Kinetics/Equilibrium Review

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1 1. What is required for a chemical reaction to occur? A) standard temperature and pressure B) a catalyst added to the reaction system C) effective collisions between reactant particles D) an equal number of moles of reactants and products 2. For a given chemical reaction, the addition of a catalyst provides a different reaction pathway that A) decreases the reaction rate and has a higher B) decreases the reaction rate and has a lower C) increases the reaction rate and has a higher D) increases the reaction rate and has a lower 3. Which compound is formed from its elements by an exothermic reaction at 298 K and kpa? A) C2H4(g) B) HI(g) C) H2O(g) D) NO2(g) 4. Which type of reaction releases the greatest amount of energy per mole of reactant? A) combustion B) decomposition C) nuclear fusion D) oxidation-reduction 5. In a chemical reaction, the difference between the potential energy of the products and the potential energy of the reactants is equal to the A) B) kinetic energy C) heat of reaction D) rate of reaction 6. Given the potential energy diagram representing a reversible reaction: The for the reverse reaction is represented by A) A + B B) B + C C) B + D D) C + D 7. Given the equation and potential energy diagram representing a reaction: If each interval on the axis labeled "Potential Energy (kj/mol)" represents 10. kj/mol, what is the heat of reaction? A) +60. kj/mol B) +20. kj/mol C) +30. kj/mol D) +40. kj/mol

2 8. Which statement describes a chemical reaction at equilibrium? A) The products are completely consumed in the reaction. B) The reactants are completely consumed in the reaction. C) The concentrations of the products and reactants are equal. D) The concentrations of the products and reactants are constant. 9. Given the diagram representing a closed system at constant temperature: 11. Some solid KNO3 remains at the bottom of a stoppered flask containing a saturated KNO3(aq) solution at 22 C. Which statement explains why the contents of the flask are at equilibrium? A) The rate of dissolving is equal to the rate of crystallization. B) The rate of dissolving is greater than the rate of crystallization. C) The concentration of the solid is equal to the concentration of the solution. D) The concentration of the solid is greater than the concentration of the solution. 12. Given the equation representing a reaction at equilibrium: N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Which statement describes this system at equilibrium? A) The mass of H2O( ) equals the mass of H2O(g). B) The volume of H2O( ) equals the volume of H2 O(g). C) The number of moles of H2O( ) equals the number of moles of H2O(g). D) The rate of evaporation of H2O( ) equals the rate of condensation of H2O(g). 10. Given the equation representing a closed system: N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) Which statement describes this system at equilibrium? A) The volume of the NO2(g) is greater than the volume of the N2O4(g). B) The volume of the NO2(g) is less than the volume of the N2O4(g). C) The rate of the forward reaction and the rate of the reverse reaction are equal. D) The rate of the forward reaction and the rate of the reverse reaction are unequal. What occurs when the concentration of H2(g) is increased? A) The equilibrium shifts to the left, and the concentration of N2(g) decreases. B) The equilibrium shifts to the left, and the concentration of N2(g) increases. C) The equilibrium shifts to the right, and the concentration of N2(g) decreases. D) The equilibrium shifts to the right, and the concentration of N2(g) increases 13. Which equation represents a change that results in an increase in disorder? A) I2(s) I2(g) B) CO2(g) CO2(s) C) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s) D) 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O( ) 14. Systems in nature tend to undergo changes toward A) lower energy and lower entropy B) lower energy and higher entropy C) higher energy and lower entropy D) higher energy and higher entropy 15. Based on Reference Table J, which two reactants react spontaneously? A) Mg(s) + ZnCl2(aq) B) Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq) C) Pb(s) + ZnCl2(aq) D) Co(s) + NaCl(aq)

3 Base your answers to questions 16 and 17 on the information below. At standard pressure, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, melts at 0.4 C, boils at 151 C, and is very soluble in water. A bottle of aqueous hydrogen peroxide, H2O2(aq), purchased from a pharmacy has a pressure-releasing cap. Aqueous hydrogen peroxide decomposes at room temperature, as represented by the balanced equation below. 2H2O2(aq) 2H2O( ) + O2(g) kj 16. Explain why a hydrogen peroxide bottle needs a pressure-releasing cap. 17. State evidence that indicates the decomposition of H2O2(aq) is exothermic. Base your answers to questions 18 and 19 on the information below. Several steps are involved in the industrial production of sulfuric acid. One step involves the oxidation of sulfur dioxide gas to form sulfur trioxide gas. A catalyst is used to increase the rate of production of sulfur trioxide gas. In a rigid cylinder with a movable piston, this reaction reaches equilibrium, as represented by the equation below. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) «2SO3(g) kj 18. State, in terms of the concentration of SO3(g), what occurs when more O2(g) is added to the reaction at equilibrium. 19. Explain, in terms of collision theory, why increasing the pressure of the gases in the cylinder increases the rate of the forward reaction.

4 20. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. At 550 C, 1.00 mole of CO2(g) and 1.00 mole of H2(g) are placed in a 1.00-liter reaction vessel. The substances react to form CO(g) and H2O(g). Changes in the concentrations of the reactants and the concentrations of the products are shown in the graph below. What can be concluded from the graph about the concentrations of the reactants and the concentrations of the products between time t 1 and time t 2? 21. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. The balanced equation below represents the decomposition of potassium chlorate. 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) State why the entropy of the reactant is less than the entropy of the products.

5 22. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. The diagram below shows typical ph values found in four parts of the human digestive system. In the small intestine, the enzyme lipase acts as a catalyst, increasing the rate of fat digestion. State how the catalyst lipase increases the rate of the fat digestion. 23. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. Calcium reacts with water. This reaction is represented by the balanced equation below. The aqueous product of this reaction can be heated to evaporate the water, leaving a white solid, Ca(OH)2 (s). Ca(s) + 2H2O( ) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) State one change in reaction conditions that will increase the rate of the reaction.

6 Answer Key Kinetics Review 1. C 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. D 10. C 11. A 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. A 16. —The excess pressure due to the production of oxygen gas in the bottle needs to be gradually released. —As O 2(g) is produced, the pressure inside of the bottle might increase and the bottle might burst without the pressure-releasing cap. 17. —More energy is released than absorbed. — Heat is a product of the reaction. 18. The concentration of SO3(g) increases. 19. When the pressure in the cylinder is increased, the SO2(g) molecules and O2(g) molecules collide more frequently, producing more SO3(g). 20. Between time t 1 and time t 2, the concentrations of the reactants and the concentrations of the products are no longer changing. The concentrations of the reactants and the products remain constant. The concentration of each reactant is 0.73 mol/l, and the concentration of each product is 0.27 mol/l. 21. The gaseous product is more disordered than the solid reactant. The solid reactant is more ordered than the products. 22. —The lipase provides an alternate reaction pathway that requires less energy. —lower 23. —Increase the temperature of the water. — Increase the surface area of Ca(s).

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