The small energy plant will produce electrical and heat energy efficiently in an enclosed process building.

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1 Biomass-to-Energy Frequently Asked Questions What is biomass? Biomass is woody raw material such as trees, branches, sawmill and furniture off-cuts, scrap dimensional lumber and plywood, all chipped and ground into small pieces. What is the purpose of the plant and how does it work? The small energy plant will produce electrical and heat energy efficiently in an enclosed process building. Who is benefiting from it? The Township of Southgate will receive tax revenue and lease income for use of the land. A minimum of two persons will be employed at the site, and approximately 5-10 persons will be employed in wood collection activity. Local building contractors will also be used for the construction work. The renewable energy will be available for local schools or companies. Who is Petawawa Renewable Power Corporation? Petawawa is a privately-owned renewable energy development company based in Orangeville. Petawawa was created in 2005 to pursue solar, wind and biomass opportunities in Ontario. What is gasification? Gasification 'cooks' wood in a low-oxygen environment, producing wood gases and leaving charcoal behind. The gas is cooled and cleaned, and then feeds a reciprocating engine. What are the byproducts? The residual charcoal from the gasifier can be sold as biochar, an odourless organic soils amendment product, certified by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Some emissions come off the engine, but after emissions treatment (such as the catalytic converter and a muffler), they are very light. See page 5 for more information on biochar. Page 1

2 What else is involved in the process? The engine is connected to an electricity generator and energy is fed into the nearby power grid. The engine heat is captured in a heat exchanger and produces very hot water available for heating or cooling loads located nearby. What about water pollution? The process is dry. The hot water remains in a closed sealed loop. Isn t this really just a waste disposal and waste processing facility? Clean, contaminant-free, residual woody material is not waste. It is a valuable byproduct of fabrication, woodworking, sawmill, forestry, renovation, building, transportation (pallets) and tree-thinning operations. Reusing this material is normal. It is part of a renewable, circular economy. Why are you bringing Toronto's garbage to us? The raw material is not garbage and the process is not incineration or burning. Material will be first sourced locally so it is likely only a small percentage of the wood materials will come from as far afield as Toronto. Isn t some of the wood contaminated with preservatives? Ontario's Environmental Protection Act and the Biomass Energy Contract both prohibit the use of wood contaminated with pentachlorophenol, creosote and other like substances. Won t the engine emissions pollute the local air? Emissions from this operation will be minimal. The proposed technology will meet or exceed Ontario's air quality regulations (Ontario's newest stringent regulations are modelled on the US EPA s Tier 4 emission requirements). If all Ontario engines were operated with the required Tier 4 standards, there would be very little smog and air pollution in Ontario. Page 2

3 Why did you decide to build a biomass gasification project? Gasification with heat capture is a very efficient way to use the woody materials and produce renewable energy. There is sufficient biomass within a reasonable radius of the proposed site, derived from small-scale woodworking businesses, municipal wood materials and sawmill wood chips. The biochar produced can now be used as a fertilizer supplement on agricultural lands. How much electricity will it produce? The project will produce approximately 4,000,000 kwh every year for 20 years. This is enough energy to power approximately 360 homes, night and day, winter and summer. Dundalk has approximately 1,800 residents - assuming three residents per household, that is 600 homes. So the project could power the equivalent of more than half the town. How much will the project cost? $3 to 5 million. Why did you locate the project in Dundalk? The proposed industrial-zone site in the Southgate Eco Park is ideally located for transportation and feedstock delivery. The proposed site has potential hot water customers nearby and an electricity connection available. What equipment will be used? Petawawa Corporation is committed to using best-in-class technology from a short-list of Canadian, European and American equipment vendors, all of which have gasification experience. What do you do at the end of the project? The Biomass Energy Contract is for 20 years, at which time the facility could be decommissioned, or the project could continue to generate energy for local Dundalk use and hot water for use with existing or new developments in the town. Page 3

4 What happens if you don't get enough feedstock? A facility this small, using 8,000 tonnes per year of wood material, will not put a dent in the raw materials available in Southern Ontario. Will it smell? The engine's clean exhaust, once passed though the engine's emission control systems (catalytic converter, exhaust gas recirculation, etc.) and the muffler, will smell similar to the most modern natural-gas-fed engine. In other words, hardy at all. The vast majority of the gases in the exhaust are water vapour and carbon dioxide, which don't smell. NOx does have an odour, but, at levels at or below the statutory limits, it will not be noticeable. Page 4

5 Why isn't everyone doing this? In Europe, they are: Biomass Heating in EU Biomass Heating in Canada: 6% ( The fuel of the future WHICH source of renewable energy is most important to the European Union? Solar power, perhaps? (Europe has three-quarters of the world s total installed capacity of solar photovoltaic energy.) Or wind? (Germany trebled its wind-power capacity in the past decade.) The answer is neither. By far the largest socalled renewable fuel used in Europe is wood. In its various forms, from sticks to pellets to sawdust, wood (or to use its fashionable name, biomass) accounts for about half of Europe s renewable-energy consumption. In some countries, such as Poland and Finland, wood meets more than 80% of renewable-energy demand. Even in Germany, home of the Energiewende (energy transformation) which has poured huge subsidies into wind and solar power, 38% of non-fossil fuel consumption comes from the stuff. After years in which European governments have boasted about their high-tech, low-carbon energy revolution, the main beneficiary seems to be the favoured fuel of pre-industrial societies. the Economist Page 5

6 FEDERAL APPROVAL SETS STAGE FOR BIOCHAR COMMERCIALIZATION December 17, 2015 EDMONTON The Alberta Biochar Initiative (ABI) welcomes the federal government s recent approval of biochar a carbon-rich form of charcoal produced by heating agricultural and forestry waste materials in a low or no oxygen environment for use in soil. This important development, which is the result of two years of concerted work to gain Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) approval, sets the stage for the next phase of sustained effort to establish a successful biochar industry across Canada. Regulatory approval is something ABI has pursued since 2012, said Don Harfield, who has conducted biochar research and development at Alberta Innovates Technology Futures for more than 10 years and serves as ABI s technical lead. It gives ABI partners the opportunity to pursue a wide range of potential commercial applications for biochar. Biochar can be used to adjust soil ph and improve soil biology, allowing it to retain more moisture and nutrients. When applied to marginal land, biochar can increase sustainable crop yields. The material can also be chemically treated to clean water, reduce odour and adsorb toxic pollutants. Air Terra President and CEO Rob Lavoie considers CFIA s approval of biochar for use in soil a game-changing moment. Now that we ve gained federal approval, I believe interest in biochar and its numerous commercial applications will take off with Canadian consumers and industries, said Lavoie. Gardeners, horticulturalists, farmers, forest products companies and industry will see biochar in a new light. Its economic and environmental potential is enormous. Page 6

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