Volcanoes and Volcanic Activity. Millions around the world live within reach of active volcanoes

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1 Volcanoes and Volcanic Activity 1 Volcanic hazards and Some surprising impacts on human history Locations of relatively young volcanoes in North America Relationship between volcanism and plate tectonics Types of volcanic eruptions and hazards Types of volcanoes and related landforms Volcano monitoring: looking for signs that a volcano may be about to erupt Current volcanic activity & status: US Volcanoes - Global activity More Volcano Stuff News, Eruptions, Pictures, etc. updated by Dr. Kuehn as new stories appear Millions around the world live within reach of active volcanoes Vesuvius and the surrounding Naples metropolitan area in Italy (July 2015) Excavated human remains from Pompeii, buried in ash and pumice from the 79AD eruption of Vesuvius Mount Etna in December 2015 Photo: G. Famiani Mount Fuji, Japan Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico (March 2016) Popo is one of Mexico s most active volcanoes and is located near both the Pubebla (1.4 million people) and Mexico City (40 mi, 20 million people) metropolitan areas. 1

2 Unexpected impacts of volcanoes Examples from the 1815 eruption Mt. Tambora & subsequent year without a summer The birth of the bicycle Sinabung impact on farmers living on fertile land near the volcano photo by Ulet Ifansasti posted 12 Apr Years Ago, This Volcano Caused a Climate Catastrophe Years Ago: The Year Without a Summer Unexpected impacts of volcanoes Examples from the 1815 eruption Mt. Tambora & subsequent year without a summer 10 Art and Literature: How a Volcanic Eruption in 1815 Darkened the World but Colored the Arts - The New York Times Volcanic eruptions that changed human history volcanic cold spells, droughts documented back to Roman times Locations and Origin of Volcanic Activity Most volcanism occurs at divergent plate boundaries (ocean ridges and continental rifts), convergent boundaries (subduction zones), and hot spots. 11 Effusive - lava flows Styles of volcanic eruptions Pyroclastic - explosive eruptions that produce airborne fragments of lava 12 An effusive eruption of basaltic lava in Hawaii - NASA A large pyroclastic eruption of Klyuchevskaya Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia in October 1994 NASA STS This Dynamic Planet - Volcanism at ocean ridges and oceanic hot spots primarily results in mafic (basaltic) rocks. Volcanism at continental rift zones and continental hot spots produces a broad range of igneous rock compositions. Subduction zones primarily result in intermediate (andesitic) and mafic rocks with lesser amounts of felsic rocks. 2

3 Effusive Eruptions and Hazards Lava flows from summit vents, side vents, and fissures Aa and pahoehoe lava flows (basalt) Hazards from lava flowing into towns (Hawaii example) Lava domes and hazards from dome collapse (effusive meets pyroclastic) Fissure during 2015 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano on island La Réunion in the Indian ocean 15 Aa (jagged) and pahoehoe (smooth, wrinkled/ropy) lavas 16 fissure_vent-img0001.jpg Fig 5.3 Understanding Earth Pahoehoe A lava flow entering a populated area in Hawaii Basaltic lava can flow long distances because of its low viscosity. 17 Lava covers Kalapana, Hawaii April _L.jpg 6 June 1990 See: It s still going: 13 June

4 Lava domes: Mt. St. Helens lava dome in 1992 (top) and Novarupta lava dome, Alaska (bottom) 19 Lava domes: Sinabung Volcano Dome In June Watch out below! This one looks unstable. S. Kuehn Lava domes are usually formed by felsic to intermediate lava (ryholite and dacite) because these lavas have a high viscosity and don t flow very well. Photos of the lava domes at Mt. St. Helens: Some features and products of pyroclastic eruptions Lava fountains Strombolian explosions Eruption columns Pyroclastic flows Tephra 21 Lava fountain from Pu u O o at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii 22 Hazards of pyroclastic eruptions Ash and pumice fall (tephra fall) hazards Pyroclastic flow and blast hazards Next: lava fountain video clip Photo: Strombolian explosion from a cinder cone at Veniaminof volcano, Alaska in 1983 DDS-40-IMG0052.jpg Next: strombolian video clip Strombolian eruption at Stromboli Volcano, Italy - The incandescent lava fragments generally consist of partially molten volcanic bombs that become rounded as they fly through the air. photoglossary - Photo by B. Chouet in

5 Wind Plinian Eruption Column Eruption cloud Tephra fall (pumice & ash) Mt. St. Helens airfall tephra distribution and path of the May 18, 1980 eruption cloud Fig. 8.26c Keller, Environmental Geology 26 Large Bombs Mt St Helens ash cloud May 18, Austin Post From Iceland in Mt. St. Helens ash cloud approaching Ephrata, WA on May 18, Ephrata is about 145 miles from Mt. St. Helens. The ash cloud arrived in less than 3 hours. Fact Sheet Photo by Douglas Miller Next: Mt St. Helens eruption cloud and ash fall video clip Ashfall from Mt. Spur in 1992 OFR img15.jpg Volcanic ash fragment - Electron microscope image Fact Sheet Major air-routes in the north Pacific Fact Sheet 030_97 5

6 Small, basaltic volcanic bombs - Note the aerodynamic shapes bombs _large.jpg Pyroclastic flow at Mt St Helens One of at least 17 flows which rushed down the side of the volcano on May 18, A very large, felsic bread crust bomb Pyroclastic flow at Augustine Volcano, Alaska in 1986 Aftermath of a pyroclastic flow (1998) Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat Ch 5 Understanding Earth 34 Pyroclastic Flows Eruptions At Sinabung Volcano Indonesia 19th June More great video: EarthUncutTV's Most Amazing Volcano Eruption Footage Shots Reinforced concrete broken by a pyroclastic flow Devastation of a small town caused by a lahar from Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines _029_large.jpg Plymouth, capital of Montserrat, destroyed in 1997 by pyroclastic flows from the Soufrière Hills volcano. The eruption killed 19 people, including some who had been let back into the city after it was first evacuated in From Best Volcano Photos : More about lahars: 6

7 Extent of Mt. Rainier lahars during the last 5,600 years 37 Mt. St. Helens before and after May 18, MSH vol1 IMG0003.jpg Next: landslide and blast video clip MSH vol1 IMG0045.jpg Closer view of the hummocks at Mt. St. Helens Similar but larger features are present along Interstate 5 west of Mt. Shasta July, S. Kuehn 39 Large tree ripped apart by the force of the lateral blast at Mt. St. Helens 40 CVO CD2 IMG0006.jpg 41 Damage from lateral blast Mt. St. Helens, 1980 MSH Vol1 IMG001.jpg Mt. St. Helens from space NASA STS

8 43 Lahars (volcanic mudflows) from Mt St. Helens damaged many homes, shut down Interstate-5, and blocked shipping on the Columbia River Volcanic hazards 44 Summary: Lava flow hazards Ash and pumice fall (tephra fall) hazards Pyroclastic flow hazards Landslide/volcano collapse hazards Volcanic blasts Mt St. Helens lahar damage MSH vol1 IMG0087.jpg Volcanic gases Lahar/flood hazards Some types of volcanoes and related landforms Shield volcanoes Composite volcanoes (also known as stratovolcanoes) Cinder cones Calderas Flood basalts Oceanic crust Two shield volcanoes Top: Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii Bottom: Newberry volcano, Oregon S. Kuehn Explosion craters and maars 47 Olympus Mons shield volcano, Mars Olympus Mons is the largest known volcano in the solar system. It is about 550 km (350 mi) across and about 25 km (16 mi) high with a 65 km (40 mi) wide caldera at the summit. It is more than 4 times wider than Mauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth. A composite or stratovolcano: Mt. Rainier, Washington S. Kuehn Rainier.jpg 48 8

9 Top photo: Lava Butte, Oregon - a 49 Columbia River basalts, the Earth s youngest major cinder cone related flood basalt province to Newberry volcano Note the lava flow that erupted from the side of Lava Butte. 50 Bottom photo: This cone is one of two cinder cones called the Red Cones, located about 5 km south of Mammoth Mountain volcano and Long Valley Caldera in California. These basaltic cones and associated lava flows were erupted about 5,000 years ago. - Photograph by C.D. Miller in 1982 S. Kuehn Calderas Crater Lake, Oregon, fills a caldera that was formed when Mount Mazama erupted catastrophically about 7,600 years ago. Wizard island was built by a lava flow and cinder cone after long after formation of the caldera. 51 A simple model of caldera formation 52 Fig 5.16 Understanding Earth S. Kuehn Next: Caldera formation animation Preparing for volcanic hazards: 53 Annual probability for the deposition of 1 cm or more of tephra from all sources in the Cascade Range 54 Study past activity to better understand what the future may bring 1 in 100 Make maps showing areas of greatest risk Land-use planning and disaster preparation 1 in in 1,000 1 in 5,000 Education of people who may be affected 1 in 10,000 Volcano monitoring Pinatubo 25 Years Later: Eight Ways the Eruption Broke Ground 9

10 55 Volcano monitoring Surface tilt resulting from the intrusion of new magma at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii Fig Keller, Environmental Geology 57 Uplift of the Three Sisters volcanic area in Oregon based on InSAR radar imagery the uplift averaging 20 mm per year is related to ongoing intrusion of magma at a depth of ~8 km (5 mi). Fig. 1 in Wicks et al. (2002), Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, No. 7 More about the Three Sisters area and uplift: Volcanic earthquakes: The movement of magma underground produces characteristic earthquakes, an important sign that an eruption might happen in the near future. Compare the magma-generated earthquakes (G and H) to a fault-generated earthquake (A) 59 Encyclopedia of Volcanoes McNut Fig 1 10

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