Seed Storage Committee (STO)

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1 Seed Storage Committee (STO) Hugh W. Pritchard Chairman

2 Committee Membership S. Ajayi - Nigeria Agricultural seed quality S. Ashmore Australia In vitro and cryopreservation P. Berjak / Sershen - RSA Recalcitrant seeds A. Börner Germany Agricultural seed storage R. Chaudhury - India Agricultural seed storage I. Ferraz Brazil Tropical wet forest species E. Gonzalez-Benito Spain Ultra-dry storage R. Jamnadass Kenya Tree seed storage Africa Americas Asia Europe

3 Committee Membership P. Leon-lobos Chile Mediterranean sp O. Neya Burkina Faso Tropical dryland trees I. Martin / C. Cuadra Spain Seed health D. Mycock RSA In vitro and cryopreservation H. Pritchard UK Wild species conservation M. Sacandé UK Tropical dryland trees X-Y. Yang China Wild species conservation Africa Americas Asia Europe

4 Purpose 1. To characterise and maximise seed storage of horticultural, crop and forestry species, and their wild relatives, so that their sustainable use in trade is enhanced; 2. To develop and amend guidelines on the storage of seeds

5 Rules Chapter 2: Sampling Storage of submitted samples after testing Samples.shall be stored for one year The laboratory cannot be held responsible for any deterioration during storage. Chapter 7: Seed health Sample storage.the selection of the appropriate storage conditions must take into account the optimal storage temperature and container.. in order to maintain sample integrity.

6 (B2) Training Publications on Seed Testing Target 1: Publish the questionnaire on seed storage as practiced in ISTA laboratories based on 45 replies (28 countries): Progress: Findings presented at 2010 Congress now published in Seed Testing International Number 142 (October 2011). Average storage conditions in ISTA labs = 10% MC (erh = 53%) and 13 C Half-lives: brassica c.2 y; sunflower c. 7 months; Triticum c. 5 y

7 (B1) Publications Target 1: Produce Guidelines on Seed Storage 9 chapters (> 40 sections) + Annex Aim: first complete draft of text by June 2012 Chapter 1 Seed storage behaviour revisited Chapter 2 Drying protocols for seed storage assessment Chapter 3 Drying protocols of seed parts Chapter 4 Moisture, temperature and longevity in the dry state Chapter 5 Ultra-dry storage

8 (B1) Publications Target 1: Produce Guidelines on Seed Storage 9 chapters (> 40 sections) + Annex. Aim: first complete draft of text by June 2012 Chapter 6 Cryopreservation of desiccation tolerant seeds Chapter 7 Large and small scale seed storage facilities Chapter 8 Seed storage in the wet state Chapter 9 Fungal pathogens and seed storage ANNEX Checklist of seed storage behaviour for ISTA-listed species (relates to Target B3.1 on review of rules species storage)

9 (B3) Scientific publications Target 2: 30 papers on seed / embryo storage: Progress: 20 papers published in 2011, including CryoLetters = 3 In vitro Cellular and Devel. Biol. Plant = 2 Protoplasma = 2 South African J. Botany = 2 J. Experimental Botany = 1 Plant Genetic Resources = 1 Seed Science and Technology = 1 Seed Science Research = 1 Seed Testing International = 1

10 (B3) Scientific publications Target 2: 30 papers on seed / embryo storage: Progress: 20 papers published in 2011, on topics. Characterisation of desiccation tolerance: oaks (Quercus and Cyclobalanopsis) Low temperature storage (cryo): Landolphia, Ekebergia, Amaryllis, etc. Dry storage: Genetic studies in Brassica and wheat, Solanum and other species longevity Innovations: Two, including low weight thiols Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa + 10 more species drying sensitive

11 (F) Special projects Target 1: 100 species newly characterised for seed biology: Progress: 36 species in 2011, including Allanblackia stuhlmannii Seeds dried to 10% moisture content give TTC result; seeds take 7 months to germinate.

12 (F) Special projects Target 1: 100 species newly characterised for seed biology: Progress: 36 species in 2011, including 34 palm species Bismarkia nobili - desiccation tolerant 19 species TOLERANT; 15 species SENSITIVE = 34 species

13 (F) Special projects 100 % Germination % Moisture Content Control Thrinax radiata - desiccation sensitive Rapid warming Slow warming

14 (F) Special projects Target 2: Develop 5 innovations : Progress: Patent applied for cathodic protection system; one innovation published on oxidative markers for seed ageing

15 Ageing 1 ROS GSH 2 E GSSG Trd ASK 1 3 Trd + ASK 1 SH SH SS MAPK cascade 5 4 Cytochrome c 8 Ca ++ 6 Bax Bcl Cytochrome c ox Metacaspases 10 Metacaspases SH SH E>70 mv SS 13 Death Reactive oxygen species and programmed cell death

16 Target 3: Maximise dry storage of 70 species. Progress: > 30 accessions from 30 y at < 7 %MC and -18 C Germination rate (%) Progress (2011): (F) Special projects 92,44 91,78 Phaseolus vulgaris (9 accessions) ,33 Years of storage Lens (20 accessions); Lupinus (7 accessions; some ageing)

17 (F) Special projects Target 3: Maximise dry storage of 70 species. Progress: Drying and Phaseolus seed health SMC (%) Rhizopus stolonifer Mucor sp. Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus niger Penicillium sp. Cladosporium herbarum Alternaria alternata Fusarium spp. Botrytis cinerea Rhizoctonia solani D0 12,04 10,17 a 1,33 b 0,83 6,75 b 7,67 a 4,67 a 4,75 a 1,67 0,92 2,00 D1 6,88 5,08 b 1,83 ab 6,00 13,75 b 4,67 ab 4,33 a 5,33 a 0,83 0,67 0,67 D2 4,7 6,75 ab 4,67 a 1,75 28,83 a 2,25 b 1,58 b 2,58 b 0,17 0,00 0,08 NBPGR (India): y cryo-stored Vigna, Sesamum, Eruca, Brassica, Triticum and Zea mays pathogen free. Cf. Capsicum with pathogen

18 (C1) Workshops and Seminars Target 1: Two workshops. Progress: None in 2011, but.. 1. Water activity workshop, France, Oct 2010; 2. Desiccation tolerance workshop, South Africa, Jan 2012 Not optimal for storage

19 Questions?

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