# An Introduction to First-Order Logic

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1 Outline An Introduction to K. 1 1 Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering West Virginia University Syntax, Semantics and

2 Outline Outline 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

3 Outline Outline 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

4 Outline Outline 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

5 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

6 The vocabulary of first-order logic A vocabulary Σ = (Φ, Π, r) consists of a set of function symbols Φ, a set of relation symbols Π (Π must contain the binary equality relation =) and an arity function r : Φ Π N. 0-ary functions are called constants; a relation can never be 0-ary. Associated with the vocabulary Σ is a finite, countable set of variables V = {x, y, z,..., }.

7 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

8 Any variable v V is a term. If f is a k-ary function and t 1, t 2,..., t k are terms, then so is f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ). If R Π is a k-ary relation and t 1, t 2,..., t k are terms, then R(t 1, t 2,...,t k ) is an atomic expression. If φ and ψ are expressions then so are φ, φ ψ, φ ψ and ( x)φ. Existential Quantifier For the most part, we will avoid considering ( x)φ separately, since ( x)φ is tautologically equivalent to ( x) φ.

9 Any variable v V is a term. If f is a k-ary function and t 1, t 2,..., t k are terms, then so is f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ). If R Π is a k-ary relation and t 1, t 2,..., t k are terms, then R(t 1, t 2,...,t k ) is an atomic expression. If φ and ψ are expressions then so are φ, φ ψ, φ ψ and ( x)φ. Existential Quantifier For the most part, we will avoid considering ( x)φ separately, since ( x)φ is tautologically equivalent to ( x) φ.

10 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

11 Two Example Theories Syntax Number Theory Φ N = {0, σ, +,, }, Π N = {< N, =}. Graph Theory Φ G =, Π G = {G, =}.

12 Two Example Theories Syntax Number Theory Φ N = {0, σ, +,, }, Π N = {< N, =}. Graph Theory Φ G =, Π G = {G, =}.

13 Outline Syntax Model Different for the same vocabulary 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

14 Model Different for the same vocabulary and Appropriateness of A model M = (U, µ) is a 2-tuple, with U denoting the universe of M and µ denoting the interpretation function of M. µ assigns to each variable, function symbol and relation symbol, a concrete object in U.

15 Model satisfaction Syntax Model Different for the same vocabulary M satisfies a first-order expression φ, written M = φ, if (i) φ is an atomic expression R(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) and (t M 1, tm 2,..., tm k ) RM, (ii) φ = ψ and M = ψ, (iii) φ = φ 1 φ 2 and M = φ 1 or M = φ 2, (iv) φ = φ 1 φ 2 and M = φ 1 and M = φ 2, (v) φ = ( x)ψ and M x=u = ψ, for each u U, where M x=u forces all occurrences of x to equal u.

16 Model Different for the same vocabulary Irrelevance of assignments to bound variables Proposition Consider two models M and M which are appropriate to the vocabulary of a first-order expression φ. If M and M agree on all but the bound variables of φ, then M = φ M = φ. Proof. Use induction on the length of φ!

17 Outline Syntax Model Different for the same vocabulary 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

18 for Number Theory Model Different for the same vocabulary Standard Model N The universe U is {0, 1, 2,..., }. µ is described as follows: 0 N = 0, < N (m, n) if m < n, σ N (n) = n + 1, + N = +, N =, N =. A model which is less standard N p The universe U is {0, 1,..., p 1}. Identical to the standard model, except that all operations are performed modulo p. The model from Hell N h We use L to denote this model. The universe U is 2 {0,1}. µ is described as follows: 0 L =, σ L (l) = l, + L =, L =, L =,

19 for Number Theory Model Different for the same vocabulary Standard Model N The universe U is {0, 1, 2,..., }. µ is described as follows: 0 N = 0, < N (m, n) if m < n, σ N (n) = n + 1, + N = +, N =, N =. A model which is less standard N p The universe U is {0, 1,..., p 1}. Identical to the standard model, except that all operations are performed modulo p. The model from Hell N h We use L to denote this model. The universe U is 2 {0,1}. µ is described as follows: 0 L =, σ L (l) = l, + L =, L =, L =,

20 for Number Theory Model Different for the same vocabulary Standard Model N The universe U is {0, 1, 2,..., }. µ is described as follows: 0 N = 0, < N (m, n) if m < n, σ N (n) = n + 1, + N = +, N =, N =. A model which is less standard N p The universe U is {0, 1,..., p 1}. Identical to the standard model, except that all operations are performed modulo p. The model from Hell N h We use L to denote this model. The universe U is 2 {0,1}. µ is described as follows: 0 L =, σ L (l) = l, + L =, L =, L =,

21 for Number Theory (contd.) Model Different for the same vocabulary Fact Let M 1 and M 2 denote two models that are appropriate to the vocabulary Σ of a theory (say number theory). It is possible that for a given first-order expression φ over Σ, M 1 = φ, but M 2 = φ Example Let φ = ( x)( y)(x = y + y). Clearly, N = φ, N p = φ, if p is odd and N h = φ.

22 Outline Syntax Model Different for the same vocabulary 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

23 Computability in graph theory Model Different for the same vocabulary Fact Any first-order expression over the vocabulary Σ G can be interpreted as the following computational problem: Given a graph G, does G have property φ? Theorem For any first-order expression φ over the vocabulary Σ G, the problem φ-graphs is in P. Proof. Use induction on the length of the expression. Fact Although expressibility as a first-order expression over Σ G is a sufficient condition for a problem (property) to be in P, it is not a necessary condition. For instance, graph reachability cannot be expressed as a first-order expression, but is in P.

24 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

25 Valid Expressions Syntax An expression φ is said to be valid, if for all models M, which are appropriate to the vocabulary of φ, M = φ. This is denoted by = φ. An expression φ is unsatisfiable if and only if = φ.

26 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

27 Boolean validity and equality validity Boolean If the underlying boolean form of an expression is a tautology, then it is valid. If φ and φ ψ are valid, then ψ is valid. Equality Any expression of the form t 1 = t 1, or (t 1 = t 1, t 2 = t 2,..., t k = t k ) f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) = f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ), or (t 1 = t 1, t 2 = t 2,..., t k = t k ) R(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) R(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) is valid.

28 Boolean validity and equality validity Boolean If the underlying boolean form of an expression is a tautology, then it is valid. If φ and φ ψ are valid, then ψ is valid. Equality Any expression of the form t 1 = t 1, or (t 1 = t 1, t 2 = t 2,..., t k = t k ) f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) = f(t 1, t 2,..., t k ), or (t 1 = t 1, t 2 = t 2,..., t k = t k ) R(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) R(t 1, t 2,..., t k ) is valid.

29 caused by Quantifiers Rules (i) For all φ and ψ, ( x)(φ ψ) (( x)φ ( x)ψ) is valid. (ii) If x does not appear in φ, then φ ( x)φ is valid. (iii) If φ is valid, then so is ( x)φ. (iv) If t is substitutable for x, then ( x)φ φ[x t] is valid.

30 caused by Quantifiers Rules (i) For all φ and ψ, ( x)(φ ψ) (( x)φ ( x)ψ) is valid. (ii) If x does not appear in φ, then φ ( x)φ is valid. (iii) If φ is valid, then so is ( x)φ. (iv) If t is substitutable for x, then ( x)φ φ[x t] is valid.

31 caused by Quantifiers Rules (i) For all φ and ψ, ( x)(φ ψ) (( x)φ ( x)ψ) is valid. (ii) If x does not appear in φ, then φ ( x)φ is valid. (iii) If φ is valid, then so is ( x)φ. (iv) If t is substitutable for x, then ( x)φ φ[x t] is valid.

32 caused by Quantifiers Rules (i) For all φ and ψ, ( x)(φ ψ) (( x)φ ( x)ψ) is valid. (ii) If x does not appear in φ, then φ ( x)φ is valid. (iii) If φ is valid, then so is ( x)φ. (iv) If t is substitutable for x, then ( x)φ φ[x t] is valid.

33 Outline Syntax 1 The Syntax of 2 of Expressions Model Different for the same vocabulary 3

34 Prenex A first-order expression φ is said to be in, if it consists of a sequence of quantifiers, followed by a quantifier-free Boolean expression. Theorem Any first-order expression can be transformed to an equivalent one in. Proof. Repeatedly use one or more of the following four propositions to perform the transformation. ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ( x)ψ. If x is not free in ψ, then ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ψ. If x is not free in ψ, then ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ψ. If y does not appear in φ, ( x)φ ( y)φ[x y].

35 Prenex A first-order expression φ is said to be in, if it consists of a sequence of quantifiers, followed by a quantifier-free Boolean expression. Theorem Any first-order expression can be transformed to an equivalent one in. Proof. Repeatedly use one or more of the following four propositions to perform the transformation. ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ( x)ψ. If x is not free in ψ, then ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ψ. If x is not free in ψ, then ( x)(φ ψ) ( x)φ ψ. If y does not appear in φ, ( x)φ ( y)φ[x y].

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