Gaseous Fuel System for On-Road Diesel Engines

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1 Gaseous Fuel System for On-Road Diesel Engines

2 Technology Overview Co-firing of diesel fuel and natural gas 50% ~ 75% natural gas use No engine modifications required Compression ignition no spark plugs No power loss / equivalent efficiencies Retrofit kit Easy to install

3 Technology Overview Continued Designed for severe on-road service Fail-safe design; system automatically defaults to 100% diesel mode Automatic switching of fuel modes Electronic monitoring of critical parameters Compatible with turbocharged and normally aspirated diesel engines

4 Gaseous Fuel Advantages Reduced operating costs Fuel flexibility Vehicle can operate on 100% diesel fuel if required Lower cost vs. spark-ignited gas engines Compatible with compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel storage systems

5 Compatible Diesel Engines 4-cycle Turbocharged Normally aspirated Mechanically fuel injected using in-line pump or common fuel rail some rotary / distributor-type pumps not compatible limited compatibility with electronic engines new kit under development that will be compatible with most electronic diesel engines

6 Typical Applications Buses Refuse haulers Delivery trucks Dump trucks Short-haul cargo carriers (CNG) Long-haul cargo carriers (LNG)

7 GFS Kit Safe by Design All high pressure gas components UL listed and/or CSA approved Gas supplied to engine at atmospheric pressure reducing possibility of over-fueling Gas concentration in engine combustion air is less than 3% by volume mixture is non-explosive / non-flammable until compressed in the combustion chamber CNG / LNG on-board fuel systems have excellent safety history worldwide

8 Natural Gas Overview Pipeline quality natural gas composed primarily of methane (C1) Odorless, colorless, formless gas Lower explosive limit (LEL) 5% by volume Upper explosive limit (UEL) 15% by volume Approximately 1000 Btu per cubic foot Approximately 37 MJ per cubic meter Low energy density compared to diesel fuel

9 Comparison of Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel 1 gallon no. 2 diesel equivalent to 130 standard cubic feet of natural gas 1 liter of no. 2 diesel equivalent to 1 cubic meter of natural gas 1 gallon of liquid natural gas (LNG) equivalent to 0.60 gallon no. 2 diesel 1 liter of liquid natural gas (LNG) equivalent to 0.60 liter no. 2 diesel

10 Gas Ratio vs. Duty Cycle Urban duty cycle typically yields 50% to 65% gas ratio On-highway duty cycle typically yields 65% to 75% gas ratio Mixed duty cycle will result in variable gas ratio

11 Estimating Gas Storage Requirements Typical diesel fuel consumption per day or route Estimated maximum gas substitution for duty cycle Refueling opportunities?

12 Gas Storage Calculation Urban bus using 170 liters of diesel / day Fueled at yard 1 x day Estimated gas ratio of 60% 40% diesel = 68 liters / day (170 x.40) 60% natural gas = 102 cubic meters CNG storage = 102 cubic meters LNG storage = 143 liters (102 liters x 1.4)

13 Fuel Cost Savings Based on cost differential between CNG or LNG and diesel fuel Large cost differential between diesel and CNG or LNG results in rapid ROI High fuel consumption applications result in larger savings Light-duty diesels may not generate adequate savings due to low fuel consumption

14 Calculating Fuel Cost Savings Cost of diesel / unit Cost of CNG or LNG / equivalent energy unit Average daily diesel consumption before conversion Average daily diesel consumption + average daily CNG or LNG consumption after conversion Savings / day x operating days / year = savings per year

15 Sample Saving Analysis Assumptions: Urban bus duty cycle Normal daily diesel consumption of 170 liters Diesel cost of $1.00 / liter CNG cost of $0.45 / cubic meter 60% average gas substitution 260 operating days / year

16 Savings Calculation Average daily diesel fuel consumption of 170 liters = $170 / day fuel cost Average daily diesel fuel consumption after conversion is 68 liters = $68.00 / day diesel cost based on 40% diesel use Average daily CNG consumption after conversion is 102 cubic meters x 0.45 = $45.90 / day CNG cost based on 60% gas use Daily savings = $170 ($68 + $45.90) = $56.10 Annual savings = $56.10 x 260 days = $14,586

17 GFS Kit Components On-Road CNG / LNG Applications

18 GFS Conversion Kit

19 Kit Contents Gas Train Diesel Fuel Controller Air-Gas Mixer Electronic Controller Wiring Harnesses Optional CNG Level Display System Status Indicators Installation Manual

20 Items not included CNG Cylinder(s) LNG Tank(s) Mounting Brackets CNG / LNG Fill Valve Manual Isolation Valve High Pressure Tubing Mechanical Pressure Gauge

21 GFS Air-Gas Mixer High efficiency design Integral gas power valve Aerospace quality materials and construction No moving parts Mil-spec anodized finish for long service life

22 Mixer Installation Installed upstream of turbo compressor inlet Mixer kit includes hump hoses and clamps Air flow direction indicated on mixer body Available in 3, 4, 5 and 6 diameters (76.2mm, 101.6mm, 127mm and 152.4mm)

23 Air-Gas Mixer with Hump Hose Adaptors

24 Air-Gas Mixer Markings

25 GFS Gas Train

26 High Pressure Regulator UL Listed 38N5 Rated for 3600 psi / 24,840 KPa Pressure relief device Factory-set outlet pressure Water jacket heated to prevent ice crystal formation Long service life

27 Gas Solenoid Valve CSA Approved Rated for 3,600 psi / 24,840 KPa 2-way normally closed design is fail-safe Weather-proof electrical connection 12 Volt DC operation

28 Low Pressure Regulator UL Listed 792G Rated for 312 psi / 2153 KPa inlet pressure Gas delivered at atmospheric pressure Long service life Easily rebuilt in-field

29 Gas Train Installation Installed adjacent to air-gas mixer Flexible fuel hose connection to mixer 6mm compression fitting included Safely secured using four mounting lugs

30 Diesel Fuel Control Devices

31 Diesel Fuel Control Valve Controls fuel pressure to injection pump or engine fuel rail Fail-safe, 3-way valve design; 100% diesel flow when de-energized DIN rated electrical connection / 12 Volt DC Inlet and outlet ports SAE spec for leak-tight installation

32 Installation of Diesel Fuel Control Valve Installed upstream of injection pump / fuel rail inlet Leak-tight tube fittings and banjo adaptors included in kit Fuel hose assembly rated for 250 psi / 1725 KPa Installed off-engine on chassis rail or bulkhead

33 Aneroid Control Valve Used with aneroidcontrolled injection pumps Controls engine boost pressure to injection pump aneroid device Fail-safe 3-way valve design DIN rated electrical connection / 12 Volt DC

34 Installation of Aneroid Control Valve Installed upstream of injection pump aneroid device Leak-tight tube fittings and adaptors included in kit Tube assembly rated for 100 psi / 690 KPa Installed off-engine on chassis rail or bulkhead

35 Electronic Control Unit

36 Electronic Control Unit Components Controller Gas Pressure Transducer Exhaust temperature thermocouple Wiring Harnesses Indicator Lamps Optional CNG level indicator

37 Controller Functions Engine exhaust gas temperature monitoring CNG / LNG pressure monitoring System status indicators Display of CNG level Automatically switches engine to diesel mode if fault detected

38 Installation of Electronic Control Unit and Accessories Control unit mounted inside cab / under vehicle dash Gas pressure transducer installed in gas train Status lamps and optional CNG level indicator installed in vehicle dash 12 Volt DC powered

39 Installation Requirements 8 to 10 man hours No special tools required Some fabrication of brackets may be required Commissioning can be done on-road or using chassis dynamometer

40 Off-Road Applications Locomotives Earth Moving Equipment Mobile Cranes Construction Equipment Yard Tugs

41 Conversion Systems for Large Diesel Engines 400 h.p. to >3,000 h.p. CNG / LNG compatible Sophisticated engine protection systems 50% ~ 80% natural gas use depending on engine model and gas quality Technology proven on over 900 MW of power generation applications

42 1317 Shotgun Road Weston, Florida (1) (ph) ++(1) (fax)

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