# Technology guide for power calculation

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1 R INTERONNET PRODUTS Technology guide for power calculation ISO 9001 APPROVED

2 ALULATION ONNETOR R POWER WITHSTAND The maximum power conveyed through a coax connector is limited by two factors : heat and dielectric strength. I - MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE HEAT POWER II - DIELETRI STRENGTH Part of the power conveyed through the connector turns into heat due to the dielectric and ohm losses of the materials involved. The connector temperature becomes stable at about a value for which the heat generated by the dissipated power is equal to the heat released by the connector as radiation, conduction and convection. Such temperature must remain lower than the acceptable limit for each material in the connector. This determines the "maximum permissible heat power". Beyond a power threshold, the electrical field inside the connector causes the materials to wear out or fail early. This factor defines the "maximum permissible voltage withstand power". Test bench DEINITIONS Z system's characteristic impedance ( Ω) R P U max T power in watts. This is the peak power in pulse systems maximum voltage : in V (frequency correction) : this takes into account the skin effect and the dissipation part in the dielectric that varies according to the frequency. (temperature correction) : this takes into account the external environment temperature and its impact on radiation and convection. This coefficient is calculated for infinitely long revolution symmetry structures. Therefore, it does not apply to panel receptacles. However, even in this case, it provides a conservative approach. A (VSWR correction) : this takes into account any standing waves present in the power transmission line. It is the system's V.S.W.R., but not the connector's V.S.W.R. or instance, in the case of a line operating in open or short circuit, the power present at each point of the connector can be multiplied by 4. (altitude correction) : this takes into account the convection decrease when the pressure drops, for instance in a non-pressurized area of a plane. Please contact us for coefficient values relevant to a specific reference. 3

3 ALULATION ONNETOR R POWER WITHSTAND I - MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE HEAT POWER The maximum permissible heat power depends upon several parameters : 1 - Internal Heat Generation Parameters : Base materials and plating resistivity ontact area resistivity Dissipation in dielectric materials (Teflon, polypropylene, epoxy, etc.) Usage frequency onveyed power and waveform Presence of standing waves The higher these parameters, the higher the amount of heat released. To determine the maximum permissible allowed heat power, it is necessary to know precisely the internal components of the connectors and cables, as well as the actual product usage environment. It is therefore essential that customer and supplier work together. Simulation software 2 - Heat Released in the Surrounding Environment Several approaches are possible : Parameters : A) SIMPLE APPROAH : This approach provides some Heat exchange on the surface with the outside permissible power values for most popular connector Outside surface emissivity (gold plated, series and their typical internal components. passivated surfaces) This is the approach that we develop in this document. It is Quality of thermal bonds with surrounding parts based on simple calculation models confirmed with some (heat bridges, panels, etc.) tests. Air flow (free or forced convection, connector and This is an indicative approach. It should be completed cable position) with a more realistic, theoretical or experimental Temperature and pressure of the surrounding approach. environment The maximum conveyable power value is calculated as Heat release path from the connector core to the follows : outside. The heat is released better when any of the above a ind the reference power P RE * parameters increases, except for the temperature Refer to the tables in the following pages or contact that has the opposite effect. us to get a value for a specific reference. 3 - Permissible Temperature Limits : Parameters : Solder temperature at the center contact and ground contact Dielectric materials used in the connector and cable (Teflon, polypropylene, epoxy, etc.) Permissible surface temperature Material creeping or strain relief temperature b alculate correction factors * See formulas in the following pages c alculate the product of all these terms * P = P RE x x Tx R x A In the case of a repeated pulse signal, the power (P) calculated by the above formula is an average power. In such a case, check that the peak voltage remains acceptable. Note : This is a rough calculation approach. It does not replace experimentation in the real world. * see definitions page 3 4

4 ALULATION ONNETOR R POWER WITHSTAND B) REALISTI THEORETIAL APPROAH : This 2 - Dielectric strength and pressure effect (air approach uses developed models, such as finite element dielectric) methods. This requires having an accurate knowledge of the connector's environment and the material This is a well-known phenomenon : as pressure drops, characteristics. This is a lengthy and costly approach. It disruptive voltage falls. It dips to a minimum for a critical can be used in difficult cases where experimentation is value of the pressure multiplied by the distance between too complex. It also requires experimental adjustments the electrodes. It then increases for very low pressure. but in conditions that are more accessible to The variation of the disruptive voltage according to the experimentation. pressure follows the Paschen law. It provides that for a breakdown to occur, shocks between gas molecules and ) EXPERIMENTAL APPROAH : The actual application electrons must cause the electrons to multiply (the is implemented using a specific material. Such an avalanche effect). The disruptive voltage is then directly experimental approach is usually carried out by the final related to the number of gas molecules between both user. electrodes. This number is proportional to the product of the pressure by the distance between both electrodes. In the case of coax connectors, the field is not homogeneous and the Paschen law does not apply II - DIELETRI STRENGTH directly. However, it provides a qualitative assessment of the disruptive voltage according to the pressure. 1 - The dielectric strength is based on some parameters The insulation breakdown and the corona effect depend on the electric field inside the coax line. The type and consequences of the breakdown may vary according to the dielectric materials. In the case of a solid insulator, the breakdown will destroy the dielectric, which causes a conductive path to occur along the carbonized walls of the arc track. If the breakdown threshold is not reached, vacuum in the dielectric may cause local field reinforcements. This may lead to partial discharges. Over time, such discharges will erode the dielectric and cause early aging. In the case of a air insulator, the breakdown is not necessarily destructive. Such breakdown will occur depending on ambient pressure, type of gas, opposite surface cleanliness and line geometry (macro geometry : sharp edges ; micro geometry : surface finish, burrs). All of these phenomena have a complex dependency upon frequency. 3 - Dielectric strength and frequency effect (air dielectric) In microwave, breakdown will occur according to much more complex rules. Electrons present between both conductors are driven by the alternating electromagnetic field. The breakdown comes from the simultaneous occurrence of the electron production phenomenon and the electron loss phenomenon. The electron production is the result of free electrons colliding with gas molecules or conductors. It requires minimum kinetic energy. The electron loss is the result of electrons being spread and drained through conductors. The breakdown occurs when more electrons are produced than used. This is expressed by the Townsend criteria. ontrol bench 5

5 ALULATION ONNETOR R POWER WITHSTAND At ambient pressure, the average free travel of electrons is very small, and there are many shocks but they are not effective for electron production. The breakdown occurs at a high voltage that is practically independent from the frequency. 4 - Dielectric strength and V.S.W.R. The presence of mismatches at various points in a line leads to the occurrence of standing waves that increase the electrical field locally. The maximum voltage at any point will therefore be : Test installation Where V.S.W.R. is the V.S.W.R. of the system and is the incident voltage. U max will have to be compared to the maximum permissible voltage for the connector. 5 - How to calculate a maximum withstand voltage At low pressure, the average free travel of electrons increases. Electrons gain kinetic energy and ionize gas molecules more effectively. The breakdown voltage then following this formula : falls to a minimum. At this minimum, there are two phenomena regarding the influence of frequency. irst, if frequency is low and rising, the breakdown will occur at U max = increasingly lower voltage levels (less electron drainage by the conductors). Then, if frequency keeps rising, the breakdown will occur at a higher voltage (because the b) At any other pressure : electron oscillation magnitude becomes too low to ionize the gas molecules effectively). or the range of distance between conductors in the connectors, note that a frequency increase does not have any influence at high pressure and it actually improves the dielectric strength at low pressure. This latest effect can not be quantified in a simple way. U max = U inci. 2 V.S.W.R. V.S.W.R.+1 U inci a) At ambient pressure : Just check that the maximum voltage does not exceed the permissible value for the series by 2 V.S.W.R.. V.S.W.R.+1 P x Z * The derating coefficient from the following table must be applied to the maximum permissible voltage. Pression Derating Altitude Altitude (mbar) (feet) (km) , , , , * see definitions page 3 Anechoïd chamber 6

6 ALULATION ALULATION ORM Values are given for a V.S.W.R. of 1 and an outside temperature of 20 at sea level. ALULATION ORM You must multiply the reference power of the used series (see table below) by the various correction factors (see the following page) P = P x x x x RE T R A ORRETION ATORS REERENE POWER MMS MMT MX right-angle on cable 2/ SMB right-angle on cable 2/ SMA on cable.141" 100 BMA on cable.141" 100 QMA R4 coplanar line R4 coplanar line right-angle "full crimp" on cable 2/50 on cable 2.6/50 right-angle "full crimp" on cable 2.6/50 right-angle "full crimp" on cable 2/50 on cable 2.6/50 right-angle "full crimp" on cable 2.6/50 on cable.141" microporous and SH 8 with contact captivation by epoxy resin on cable.141" microporous and SH 8 with contact captivation by epoxy resin on cable 2.6/50/D on cable 5/50/D TN right-angle "full crimp" on cable 5/50 or 11/50* 350 TN 18 GHz on cable.141" 140 on cable SH 8 on cable SH 5 N right-angle "full crimp" on cable 5/50 or 11/50* 350 N 18 GHz male plug on cable.141" and cable SH female jack on cable.141" and cable SH 8 QN right-angle "full crimp" on cable 5/50 or 11/50* 350 7/16 on cable 11/50* 800 * provided that the cable supports such power levels. P RE (Watt) RE (GHz) Please consult us for other cables or series

7 ALULATION ALULATION ORM ORRETION ATORS T R A requency (GHz) Temperature ( ) max V.S.W.R. Altitude (h in Km) T max =1 view from connector for absolute vacuum, A = 0.2 MMS MMT MX SMB SMA BMA QMA TN TN 18 GHz N N 18 GHz QN 7/ =.95 x max = =.96 x max = = 3.55 x max = = 1.5 x max = = 3.47 x max = = 3.55 x max = = 3.47 x max = = 4.47 x max = = 1.58 x max = = 2.51 x max = 15 = 1 - T = 1 - T = 1 - T = 1 - T = 1 - T = 1 - T 7.55 (T-20) 7.5 (T-20) 5 (T-20) 7.5 (T-20) 5 (T-20) 7.5 (T-20) = R 2 (V.S.W.R.+ 1) 2 4 (V.S.W.R.) = x h A ALTITUDE/PRESSURE (for information) Altitude (Km) Altitude (feet) 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 Pressure (mbar) A complete range of power devices is also available. 8

8 ALULATION ATALOG P/N OMPAT MMS MMT MX SMB SMA BMA D1 D004 BE D1 209 E D1 210 E D1 113 E D1 114 E D1 125 E D1 128 DE QMA D1 123 E TN-TN 18 GHz D1 143 E N D1 161 E N 18 GHz D1 163 E QN D1 164 E 7/16 D1 185 E 9

9 ALULATION RADIALL POWER BENHES RADIALL is equipped with two power benches : a 935MHz bench and a 17.6GHz bench. These measurement benches allow carrying out power tests on coax and microwave products at specified temperature or in space vacuum. Power bench #1 Power bench #2 HARATERISTIS Bench #1 Bench #2 requency 935 MHz 17.6 GHz Space vacuum encl. temperature from -60 to +100 pressure from ambient pressure to 10-5 mbars Max power 400 W 500W Temperature station 16 channels -K thermocouple APPLIATIONS Standard coax cable assemblies SH coax cable assemblies for space applications Switching products Microwave power products (loads, couplers, attenuators, etc.) 10

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