Political Challenges. Economic Struggles

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1 Europe After WWI

2 Political Challenges New democracies struggled Lack of political skill and experience Economic Struggles War casualties caused a decline in both producers and consumers of good Most European nations were in heavy debt to each other and the U.S. Nations followed nationalistic economic rather than cooperative goals Tariffs U.S. and Japanese competition lowered demand for European products

3 Failures of the New Democracies Poland: 1926 military coup Czechoslovakia: struggled with non- Czech ethnic groups Hungary: controlled by a series of aristocrats; ruling party emphasized anti-semitism Austria: political parties, including Nazis, used small armies to terrorize their opponents The Balkans royal dictatorships

4 Communism Established in Russia War Communism: Confiscate banks, transportation systems, and heavy industries. Seized grain to feed troops Repressed all opposition Years of shortage and sacrifice led to strikes and resistance from peasants Red Army crushed a mutiny by Baltic Fleet

5 Communism Established in Russia New Economic Policy (NEP) A retreat from complete communism Peasants could sell grain for profit Light industry and retail shops were also allowed to function for personal profit. Generally unsuccessful

6 Communism Established in Russia Led to disputes in Politburo Left wing (Trotsky) rapid industrialization and collectivized agriculture Exportation of the revolution Right wing (Stalin) Gained support of lower levels of party Supported the NEP and slow industrialization Won control of the Central Committee

7 Split in Socialism Third International (Comintern) Issued 21 Conditions Rejected democratic socialism Adopted the Communist Party name Led to spit among socialist parties all over Europe Intense political battle raged between the two groups Right wing parties capitalized on their public rhetoric

8 Fascism -- Italy Mussolini capitalized on Frustration of Italian veterans who believed Italy had been cheated by the Versailles peace the fear of Communism among middle class, business owners, farmers Political gridlock October, 1922 Black Shirt March on Rome October 29 asked to be Prime Minister November 23 dictatorial authority By 1927 Italy had only one party Fascism was enforced by violence and intimidation

9 Rise of Hitler Struggles of the Weimar Republic Hitler capitalized on the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic and economic struggles 1920 the Twenty-five points Popularized socialism as a subordination of the economy to the welfare of the state Created storm troopers (the SA) to attack communists and intimidate the Republic 1923 attempted a coup; imprisoned Wrote Mein Kampf outlined his program

10 Rise of Hitler Struggles of the Weimar Republic Dawes plan lowered German payments Germany began to prosper Stressemann Sought conciliation with Allies Hoped to recover territories lost through accommodation 1925 Locarno Agreement Germany agreed to western border Italy and Britain promised defense of the border Germany joined the League of Nations 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact

11 France Struggled for Security Conservatives gained power Clemenceau was unpopular because of his failure to dismember Germany Signed alliances with Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland Germany and Russia signed a treaty of cooperation Reinforced French fears January, 1923 France occupied the Ruhr in order to collect reparation Alienated England; led to economic difficulties in France and Germany Conciliatory leftists took power in France (Briand)

12 England Economic troubles 1920s a poor economy Expansion of social welfare programs Neither the Conservative party or Labour Party was able to improve the economy Many social welfare laws and laws to improve the condition of the poor were passed

13 The Irish Question Easter Uprising (April 1916) Leaders executed Sinn Fein took control of the nationalist movement 1918 Sinn Fein formed the Dail Eireann January 1919 declared independence Irish Republican Army formed guerilla war between IRA and British 1921 Irish Free State established as part of British Commonwealth Civil war between moderates and diehards 1932 Irish president abolished the oath of allegiance to British monarch 1949 declared the Republic of Ireland

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