Year 8 Science Home Learning Booklet

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1 Student Name: Year 8 Science Home Learning Booklet Chemical Reactions To be handed in on or before: 25th April 2014 The options that I have completed for my Home Learning are (Please tick): Option Number Vivomiles Completed? Reversible or irreversible? Simple Chemical Reactions Matching reactants to products Which gases are in air? Complete the fire triangle Explosions More combustion What is made when a fuel burns? Word equations Chemical reactions Reactivity worksheet Extension: Corrosion of metals with acid Displacement reactions Extraction of metals Rusting in iron and steel 3 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles 3 Vivomiles 3 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles 7 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles 10 Vivomiles 7 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles 10 Vivomiles 10 Vivomiles 10 Vivomiles 5 Vivomiles

2 What do I need to do? In Science you are currently studying Chemical Reactions. In this module you will be learning about chemical reactions, how to test for different gases, the reactivity of different metals, fire safety and how to represent reactions as word and symbol equations. To support the work that you are doing in science, all of the home learning activities below will help you to further your understanding of chemical reactions. Check which teaching group you belong to and start to work out which home learning activities you have to select from. If you are not sure Ask for help! Teaching Group What do I need to do? 8R1 & 8R2 Select home learning activities that total a minimum of 45 Vivomiles* 8C1 Select home learning activities that total a minimum of 35 Vivomiles* 8S1 Select home learning activities that total a minimum of 20 Vivomiles* * Remember that there is nothing stopping you from completing more home learning activities for more Vivomiles!

3 Lesson 1 simple reactions Recall irreversible or reversible reactions Describe reactions as physical or chemical. Reversible or Irreversible? Use your knowledge to Identify which of the following are Re-

4 The Reaction What it looks like at the start How do you know a reaction has taken place Boiling an egg Mixing baking powder, vinegar And washing up liquid Striking a match

5 Lesson 2 Combustion Recall the gases present in air Describe the chemical process of combustion Explain how to reduce risks from fire. Nitrogen Oxygen Water Vapour Rare Gases Carbon Dioxide

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7 Read the following information and then answer the questions An explosion is a chemical reaction that happens really quickly. A lot of gases are released and usually massive amounts of heat. Chemicals which are designed to explode are called explosives. However, everyday chemicals can explode. Natural gas will explode if it is mixed with the right amount of oxygen. This used to be a big problem for coal miners in the 18th century. Pockets of natural gas in the mines were ignited by the miners lamps. In 1815 Sir Humphrey Davy invented a safer mining lamp to reduce the risk of explosions. The first explosive available was gunpowder. This was invented in China about 1200 years ago. Gunpowder is not very powerful and has to be lit with a flame. In 1847, an Italian Scientist called Ascanio Sobrero invented nitroglycerine. This chemical is a liquid and explodes with even the slightest knock. In 1865, Alfred Nobel opened a factory to make nitroglycerine. The factory blew up and killed his brother. Nobel then changed the nitroglycerine so that it was a little safer. This new material he called dynamite. 1) What is an explosion?. 2) What do we call a material that can cause an explosion?. 3) What is needed to make Natural gas explode?

8 Two identical pieces of magnesium are going to be burned. The first will be in air. The second one will be in a gas jar of pure oxygen. Magnesium in Air Magnesium in Pure Oxygen Will they burn exactly the same?....

9 4) What was one of the problems for coal miners in the 18th century? 5) What was the first explosive to be invented?. 6) Who invented Nitroglycerine? 7) What is the major problem with nitroglycerine? 8) What did Alfred Nobel make out of nitroglycerine?... 9) Can you think of any uses for explosions ) Try to find out about Humphrey Davy and his safety lamp....

10 The apparatus below can be used to collect the gases that are produced when a fuel burns. All fossil fuels contain the chemicals carbon and hydrogen. The air is sucked out of the apparatus by the pump. This pulls the gases from the flame into the funnel and through the boiling tubes. Funnel To Suction Pump Burning Candle Iced Water Limewater 1) What is the fuel in this experiment?. 2) What happens to the limewater?. 3) Why is this?. 4) What is the job of the iced water?.

11 5) What collects on the inside of the first boiling tube?.. 6) Which two gases are therefore made when the fuel burns?. Chemical Reactions can be summarised as word equations. These show what you start with (REACTANTS) and what is made (PRODUCTS). Example Magnesium + Oxygen > Magnesium oxide (Reactants) (Product) Complete the word equations for burning carbon and hydrogen Carbon + Oxygen >.. Hydrogen +. > Water A piece of shiny copper will turn black when you heat it in a Bunsen flame. Write a word equation to show what you think is happening.

12 Lesson 3 Word equations Recall products and reactants Describe reactions in the form of word equations. Word equations When a chemical reaction takes place new chemicals are formed. We can show what is happening using a word equation. Here are three examples: Reaction 1: Magnesium burning magnesium + oxygen. Reaction 2: Carbon burning Carbon + oxygen.. Reaction 3: Magnesium is added to hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride) Magnesium + hydrogen chloride... We can see that each word equation has an arrow like this. This arrow points to the chemicals produced in the reaction. We call these the products. What is the product of reaction 1? What is the product of reaction 2? What are the two products of reaction 3? The chemicals on the left of the arrow react together to make the products. These chemicals are called the reactants. Underline the reactants for reactions I,2 and 3 above. Note: If a compound has only 2 elements in it we give it a name which ends in ide. Its name usually indicates the elements present. For example carbon dioxide has carbon and oxygen in it.

13 Chemical Reactions Take it in turns with your partner answering the following questions: 1. Fill in the missing words from these equations a + oxygen carbon dioxide b c d e lead + oxygen oxide copper + oxygen copper tin + tin chloride sodium + chlorine 2Each of the chemicals in the table has a common name as well as a proper chemical name. Fill in the blanks in this table. Common name Chemical name Elements in the compound common salt sodium chloride sodium, chlorine water ammonia rotten egg gas nitrogen hydride hydrogen sulphide hydrogen, oxygen 3The table shows the names and chemical formulas of some compounds. Fill in the blank spaces in this table. Name of compound Chemical formula Number of elements in the compound Names of elements in the compound magnesium oxide MgO 2 magnesium, oxygen potassium oxide K 2 O FeS potassium hydroxide KOH 3 calcium carbonate CaCO 3 iron, sulphur

14 Reactivity Worksheet Students set up a practical and record the following observations Each container has hydrochloric acid in it along with a metal. 1 magnesium 2 copper 3 zinc 4 iron 5 aluminium Tasks How do you know a reaction is happening in the containers? Which is the most reactive metal? Describe one way to make sure the experiment the students completed was fair. Describe how to test the gas given off. Write a word equation for each reaction

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17 sodium + iron chloride sodium chloride + iron Sodium is more reactive so displaces the compound Magnesium + Silver Oxide Platinum + Calcium Bromide Aluminium + Lead Chloride Gold Oxide + Zinc Calcium Carbonate + potassium Will they react? Put a tick or cross on the tile if a reaction will happen.

18 Extraction of Metals Ores Most metals are found naturally in rocks called.. They are in.., chemically bonded to other elements. Some.. metals can be found as... They are called.. metals. The Reactivity Series Metals above carbon in the reactivity series must be extracted using... Metals less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their ores by.. using carbon, coke or charcoal. Platinum, gold, silver and copper can occur.. and do not need to be extracted. In order to extract a metal, the ore or compound of the metal must undergo.. to free the metal. Reduction is the.. of oxygen or.. of oxygen from a compound. Generally speaking the method of extraction depends upon the metals position in the reactivity series. Metal.. + carbon à metal + carbon.. Reduction and Oxidation lead oxide +.. lead PbO (s) + C (s) 2Pb (s) + CO 2(g) The blast furnace Match the raw materials to their uses. Iron Ore Is made from coal and is nearly pure carbon. Limestone (Usually haematite) is mainly iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3, mixed with sand. Hot air Blasted in at the bottom of the furnace to provide heat and oxygen. Coke Is a common rock consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, CaCO 3.

19 Lesson aim: To research rusting in iron and steel Information; Corrosion means when a metal is eaten away or weakened by a chemical reaction. The most common form of corrosion in iron objects is rust. Iron (and steel) is the only metal that rusts. Your task: Use the internet and text books to research rusting. 1. State what rusting is. 2. State the substances needed for rusting. 3. Why can steel rust? Write the word and chemical equations for the process of rusting. Explain the economic problems associated with rust. List ways in which we can prevent iron from rusting. Explain how each method, mentioned above, prevents rust.

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