Chemical Reactions and Equations

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1 Chemical Reactions and Equations Thousands of chemical reactions take place in nature, in industrial processes, and in laboratories. They are described by Chemical Equations. There are two sides to a chemical equation separated by an arrow. The arrow is interpreted to mean produces or yields. Those formulas written to the left of the arrow are called reactants. The formulas written on the right side of the arrow are called products. Reactants Products The following equation describes the production of Ammonia from its diatomic elements Nitrogen and Hydrogen. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) Often, the states of the reactants and products are indicated in parentheses after the symbols and formulas. The states and abbreviations include (s) for solid, (l) for liquid, (g) for gases, and (aq) for materials dissolved in water solutions. According to the Law of Conservation of Matter, atoms are not created or destroyed during chemical reactions. The same number of atoms of each type of element need to be present before and after the reaction occurs. The numbers written in front of the compounds are called coefficients. They indicate how many molecules (or moles) of a compound are present in a balanced chemical equation.

2 Balancing Chemical Equations is mainly a trial and error process. The coefficients are all that can be changed in order to bring an equation into balance. The subscripts are determined by the formula for each compound. To obtain the total number of atoms, the coefficient is multiplied by each subscript. It can help to visualize the balancing process by using sketches to represent each atom as shown below. N H 2 2 NH 3 As indicated by the sketch, two Nitrogen atoms represented by the white circles are present before and after the reaction. Also, six atoms of Hydrogen are present before and after the reaction. On a molecular basis, the balanced equation shows that one diatomic Nitrogen molecule and three diatomic Hydrogen molecules combine to produce two molecules of Ammonia. On a molar basis, the equation shows that one mole of diatomic Nitrogen combines with three moles of diatomic Hydrogen to produce two moles of Ammonia. Types of Chemical Reactions There are various ways to classify chemical reactions. One way to organize chemical reactions is to divide them into five major categories: 1) Combination Reactions, 2) Decomposition Reactions, 3) Single Replacement Reactions, 4) Double Replacement Reactions, and 5) Combustion Reactions.

3 Combination Reactions (also known as synthesis reactions) occur when simpler reactants join together to create more complicated products. The reaction considered previously for the production of ammonia falls into this category. Two elements are combined to form a single product. N H 2 2 NH 3 Decomposition Reactions represent the opposite process of combination reactions. In these reactions a larger more complex set of reactants breaks into simpler products. A reaction of this type occurs when Hydrogen Peroxide H 2 O 2 is applied to a cut. 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O + O 2 Single Replacement Reactions involve one element substituting for another in a compound. The reactions between metals and Hydrochloric Acid HCl are good examples of this kind of reaction. 2Al + 6 HCl 2 AlCl 3 + 3H 2 In the reaction above, the Aluminum replaces Hydrogen in combination with Chlorine. Double Replacement reactions involve two compounds swapping parts. 3 BaCl Na 3 PO 4 Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6NaCl The Barium ion was originally paired with the chloride anion, and it ends up being combined with the Phosphate ion in the products. Sodium, which was originally paired with the phosphate, ion ends up with the chloride ion. Each product still contains one positive and one negative ion. Note that the subscripts for the products still maintain correct neutrality according to the ion charges. Combustion Reactions all share the same pattern: Hydrocarbon + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O The combustion of propane can be balanced as follows C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO H 2 O

4 Topic 14: Chemical Reactions and Equation Practice Exercises 1. Balance and classify the following equations. K 3 PO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (S) + KCl Type C 5 H 12 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O NaHCO 3 Na 2 O + CO 2 Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + Fe Cu + Fe(NO 3 ) 3 Key Type 2K 3PO 4(aq) + 3BaCl 2(aq) Ba 3(PO 4) 2(S) + 6 KCl double rep. C 5H O 2 5CO 2 + 6H 2O combination 3Ca(OH) 2 + 2H 3PO 4 Ca 3(PO 4) 2 + 6H 2O double rep. 2NaHCO 3 Na 2O + 2CO 2 + H 2O decomposition Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 single repl. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2O combination 3Cu(NO 3) 2 + 2Fe 3Cu + 2Fe(NO 3) 3 single rep.

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