# Performance of 2D versus 3D Topographic Representations for Different Task Types

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3 use as a covariate in this stuy in orer to control for spatial visualization ability. Table 2. Mean Accuracy Scores for / Pairs Integrate M=.83, SD=.24 M=.45, SD=.18 Non- M=.80, SD=.25 M=.71, SD=.20 Well water pollution was foun at the location labele Contamination. Question: Given that water an water pollutants usually flow ownhill, which point is the most likely source of the pollution (contamination)? A) B) C) D) E) Average scores Nonelevation Integrate Non- Integrate types Figure 3. Accuracy Scores type/ by Dimension. Figure 2. Example of an integrate, elevation-require task. The upper version is an the bottom is the same map in. RESULTS Accuracy Accuracy results were analyze using a three-way ANCOVA with repeate measures in two factors ( type an ). The main effect of the covariate (paper fol score) was significant, F(1,63) = 6.45, p =.014. The main effect of Dimension was also significant, F(1,63) = 4.47, p =.038 (Figure 3). Aitionally, the type x interaction was significant, F(1,63) = 5.08, p =.028 (Table 2). The type x x Dimension interaction was not significant. For the focuse, non-elevation task, post-hoc analysis showe a significant ifference between the an groups in their mean accuracy scores (Mean =.87, Mean =.73, p =.023.) Figure 3 also shows significantly lower scores for the integrate elevation task in both an conitions (p <.001) than for the other tasktype/elevation cells. Time Time results were analyze using a three-way ANCOVA with repeate measures in two factors (type an ). The main effect of the covariate was significant, F(1,63) = 4.69, p =.034. The main effect of Dimension was not significant in this analysis, F(1,63) =.22, p =.64 (Figure 2). The main effect for was significant, F(1,63) = 11.35, p = Aitionally, the type x Dimension interaction was significant, F(1,63) = 5.05, p =.028 (Table 3). The type x x Dimension interaction was not significant. For focuse, non-elevation tasks, post-hoc analysis showe a significant ifference between the an groups in their mean times (Mean =13.6, Mean =16.6), p =.012. Table 3. Mean Times for ype/ Pairs Integrate M=19.7 SD=4.6 M=27.2, SD=6.4 M=21.3, SD=6.0 M=25.2, SD=5.7

5 Muehrcke, P. C., & Muehrcke, J. O. (1998). Map Use: Reaing, Analysis an Interpretation (Fourth e.). Maison, WI: JP Publications. Smallman, H. S., St. John, M., & Cowen, M. B. (2002). Use an Misuse of Linear Perspective in the Perceptual Reconstruction of 3-D Perspective View Displays. In Proceeings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors an Ergonomics Society (pp ). Santa Monica, California: Human Factors an Ergonomics Society. St. John, M., Cowen, M. B., Smallman, H. S., & Oonk, H. M. (2001). The Use of an Displays for Shape- Unerstaning versus Relative-Position. Human Factors, 43(1), St. John, M., & Smallman, H. S. (2000). Designing for the : Sometimes 2-D Is Just Plane Better. In Ergonomics for the New Millennium. Proceeings of the XIVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association an 44th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors an Ergonomics Society, San Diego, California, USA, July 29-August 4, 2000 (Vol. 3, pp ). Santa Monica, California: Human Factors an Ergonomics Society. St.John, M., Cowen, M. B., Smallman, H. S., & Oonk, H. M. (2001). The Use of an Displays for Shape- Unerstaning versus Relative-Position. Human Factors, 43(1),

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