Monday, October 15th. Today: Chapter Frequency: BB Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1

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1 Today: Chapter Monday, October 15th Frequency: BB 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 1

2 Chemical Change- Section 6.1 A chemical change occurs when a substance is converted into one or more new substances. Chemical changes can be recognized by a change in color, the formation of a solid, or the formation of bubbles. A chemical change produces new substances. When silver (Ag) reacts with sulfur (S), it produces silver sulfide (Ag 2 S) Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 2

3 Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement of atoms. produces one or more new substances. can be observed by the appearance of new physical properties. A chemical reaction forms new products with different properties. An antacid (NaHCO 3 ) tablet in water forms bubbles of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 3

4 Writing a Chemical Equation A chemical equation tells us what substances react (reactants) and what substances are formed (products). Ex: burning charcoal on a grill 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 4

5 Writing a Chemical Equation Reaction for burning charcoal C(s) + O 2 (g) reactants CO 2 (g) product (+) used when there is two or more products or reactants heat is used to start the reaction (s) the compound is a solid (l) the compound is a liquid (g) the compound is a gas (aq) aqueous, the compound is dissolved in water 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 5

6 Equation for a Chemical Reaction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 6

7 Balanced Chemical Equations In a balanced chemical equation, the number of atoms in the reactants is equal to the number of atoms in the products for each element Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 7

8 Balancing Chemical Equations To balance a chemical equation, whole number coefficients are placed in front of the chemical formulas. coefficients in front of a molecule represent the multiple of that molecule needed in a balanced reaction. subscripts are never changed Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 8

9 Checking a Balanced Equation Reactants Products Atoms C 1 1 Atoms H 4 4 Atoms O 4 4 balanced balanced balanced 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 9

10 Guide to Balancing a Chemical Equation 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 10

11 Steps to Balancing a Chemical Equation Balance the following chemical reaction: Ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) burns in the presence of oxygen gas(o 2 ) to produce steam (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas. Step 1 Write an equation using the correct formulas of the reactants and products Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 11

12 Steps to Balancing a Chemical Equation Step 2 Count the atoms of each element in the reactants and products. Reactants Products Atoms of C 2 1 Atoms of H 6 2 Atoms of O 3 3 not balanced not balanced balanced 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 12

13 Steps to Balancing a Chemical Equation Step 3 Use coefficients to balance each element. Step 4 Check the final equation to confirm it is balanced. Create a balance sheet to count atoms of each element. Reactants Products Atoms of C 2 2 Atoms of H 6 6 Atoms of O 7 7 balanced balanced balanced 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 13

14 Learning Check Determine if each equation is balanced or not Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 14

15 Solution Determine if each equation is balanced or not. Reactants Products Atoms of Na 1 3 Atoms of N 2 1 not balanced not balanced Since different numbers of Na and N atoms are present in the reactants and products, the equation is not balanced Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 15

16 Solution Determine if each equation is balanced or not. Reactants Products Atoms of C 2 2 Atoms of H 6 6 Atoms of O 1 1 balanced balanced balanced Since the same numbers of C, H and O atoms are present in the reactants and products, the equation is balanced Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 16

17 Learning Check Write a balanced equation for the reaction of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) with hydrogen gas (H 2 ) to form ammonia gas (NH 3 ) Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 17

18 Solution Write a balanced equation for the reaction of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) with hydrogen gas (H 2 ) to form ammonia gas (NH 3 ). Step 1 Write an equation using the correct formulas of the reactants and products. Step 2 Count the atoms of each element in the reactants and products. Reactants Atoms of N 2 1 Atoms of H 2 3 Products not balanced not balanced 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 18

19 Solution Write a balanced equation for the reaction of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) with hydrogen gas (H 2 ) to form ammonia gas (NH 3 ). Step 3 Use coefficients to balance each element. Step 4 Check the final equation to confirm it is balanced. Reactants Products Atoms of N 2 2 Atoms of H 6 6 balanced balanced 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 19

20 Equations with Polyatomic Ions When balancing equations with polyatomic ions that remain the same on both sides of the equation, balance them as a unit Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 20

21 Types of Reactions- Section 6.2 Chemical reactions can be classified as: combination reactions, decomposition reactions, single replacement reactions, double replacement reactions, or combustion reactions Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 21

22 Combination Reaction In a combination reaction, two or more elements (or simple compounds) combine to form one product Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 22

23 Decomposition Reaction In a decomposition reaction, one substance splits into two or more simpler substances Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 23

24 Single Replacement Reaction In a single replacement reaction, one element takes the place of a different element in a reacting compound Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 24

25 Double Replacement Reaction In a double replacement reaction, the two positive ions in the reacting compounds exchange places Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 25

26 Combustion Reaction In a combustion reaction, a carbon-containing compound that is the fuel burns in oxygen from the air to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), and energy in the form of heat or a flame Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 26

27 Summary Reaction Types 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 27

28 Everyday Oxidation Reduction Reactions- Section 6.3 In an oxidation reduction reaction, electrons are transferred from one substance to another. if one substance loses electrons, another substance must gain electrons. Ex: iron rusts Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 28

29 Transfer of Electrons In oxidation reduction reactions, the process of losing electrons is called oxidation. Oxidation Is a Loss of electrons. (OIL) the process of gaining electrons is called reduction. Reduction Is a Gain of electrons. (RIG) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 29

30 Oxidation and Reduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 30

31 Oxidized or Reduced? 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 31

32 Oxidation and Reduction, Formation of CaS In the reaction: the reactant, Ca has a charge of 0 and the product, CaS contains a Ca 2+ ion. calcium loses two electrons, meaning oxidation has taken place Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 32

33 Oxidation and Reduction, Formation of CaS the reactant, S has a charge of 0 and the product, CaS contains an S 2 ion. sulfur gains two electrons, meaning reduction has taken place Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section

34 Oxidation and Reduction, Formation of CaS Adding the two reactions, oxidation and reduction, gives us the overall reaction. The overall reaction is written as: 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 34

35 Zn and Cu 2+ When zinc is added to copper(ii) sulfate, zinc undergoes oxidation, while copper undergoes reduction Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 35

36 Learning Check Identify each of the following reactions as oxidation or reduction Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 36

37 Solution Identify each of the following reactions as oxidation or reduction Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 37

38 Learning Check Identify the substances that are oxidized and reduced in each of the following reactions Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 38

39 Solution Identify the substances that are oxidized and reduced in each of the following reactions. 1. Mg is oxidized. Mg(s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2e H + is reduced. 2H + (aq) + 2e H 2 (g) 2. Al is oxidized. 2Al(s) 2Al 3+ (s) + 6e Br is reduced. 3Br 2 (l) + 6e 6Br (s) 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 39

40 Characteristics of Oxidation and Reduction 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 6, Section 1 40

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