) for 1 hour Cost is 3 kg * 0.20 cents per kg (\$200/tonne) = 60 cents Electricity 10 kwh of electricity = 10 kwh of heat Cost is 10 * 15 cents per kwh = 150 cents Burning Fuel Oil - for 10 kwh need 1.2 kg Cost is 1.4 L * 130 cents per liter = 182 cents

9 To Provide 10 kwh of Heat Electricity 10 kwh of electricity = 10 kwh of heat Cost is 10 * 15 cents per kwh = 150 cents BUT YEC typically needs 3-4 liters to generate 10 kwh Cost to generate 10 kwh = 3 * 130 = 390 cents

10

11 Slide Courtesy: Derek Sidders, Canadian Wood Fibre Centre

12 Energy Conversion Basics Combustion produces heat which can be used directly or used to produce steam for industrial processes or power generation CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant is designed to produce both heat and electricity from a single heat source Gasification produces a mixture of low molecular gases known as syngas, which can be used to synthesize renewable fuels, polymers, and commodity chemicals Fast Pyrolysis produces bio-oil, which is not really an oil but a liquid mixture of oxygenated organic compounds that can be used as a biofuel a source of specialty chemicals

13 Available Combustion Technologies Figure Courtesy Procede Biomass BV

14 Biomass Combustion Canadian Suppliers Canadian manufacturers of industrial/commercial biomass combustion equipment: Grove Wood Heat Inc (PEI) Tel: (902) This list is provided for information only. NRCan does not endorse or recommend any specific supplier and this list is not intended to be comprehensive - any omissions from the list are unintentional

15 60 MWe Williams Lake GS Largest Biomass Plant in North America 770,000 tonnes/y

16 25 MWe Biomass Power Plant Capital Cost \$86.5 million Courtesy COOK Engineering A Division of Genivar

17 25 MWe Biomass Power Plant Courtesy COOK Engineering A Division of Genivar

18 Estimated Cost of Power for 25MWe Biomass Plant Cost of Power (cents per kwh) Cost of Wood (\$ Per Tonne) Based on 25 yr plant life and 27 employees to operate plant

19 Combustion technologies are commercially available in sizes from 2 kw to 500 MW. What about Community Scale or <10 MWe power generation?

20 Conventional Power Generation Rankine Cycle depends on high pressure steam and associated manpower requirements

21 Small-Scale Power Generation Generally, Rankine Cycle (steam turbine) based systems are not economically feasible below 10 MWe

22 Organic Rankine Cycles A number of units have been operating in Europe since Efficiency limited by low temperatures of organic fluids. Costs for 1-3 MWe plant estimated at \$7M per MWe. Small ( kwe) refrigerant based add-on ORC for existing boiler estimated at \$5k per kwe

23 Brayton Cycle Recently offered for sale: BG100CHP Biomass Generator 80 to 100kWe Electrical output with 200kW thermal output Combined Heat and Power from each unit (Estimated cost ~ \$9k per kwe)

24 Stirling Engine Stirling Engines are typically less than 50 kwe Cost estimate \$5 7k per kwe Stirling Danmark: Wood Chip Fired

25 Gasification for Syngas Carbon Monoxide + Hydrogen

26 Gasifier and GenSet Biomass Comprehensive Syngas Cleaning is the critical process-limiting step Heat Air (1/3) Gasifier Syngas Scrubber Engine Generator Power Gasification allows you to convert a relatively heterogeneous feedstock into a consistent synthetic gas (syngas) which can be used as a fuel for power generation or as a feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals.

27 European Experiences: CHP Gasification Many demonstrations but availability still too low <75% Fixed bed gasifier (Updraft & Downdraft) Harboore, Denmark intermittent operation since 2000 Capital Cost: ~ \$ 5-10,000/ kwe Electricity costs >25 cents per kwh Fluidized bed Operating experience >60,000 hours Gussing, Austria Capital Cost: ~ \$ 5-8,000/ kwe Electricity costs cents per kwh MUST Operate as Combined Heat and Power for Economic Feasibility

28 Nexterra s UBC Demonstration Project

29

30 Manitoba Hydro Demonstration Projects Contact: Dennis St. George, Project Financially Supported by Natural Resources Canada (CEF)

31

32

33

34

35 Bioenergy Supply?

36 Mean Annual Increment The mean annual increment (MAI) is the average net annual increase in the yield of living trees to a given age, and is calculated by dividing the yield of a stand of trees by its mean age. The MAI is dependent on a number of factors, including climate and elevation, soil conditions and forest management practices. MAI is a measure of the net biomass production of the forest in m3/(hectare year). Based on CFS data a conservative number would be an MAI of 1.1 for the area around Whitehorse. For comparison purpose, spruce in the Pacific Maritime region have an MAI of 3.8.

37 Beaver Creek 1 MWe Off-Grid Diesel Generator All of Yukon 8.4 MWe Off-grid Diesel 19.8 GWh in 2010 (~30% of capacity)

38 Biomass Supply 1 MWe Plant Capacity, % Wood Required Tonnes Annual Harvest Area Hectares Set-aside Sustainable Forest, km Other Yukon resources 2000 sq. km. of spruce bark beetle killed forest 1000 sq. km. of fire killed forest EACH YEAR

39 A Fairy Tale Güssing, Austria

40 Güssing in the late 80 s Minor local industry High local unemployment Town population ~ 4,000 (Burgenland District ~ 27,000) 70% population commuted to Vienna (2 hrs)...high migration rate Small structured agricultural fields and forestry operations Over 6 million euros per year left the region to pay for fuels and electricity

41 Then Güssing saw the light

42 Then Güssing saw the light Renewable Local Fuel

43 Güssing Biomass Gasification Power Plant Based on new technology developed at Technical University of Vienna

44 Güssing - District Heating Plant

45 Güssing Power Plant II & Solar

46 Güssing Biogas Power Plant

47 Gasification Plant became a Research Centre creating new products and training skilled personnel

48 ... And an SNG (Natural Gas) Plant

49 ... And bioenergy became more popular and they had to build new hotels to accommodate all the visitors

50 Benefits to Güssing New jobs Less traffic due to less commuters Independency Stable prices Secured supply CO2 - reduction 50 new companies Over 1,100 new jobs Due to 45% self-sufficiency in total energy supply, the region profits 18 million euros per year Potential when 100% selfsufficiency goal is achieved: 37 million euros

51 Welcome to Whitehorse: Site of Canada s First Biomass Gasifier

52 Yukon College Gasifier Built 1987 Never Commissioned Nominal Capacity 400 kg/h 2000 kw 7 million BTU/h

53 Thank You Fernando Preto Tel:

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