Compaction Principles and Techniques

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1 Compaction Principles and Techniques

2 What is Compaction? Mechanically increasing the density of a lift of material Increase density by removing air voids Dense mat resists rutting and movement Each layer must support the load placed on it

3 Mat Produced by the Paver Normally has about 15% air voids High air voids allow water penetration Allows deep rutting by traffic loading

4 Mat after Compaction 2%-7% air voids allow for needed expansion Aggregates moved closer together Provides cohesion, impermeability, and stability

5 Forces of Compaction Four forces are used for compaction Static load and manipulation are lower forces Impact and vibration generate higher forces

6 Steel Drum Static Pressure Pressure is weight at the drum (axle load) divided by contact area Higher weight at the drum gives higher pressure Smaller contact area gives higher pressure PLI is weight at the drum divided by drum width

7 Pneumatic Ground Pressure Ground pressure is wheel load divided by tire contact area Change pressure by changing inflation pressure and ballast Low tire pressure - low ground pressure High tire pressure - high ground pressure

8 Force of Manipulation Lines of force are not just vertical Force sent in many directions Helps tighten surface texture Normally associated with pneumatic compactors

9 Pneumatic Tire Manipulation Overlap manipulates mat under and between tires Tight finish resists moisture penetration High tire pressure pushes material down and out Low tire pressure pushes material mostly downward

10 Impact Forces Impact force is greater than static force Falling weight speed converted to energy Sends pressure wave into mat Impact can damage aggregates - must balance weight and impact

11 Vibratory Force Assists forces created by weight and impact Rapid succession of pressure waves Vibration sets aggregates in motion Helps aggregates re-orient for better contact

12 Vibratory Amplitude Spinning eccentric weight causes drum movement Falling drum adds to compactive force Distance drum moves is called amplitude Amplitude determines impact force

13 Vibratory Frequency Frequency is drum impacts per minute Working speed must match frequency Best results when impact spacing is 8-14 per meter (foot)

14 Amplitude vs. Frequency High amplitude means more drum movement into the mat Lower frequency usually means higher amplitude and more compaction Higher frequency usually means lower amplitude and less compaction

15 Amplitude vs. Centrifugal Force Amplitude and frequency create centrifugal force Must be balanced Can t have both high amplitude and high frequency Each combination has its own application

16 Balanced Compactor Vibration Forces transmitted evenly when in balance Mat accepts vibratory forces Compaction maximized Smooth machine operation

17 Unbalanced Compactor Vibration Out of balance - amplitude, frequency and speed Some forces not accepted by mat Drums bounce Machine operates erratically Less effective compaction

18 Solving Drum Bouncing Adjust working speed to get 8-14 impacts per meter (foot) Lower amplitude Lower frequency Operate static Operate with only one drum vibrating

19 The Compaction Process Just as important as mix production and laydown Operator must understand forces of compaction Know how to balance weight, tire pressure, amplitude, frequency and rolling speed

20 Influences on Asphalt Compaction Many factors, not controlled by operator, influence compaction Mix design Road design Mix temperature Climatic conditions Know how to respond to these factors

21 Mix Design Mix design affects compaction 85%-90% large aggregates, small aggregates, fillers, and sometimes modifiers 5%-8% asphalt cement 2%-7% air voids

22 Coarse Mixes Larger aggregates and less oil in thick mats Many Superpave mixes are coarse Considered harsh Need more force to cause aggregate movement High amplitude and heavy pneumatics

23 Fine Mixes Smaller aggregates and more oil in thinner mats Considered tender Need less force High force can damage mat Low amplitude or static force

24 Aggregate Shape Shape determines internal friction Rounded aggregate moves easily; use less force Angular aggregate resists movement; use high force

25 New Roadway Design Most roads have multiple courses Base course thick with large aggregate; use highest force Intermediate with smaller aggregate needs medium force Wear course thin with small aggregate needs least force

26 Layer Thickness vs. Aggregate Size Ratio affects ability to get density 4:1 ratio should be easy to work with Can use high compactive forces Less concern about damaging mat

27 Layer Thickness vs. Aggregate Size Small ratio can be hardest to compact 2:1 is minimum Use low amplitude or static Watch for fractured aggregate at surface

28 Mix Temperature Major effect on compaction Must compact while oil is still fluid enough to allow aggregate movement When oil is stiff, aggregates lock

29 Mix too Hot Upper limit is about 320 degrees F Look for bulges in front of drums Mat will move around and not compact Roller leaves deep marks Stay back from paver until mat cools

30 Mix too Cold Lower limit around 185 degrees F No aggregate movement possible May be able roll out surface marks Work closer to paver Increase force Get more rollers

31 Climatic Conditions Hot weather, mix stays workable longer Cold weather, mix cools and crust forms early and force is less effective Adjust rolling pattern as conditions change

32 Checking Mat Temperature Infrared gun provides fast scan of surface temperature Gun shows how fast heat is being lost Probe shows internal temperature Probe is better indicator of how mix will react to compaction

33 Compaction Issue - Dry Drum Dry drums pick up hot mix Practice proper spray system maintenance --use clean water -- change filters -- check spray nozzles -- check distribution mats

34 Setting up the Compaction Train Equipment and techniques vary on each project Phases of compaction are usually the same

35 Phases of Compaction Breakdown Intermediate Finish Different equipment and different techniques for each phase

36 Breakdown Compaction First step gets most of density Begin at highest temperature without mat distortion May have to work very close to paver Dual drum drive works best

37 Intermediate Compaction Next step in getting density and initial smoothness Mat hot enough to allow aggregate movement Mat already close to final density Too much force will fracture aggregate

38 Finish Compaction Minimal compaction Main purpose is smoothness and removal of any marks Once smooth, stop rolling

39 Developing a Rolling Pattern Match paver production Get target density Produce smooth finish

40 Calculating Required Drum Width Coverage in 3 passes or less 6 overlap & overhang 168 wide mat plus 4 x 6 overlaps equals 192 total width Total width divided by 3 passes equals 64 Minimum drum width is 64 this example

41 1700 mm (67") Drum Size Class Covers 14 mat in 3 passes Frequency of CB-534D 2,520 vpm Divide frequency by 10 impacts per foot Working speed up to 250 fpm

42 Paver Production & Speed 14 mat width 3 uncompacted mat depth 400 tons/hr available Paver speed of fpm consumes plant production on this project

43 Matching Paver Speed 7 pass rolling pattern gets target density for breakdown Divide compactor speed (250 fpm) by 7 passes Average roller speed 36 fpm Matches paver speed of fpm

44 Test Strip Test strip sets rolling pattern Verifies that target density can be achieved Straight run part of project Nuclear density gauge checks progress while mat is still hot

45 Breakdown Roller on Test Strip Goal is 95% of target density Check density after each pass Roll until density goal is achieved Confirm pattern matches production requirement

46 Can t Get Density on Test Strip Add number of passes Increase amplitude Increase tire pressure or ballast Use higher production roller - wider drums Work closer to the paver Reduce rolling speed

47 Over-compaction on Test Strip Reduce passes. Stop rolling close to but not over density target Lower amplitude Lower tire pressure or ballast Roll in lower temperature zone Increase working speed

48 Rolling Pattern - Confined Edges Start on right or left edge Roll to within 20 of paver Reverse in same path Second path in center Third path on opposite edge Start next sequence at end of first path

49 Reversing Direction Avoid straight stops Turn toward center of mat Don t turn drum while stopped Next pass should be able to roll out any marks created by reversing

50 Double Drum Overlaps 152 mm (6") 6 overlap assures uniform compaction Include overlap when selecting drum width Roller should cover mat in 3 overlapping passes or less for best productivity

51 Longitudinal Joint Compaction Hot Mat Cold Mat Both drums on hot side first pass Force hot material against joint Exception: layers more than 100 mm (4 ) thick may need a pass to pinch the joint first

52 Longitudinal Joint Compaction Hot Mat Overlap cold side 6 second pass Roll static to avoid fractured aggregate on cold side Cold Mat

53 Compacting Unconfined Edges Unconfined edges may shove out First pass 6 from edge to build strength in mat Second pass slight overhang Compacted portion supports weight of drum

54 Rolling a Crown Never straddle the crown Work from bottom toward crown both sides Builds strength in mat to support roller on slope Overlap crown 6 on last pass

55 Rolling a Transverse Joint 150 mm (6") Roll transverse to avoid bump Roll static Paver New Old Start with most of drum on cold side Gradually move over until drum is all on hot side May have to use boards to get on mat

56 Compaction - Principles and Techniques THANK YOU

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