Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide

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1 Name: Class: Date: Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Knowledge about what products are produced in a chemical reaction is obtained by a. inspecting the chemical equation. c. laboratory analysis. b. balancing the chemical equation. d. writing a word equation. 2. A chemical reaction has NOT occurred if the products have a. the same mass as the reactants. b. more energy than the reactants. c. less energy than the reactants. d. the same chemical properties as the reactants. 3. Which observation does NOT indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred? a. formation of a precipitate c. evolution of energy b. production of a gas d. change in total mass of substances 4. The word equation solid carbon + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas + energy, represents a chemical reaction because a. the reaction releases energy. b. CO 2 has chemical properties that differ from those of C and O. c. the reaction absorbs energy. d. CO 2 is a gas and carbon is a crystal. 5. In the unbalanced formula equation CO + O 2 CO 2 + energy, energy a. is absorbed. c. is released. b. can be considered a reactant. d. Both (a) and (b) 6. The word equation for the formula equation shown is C 2 H 5 OH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy a. carbon dioxide + water ethanol + oxygen + energy. b. ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy. c. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water. d. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water + energy. 7. The state of matter for a reactant or a product in a chemical equation is indicated by a a. coefficient before the formula. c. symbol after the formula. b. subscript after the formula. d. superscript after the formula. 8. The reaction, C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O, will occur most rapidly if a. C 2 H 5 OH is a liquid and O 2 is a liquid. c. CO 2 is a gas and H 2 O is a liquid. b. C 2 H 5 OH and O 2 are in close contact. d. CO 2 is a gas and H 2 O is a gas. 9. An insoluble solid produced by a chemical reaction in solution is called a. a precipitate. c. a molecule. b. a reactant. d. the mass of the product. 10. How would oxygen be represented in the formula equation for the reaction of methane and oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water? a. oxygen c. O 2 b. O d. O 3 1

2 Name: 11. The products of the reaction, C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O have the same as the reactants. a. atoms. c. molecules. b. coefficients. d. subscripts. 12. After the correct formula for a reactant in an equation has been written, the a. subscripts are adjusted to balance the equation. b. formula should not be changed. c. same formula must appear as the product. d. symbols in the formula must not appear on the product side of the equation. 13. To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the a. coefficients. c. formulas of the products. b. subscripts. d. number of products. 14. A chemical equation is balanced when the a. coefficients of the reactants equal the coefficients of the products. b. same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products. c. products and reactants are the same chemicals. d. subscripts of the reactants equal the subscripts of the products. 15. After the first steps in writing an equation, the equation is balanced by a. adjusting subscripts to the formula(s). b. adjusting coefficients to the smallest whole-number ratio. c. changing the products formed. d. making the number of reactants equal to the number of products. 16. What is the balanced equation when aluminum reacts with copper(ii) sulfate? a. Al + Cu 2 S Al 2 S + Cu c. Al + CuSO 4 AlSO 4 + Cu b. 2Al + 3CuSO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Cu d. 2Al + Cu 2 SO 4 Al 2 SO 4 + 2Cu 17. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g)? a. 1, 1, 1 c. 2, 6, 3 b. 1, 3, 1 d. 3, 1, Which equation is NOT balanced? a. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O c. H 2 + H 2 + O 2 H 2 O + H 2 O b. 4H 2 + 2O 2 4H 2 O d. 2H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 19. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation NH 4 NO 2 N 2 + H 2 O? a. 1, 2, 2 c. 2, 1, 1 b. 1, 1, 2 d. 2, 2, Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2? a. 2, 1, 2 c. 1, 2, 1 b. 1, 2, 3 d. 1, 1, Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation Zn(OH) 2 + CH 3 COOH Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 + H 2 O? a. 1, 2, 1, 1 c. 1, 2, 1, 2 b. 2, 1, 2, 1 d. 2, 1, 1, A reaction of a hydrocarbon, in which carbon dioxide and water are produced, is classified as a a. decomposition reaction. c. double-displacement reaction. b. combustion reaction. d. synthesis reaction. 23. In what kind of reaction do two or more substances combine to form a new compound? a. decomposition reaction c. double-displacement reaction b. ionic reaction d. synthesis reaction 2

3 Name: 24. The equation A + X AX is the general equation for a(n) a. combustion reaction. c. synthesis reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. double-displacement reaction. 25. In what kind of reaction does a single compound produce two or more simpler substances? a. decomposition reaction c. displacement reaction b. synthesis reaction d. ionic reaction 26. The reaction 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. combustion reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. ionic reaction. 27. In what kind of reaction does one element replace a similar element in a compound? a. displacement reaction c. decomposition reaction b. combustion d. ionic reaction 28. The equation A + BX AX + B is the general equation for a a. double-displacement reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. combustion reaction. 29. The reaction Cl 2 (g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br 2 (l) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. combustion reaction. 30. What is the name of a list of elements arranged according to the ease with which they undergo certain chemical reactions? a. reactivity list c. activity series b. reaction sequence d. periodic list 31. An element in the activity series can replace any element a. in the periodic table. c. above it on the list. b. below it on the list. d. in its group. 32. What can be predicted by using an activity series? a. whether a certain chemical reaction will occur b. the amount of energy released by a chemical reaction c. the electronegativity values of elements d. the melting points of elements 33. If metal X is lower than metal Y in the activity series, then metal X a. replaces ions of metal Y in a solution. b. is more active than metal Y. c. is less active than metal Y. d. forms positive ions more readily than does metal Y. 34. A precipitate forms in a double-displacement reaction when a. hydrogen gas reacts with a metal. b. positive ions combine with negative ions. c. water boils out of the solution. d. a gas escapes. Completion Complete each statement. 35. A solid produced by a chemical reaction that then separates from the solution is called a(n). 3

4 Name: 36. In writing a formula equation for a reaction that produces hydrogen gas, the correct representation of hydrogen gas is. 37. A catalyst for a reaction is indicated by a written over the arrow in a chemical equation. 38. The mass of the products of the reaction C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O equals the mass of the reactants because the products are made up of the same as the reactants. 39. In an equation, the symbol for a substance in water solution is. 40. In the chemical equation 2AlCl 3 (aq) + 3Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 3PbCl 2 (s) + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq), the state of PbCl 2 is a(n). 41. In the chemical reaction 2Cr(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2CrO 3 (s), two chromium atoms combine with oxygen atoms. 42. The small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation is called a(n). 43. When balancing a chemical equation, insert coefficients to make the number of atoms of each of the in the products equal to that of the reactants. 44. When the formula equation Fe3O 4 + Al Al2O 3 + Fe is correctly balanced, the coefficient of Fe is. 45. When the formula equation H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) HCl(g) is correctly balanced, the coefficient of HCl is. 46. When the formula equation Zn(OH) 2 + CH 3 COOH Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 + H 2 O is correctly balanced, the coefficient of Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 is. 47. When the formula equation CuSO 4 (aq) + Fe(s) Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + Cu(s) is correctly balanced, the coefficient of CuSO 4 (aq) is. 48. The reaction 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g) 2MgO(s) is classified as a(n) reaction. 49. The reaction 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O 2 (g) is classified as a(n) reaction. 50. The equation AX A + X is the general equation for a(n) reaction. 51. The reaction Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H 2 (g) + MgCl 2 (aq) is classified as a(n) reaction. 52. When placed in water, a metal more active than hydrogen will form two substances, a metal hydroxide and gas. 53. In a(n) reaction, ions of two compounds exchange places in aqueous solution to form new compounds. 54. The equation AX + BY AY + BX is the general equation for a(n) reaction. 55. Ions that are present in solution in which a reaction is taking place but that do not participate in the reaction are called. 56. In the chemical equation 2AlCl 3 (aq) + 3Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 3PbCl 2 (s) + 2Al(NO 3 ) 2 (aq), the spectator ions are and. 4

5 Name: Short Answer 57. When a glass blower shapes molten glass into an ornament, does a chemical reaction occur? Explain. 58. Use a word equation to describe the chemical reaction that takes place when an iron can rusts. 59. Photosynthesis is the process plants use to make glucose and oxygen gas from carbon dioxide and water only in the presence of light. Write a word equation for the reaction. 60. Consider the reaction 4CuO(s) + CH 4 (g) Δ 4Cu(s) + CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g). Describe this reaction in terms of states of matter and the conditions required for the reaction to happen. 61. In the process of dissolving, KI(aq) + heat K + (aq) + I (aq), what will happen to the temperature of the mixture as the KI dissolves? 62. When balancing a chemical equation, why must the formula subscripts remain unchanged? 63. Why may spectator ions be omitted in net ionic equations? 64. Describe the advantages involved in expressing double-displacement reactions with net ionic equations rather than with total ionic equations. Problem 65. Write a balanced chemical equation for the following reaction. iron plus copper(i) nitrate yields iron(ii) nitrate plus copper. 66. Write a balanced chemical equation for the following reaction. mercury(ii) oxide (heated) yields mercury + oxygen 67. Write a balanced chemical equation for the following chemical reaction. methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water 68. In the synthesis of acetylene gas, C 2 H 2, hydrogen and carbon are heated together. Write the balanced equation for this reaction. Include states of matter. 69. Write a balanced equation for the synthesis of liquid phosphorus trichloride, PCl 3, from white phosphorus, P 4, and chlorine gas. 70. Tell what type of chemical reaction is represented by the following chemical equation. Then balance the equation. C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) Δ CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) 71. Tell what type of chemical reaction is represented by the following chemical equation. Then balance the equation. Ga(s) + S(s) Δ Ga 2 S 3 (s) 5

6 Name: Table 1: Solubility Rules All compounds of Group 1 and NH 4 + are soluble. All nitrates are soluble. All halides, except those of Ag + and Pb 2+ are soluble. All sulfates, except those of Group 2, Ag +, and Pb 2+, are soluble. All carbonates, except those of Group 1 and NH 4+, are soluble. 72. Write the total ionic equation and net ionic equation for the reaction of barium nitrate and sodium sulfate. Refer to Table Write the total ionic equation and net ionic equation for the reaction of sodium hydroxide and potassium bromide. Refer to Table Write the total ionic equation and net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate and potassium chloride. Refer to Table 1. 6

7 Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C 2. ANS: D 3. ANS: D 4. ANS: B 5. ANS: C 6. ANS: B 7. ANS: C 8. ANS: B 9. ANS: A 10. ANS: C 11. ANS: A 12. ANS: B 13. ANS: A 14. ANS: B 15. ANS: B 16. ANS: B 17. ANS: A 18. ANS: D 19. ANS: B 20. ANS: D 21. ANS: C 22. ANS: B 23. ANS: D 24. ANS: C 25. ANS: A 26. ANS: B 27. ANS: A 28. ANS: C 29. ANS: C 30. ANS: C 31. ANS: B 32. ANS: A 33. ANS: C 34. ANS: B COMPLETION 35. ANS: precipitate 1

8 36. ANS: H 2 (g) 37. ANS: chemical formula 38. ANS: atoms 39. ANS: (aq) 40. ANS: solid 41. ANS: six 42. ANS: coefficient 43. ANS: elements 44. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: synthesis 49. ANS: decomposition 50. ANS: decomposition 51. ANS: displacement 2

9 52. ANS: hydrogen 53. ANS: double-displacement 54. ANS: double-displacement 55. ANS: spectator ions 56. ANS: Al 3+, NO 3 SHORT ANSWER 57. ANS: A chemical reaction does not occur. Analysis of the molten glass and the glass in the ornament would reveal that both substances have the same chemical properties. 58. ANS: iron + oxygen iron(iii) oxide (rust) 59. ANS: carbon dioxide + water sunlight glucose + oxygen 60. ANS: Solid CuO and gaseous CH 4 are combined and heated. The products are solid copper, carbon dioxide gas, and water vapor. 61. ANS: The temperature of the solution will drop. 62. ANS: Changing the subscript in a formula changes the chemical composition of the compound. 3

10 63. ANS: Net ionic equations omit ions that appear on both sides of the equation because they are not involved in the reaction. 64. ANS: Total ionic equations can be very complex and confusing. A net ionic equation removes spectator ions and shows only the substances involved in the reaction. PROBLEM 65. ANS: Fe + 2CuNO 3 Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Cu 66. ANS: 2HgO Δ 2Hg + O ANS: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 68. ANS: 2C(s) + H 2 (g) Δ C 2 H 2 (g) 69. ANS: P 4 (s) + 6Cl 2 (g) 4PCl 3 (l) 70. ANS: combustion, C3H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 71. ANS: synthesis, 2Ga(s) + 3S(s) Δ 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(l) Δ Ga 2 S 3 (s) 4

11 72. ANS: Balanced Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) Total ionic Ba 2 +(aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + 2Na + (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) Net ionic Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 73. ANS: Balanced KBr(aq) + NaOH(aq) KOH(aq) + NaBr(aq) Total ionic K + (aq) + Br (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH (aq) K + (aq) + OH (aq) + Na + (aq) + Br (aq) Net ionic none 74. ANS: Balanced AgNO 3 (aq) + KCl(aq) AgCl(s) + KNO 3 (aq) Total ionic Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) + K + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) + K + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Net ionic Ag+(aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) 5

12 Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide [Answer Strip] A 11. C 24. B 12. A 25. C 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. A 13. B 14. B 15. B 26. A 27. C 28. C 29. C 30. C 5. B 6. B 16. A 17. D 18. B 31. A 32. C 7. B 8. A 9. B 19. D 20. C 21. C 33. B 34. C 10. B 22. D 23.

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