What is a Chemical Reaction?

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1 Lab 8 Name What is a Chemical Reaction? Macroscopic Indications and Symbolic Representations Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 25% (5 POINTS) of your lab report grade and must be turned in to your lab instructor before class begins. 1. Read the entire lab handout. 2. Make a table listing the names and chemical formulas of all chemicals used in this lab. Do not include any chemicals that will not be physically present in the lab. 3. Make a table listing the suspected safety hazards in today s lab AND the safety precautions that should be taken to protect yourself from these hazards. 4. Write a brief summary of each experiment that will be performed today. 5. Answer the following questions: a. What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change? b. What are some possible macroscopic indications of a chemical changes? c. Summarize the physical and chemical properties of oxygen and hydrogen. You ll have to look this up, so cite your source for this information. d. What do phase labels such as (s), (l), (g), and (aq) indicate? What is the difference between (l) and (aq)? Experimental Questions What are the macroscopic indications of a chemical reaction? How can a chemical reaction be represented symbolically? Learning goals Describe and classify the six types of chemical reactions observed in this lab. Write the balanced chemical equations for each reaction performed in each experiment. Discuss the physical changes that may indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. Background Chemical reactions are classified in a number of ways. One classification is accomplished by comparing the number of the products to the reactants. For example, the two elements aluminum and oxygen will react to form one product, aluminum oxide. This is classified as a synthesis or combination reaction. (1) Al (s) + O 2 (g) Al 2 O 3 (s) (Not balanced) The opposite occurs when one reactant breaks down into two or more simpler parts, as in the case of glucose, which caramelizes to form carbon and water when exposed to heat. This is classified as a decomposition reaction. (2) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C (s) + H 2 O (g) (Not balanced) Two types of replacement reactions take place in solution. The first case is illustrated when calcium metal is added to a water. The calcium metal donates two electrons to the water, which splits into H + and OH - ions. The two hydrogen ions accept the electrons from calcium forming hydrogen gas. The calcium seems to dissolve since Ca 2+ ions are soluble in water. The calcium ions and remaining hydroxide ions form the other new product. This is classified as a single replacement reaction. In single replacement reactions, one reactant is always an element. (3) Ca (s) + H 2 O (l) H 2 (g) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) (Not balanced ) A second type of aqueous replacement reaction may occur when two solutions are mixed and the cations and anions switch places forming either a precipitating solid, a gas, or water. This type of reaction is illustrated by the reaction of aqueous barium and aqueous sodium sulfate. Upon mixing, the barium ion is free to associate with the sulfate ion, forming barium sulfate, which is extremely insoluble in water. When the barium sulfate drops out of solution, the aqueous sodium ion remains with the aqueous nitrate ion. In effect the ions have changed partners, and a double replacement reaction has occurred. Double replacement reactions always involve two ionic compounds. (4) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + NaNO 3 (aq) (Not balanced)

2 General Chemistry Lab 8: What is a Chemical Reaction? 2 Acids can react with carbonates or bicarbonates to form an ionic compound, carbon dioxide gas, plus one or more molecules of water, such as when sulfuric acid reacts with sodium carbonate. (5) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Na 2 CO 3 (s) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) + CO 2 (g) Combustion reactions occur when a compound reacts with oxygen and produces heat. For example, ethanol burns in the presence of oxygen and produces a great deal of heat. (6) CH 3 CH 2 OH (l) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) (Not balanced) Procedure My lab partner is: Use the space after each experimental procedure to record detailed qualitative and quantitative observations in ink. Be sure to make observations of reagents before the reaction, describe what happens during the reaction, and describe the products of the reaction. Answer the Critical Thinking Questions in order as they are listed during the procedure. Experiment 1: Magnesium metal and oxygen gas react upon heating to form solid magnesium oxide. 1. Obtain about 5.0 cm (2 in) strip of magnesium ribbon and an evaporating dish at your bench. 2. Light a Bunsen burner. Use crucible tongs to hold the metal ribbon and light the end in the flame. 3. Once the ribbon ignites, hold it over the evaporating dish. Avoid looking directly into the flame. Be sure to record the color and intensity of the flame produced. 4. Waste materials may be disposed of in the trash. Critical Thinking Question 1: Where does the oxygen come from for this reaction? Critical Thinking Question 2: For this chemical reaction, what are the formulas for the reactants and products? What is the phase for each reactant and product? (Note: what is the difference between a formula and a chemical equation?) Critical Thinking Question 3: Is the energy (heat) associated with the bright white light in this reaction produced by the reaction or required for the reaction to begin? Explain. For the rest of the experiments in which heat is involved, note in your qualitative observations whether heat is produced or required for the reaction. (This will help you later when you classify the reactions.)

3 General Chemistry Lab 8: What is a Chemical Reaction? 3 Experiment 2: Solid potassium chlorate reacts upon heating to produce oxygen gas and solid potassium chloride. 1. Set up a test tube clamp on a ring stand. 2. Take a clean, dry test tube to your instructor, who will give you a sample of potassium chlorate. 3. Clamp the test tube so that the mouth is pointed toward the wall, away from people. Do not overtighten. Get a Bunsen burner ready to light beneath the test tube. 4. HAVE YOUR INSTRUCTOR INSPECT YOUR SET-UP BEFORE LIGHTING THE BURNER. 5. Heat the test tube gradually until the sample melts and appears to boil. Instructor initials 6. Heat more vigorously until a steady stream of vapor can be seen escaping from the test tube. 7. Light a wooden splint in the flame and allow to burn in air for a few seconds. Blow out the flame and hold the glowing splint in the vapor stream just inside the mouth of the test tube. DO NOT DROP THE SPLINT INTO THE REACTION MIXTURE. Be sure to record the color and intensity of the flame produced. Repeat several times until the reaction stops. 8. Turn off the gas at the outlet, and record observations as the liquid in the test tube as it cools down. 9. Allow the test tube to cool until you can no longer feel heat rising from it. Waste materials are soluble in water and may be rinsed out in the sink. Keep the setup for the next experiment. Critical Thinking Question 4: For this chemical reaction, what are the formulas for the reactants and products? What is the phase for each reactant and product? Experiment 3: Sodium bicarbonate reacts upon heating to form carbon dioxide gas, water vapor, and solid sodium carbonate. 1. Keep the same ring stand set-up as for experiment #2. Take a clean test tube and obtain a 1-inch sample of sodium bicarbonate from the common area. 2. Clamp the test tube as before, pointing to the wall and away from others. Light the burner and heat as before. It is not necessary to wait for the instructor. The vapor stream will not be visible. 3. Test for the presence of carbon dioxide gas by holding a flaming (not just glowing) splint just inside the mouth of the test tube. If carbon dioxide is present, the flame will go out. Continue heating gently until you get a positive indication that the carbon dioxide is present. 4. Allow the test tube to cool until you can no longer detect any heat rising from it. Rinse waste materials down the sink.

4 General Chemistry Lab 8: What is a Chemical Reaction? 4 Critical Thinking Question 5: Why does the flame go out when exposed to carbon dioxide? (Hint: what components are needed to sustain a flame? Are they all present when the flame goes out?) Critical Thinking Question 6: For this chemical reaction, what are the formulas for the reactants and products? What is the phase for each reactant and product? Experiment 4: (A) Aqueous hydrochloric acid is neutralized by sodium bicarbonate to form water, carbon dioxide gas, and aqueous sodium chloride. (B) Zinc metal reacts with aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce aqueous zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. (C) Hydrogen gas burns in the presence of oxygen to form water vapor. 1. Work in the hood. Use a flask to support a large test tube. 2. Reaction A: Sprinkle some sodium bicarbonate into a watch glass and add a few drops of HCl. 3. Reaction B: Use the pipet provided in the hood to fill your test tube one-third full with the 6M hydrochloric acid. (CAUTION: CORROSIVE!) 4. Use forceps to add 2-3 small pieces of zinc to the acid in the test tube. Observe the evolution of the hydrogen gas. Use the test tube holder to grasp the test tube and feel the bottom of it. 5. Reaction C: When vapors created by the reaction of zinc and HCl spill out of the test tube, test them with a match or flaming splint just inside the mouth of the test tube. Repeat the test several times to determine the time interval required to get a vigorous reaction. 6. Use a test tube holder to pour the waste materials from part B into a large beaker in the hood. Carefully rinse the test tube, flask, and watch glass four or five times in the sink. Avoid splashing. Report any spills to the instructor. Critical Thinking Question 7: A chemical reaction occurred when the flame was exposed to the reaction B product. What substances were reacting? Critical Thinking Question 8: What are the formulas for the reactants and products for each of the three reactions in this experiment? What is the phase for each reactant and product? A B C A B C

5 General Chemistry Lab 8: What is a Chemical Reaction? 5 Experiment 5: Aqueous solutions of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate react to form a solution of potassium nitrate and a solid precipitate of lead (II) iodide. 1. Use a flask or test tube rack to support a large test tube. Obtain sample bottles of lead nitrate solution and potassium iodide solution. Add 1-2 inches of the aqueous potassium iodide to the test tube. 2. Use a dropper to add 5 drops of the lead nitrate (CAUTION: TOXIC!) to the solution in the test tube. Allow to stand for several minutes to determine if it is a homogeneous solution or heterogeneous mixture of a solid and a liquid. 3. Dispose of the contents of the test tube in the proper waste container. Rinse the test tube as many times as necessary with small amounts of water from a wash bottle, being sure to chase the material into the waste container. Report all spills to your instructor. Critical Thinking Question 9: For this chemical reaction, what are the formulas for the reactants and products? What is the phase for each reactant and product? Clean all equipment and glassware. Return materials to the community area. Wipe down the lab bench. Return the key to the front desk. Do not remove your safety goggles until ALL GROUPS have finished cleaning up. Obtain instructor initials before leaving the lab. Instructor Initials

6 General Chemistry Lab 8: What is a Chemical Reaction? 6 Data Analysis Organize your results in a table. Column headings should be Experiment Number, Balanced Chemical Equation, Macroscopic Observations, and Reaction Type. Be sure to include phase labels in your balanced chemical equations. There are a total of seven chemical reactions, so there will be 7 rows of data. For the Macroscopic Observations section, summarize or bullet the physical and chemical changes accompanying the reaction. Be brief. You do NOT need to use complete sentences. In the Reaction Type section, classify each reaction as completely as possible. Note that one reaction may fall into two categories. Questions Answer the following questions on a separate sheet and attach to the lab report. These may be typed or neatly and legibly handwritten. 1. According to your chemical equation for the reaction in experiment 1, should the product of the magnesium reaction weigh more or less than the original strip of metal? Explain. What law of chemistry would justify your answer? What measurements are necessary to verify your hypothesis? 2. How does the appearance of oxygen gas differ from the description you looked up? Explain how evidence from the experiment you performed supports the conclusion that oxygen was indeed formed in the reaction. 3. As the hydrochloric acid reacts with zinc to produce the hydrogen gas, what is happening to the zinc metal? ( It dissolves or It disappears is not a sufficient answer; what is happening on an atomic level that allows it to dissolve?) 4. Why is it necessary to wait for an interval to re-ignite the hydrogen gas? Did you observe any evidence of the presence of the product of this reaction? Explain. 5. The vibrant color in experiment 5 is due to the presence of lead [II] iodide. Why is this pigment no longer used in yellow pencils? 6. Why do you think is it necessary to write the correct formulas for compounds and to correctly balance a chemical reaction equation? 7. Explain how any aspect of this lab relates to life outside the lab. Lab Report The lab report includes the following stapled in order: 1. This handout. 2. Data Analysis and Questions written or typed on a separate sheet.

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