1 Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e9559 doi: /BDJ.4.e9559 Data Paper icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural History Museum, London Gordon Paterson, Sara Albuquerque, Vladimir Blagoderov, Steve Brooks, Steve Cafferty, Elisa Cane, Victoria Carter, John Chainey, Robyn Crowther, Lyndsey Douglas, Joanna Durant, Liz Duffell, Adrian Hine, Martin Honey, Blanca Huertas, Theresa Howard, Rob Huxley, Ian Kitching, Sophie Ledger, Caitlin McLaughlin, Geoff Martin, Gerardo Mazzetta, Malcolm Penn, Jasmin Perera, Mike Sadka, Elisabetta Scialabba, Angela Self, Darrell Siebert, Chris Sleep, Flavia Toloni, Peter Wing Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom Corresponding author: Gordon Paterson Academic editor: Pavel Stoev Received: 15 Jun 2016 Accepted: 06 Sep 2016 Published: 13 Sep 2016 Citation: Paterson G, Albuquerque S, Blagoderov V, Brooks S, Cafferty S, Cane E, Carter V, Chainey J, Crowther R, Douglas L, Durant J, Duffell L, Hine A, Honey M, Huertas B, Howard T, Huxley R, Kitching I, Ledger S, McLaughlin C, Martin G, Mazzetta G, Penn M, Perera J, Sadka M, Scialabba E, Self A, Siebert D, Sleep C, Toloni F, Wing P (2016) icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural History Museum, London. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e9559. doi: /BDJ.4.e9559 Abstract Background The Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK) has embarked on an ambitious programme to digitise its collections. The first phase of this programme has been to undertake a series of pilot projects that will develop the necessary workflows and infrastructure development needed to support mass digitisation of very large scientific collections. This paper presents the results of one of the pilot projects icollections. This project digitised all the lepidopteran specimens usually considered as butterflies, 181,545 specimens representing 89 species from the British Isles and Ireland. The data digitised includes, species name, georeferenced location, collector and collection date - the what, where, who and when of specimen data. In addition, a digital image of each specimen was Paterson G et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
2 2 Paterson G et al. taken. This paper explains the way the data were obtained and the background to the collections which made up the project. New information Specimen-level data associated with British and Irish butterfly specimens have not been available before and the icollections project has released this valuable resource through the NHM data portal. Keywords Collection digitisation, butterflies, British Isles, Ireland, mass digitsation, collections Introduction The Natural History Museum, London (NHMUK) has embarked on an ambitious programme to digitise its collections, some 80 million specimens (see for background and details). The icollections project was developed as part of this programme with the aim of developing the necessary data pipelines and digitisation workflows to undertake a mass digitisation project. In addition to the aim of digitising a large collection, icollections was also established to test what systems would have to be developed and whether the existing infrastructure would be able to deal with relatively large volumes of data in a timely and secure way. This paper provides some of the background on how the British and Irish butterfly collections were digitised and the dataset created. The data collected has been used by Brooks et al. (in press, Ecography) to examine the phenology of British butterflies between 1880 and General description Additional information: Background to the icollections project The NHMUK's British and Irish Lepidoptera collection is a large, comprehensive collection of British and Irish Lepidoptera, containing a wealth of material of both scientific and historic importance. The British and Irish specimens are separated from the main collection, making it easier to undertake a project of sufficient size to test various digitisation workflows. The discrete nature of the collection also made pre-digitisation preparation easier. A number of factors were assessed that highlighted this collection as being an appropriate vehicle to develop and test mass digitization workflows of the NHMUK collections. Firstly,
3 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H... 3 the project needed a coherent collection that would provide sufficient numbers of specimens to establish, test and develop suitable mass digitisation pipelines. Secondly, the collection needed to be of sufficient size to make an impact and to deliver a large volume of data. Thirdly, the project needed to be scientific and culturally coherent and credible our entire British and Irish collections are of interest to scientists, conservationists and the general public. Fourthly, data produced could be used to address wider issues. For example have species ranges, flight times or morphology changed through time? Are they affected by climate change? What have we lost and what have we gained in terms of species? What species have been recorded in my area? Finally, from a collections management perspective what do we have, how many, and where are the gaps? A pilot study of four species of British and Irish butterflies carried out by Brooks et al had established that a relatively straightforward workflow could be developed to capture label information which could be used in research projects. Phenological data could be gleaned from the collection/emergence dates on the labels and used to study the effects of a changing climate and how butterflies responded by shifting their seasonality. The th temporal span of the collections (mainly mid-19 century to 1980s) provided a useful historical perspective often absent in studies relying on more recent records. A more comprehensive analyses of the data has been completed (Brooks et al. in press, Ecography). From early in the project development it was clear that expertise in a range of specialisms was going to be required for the project. Fig. 1 indicates the different specialist areas around which the project was organized. The specialisms employed in the project are also detailed below in the roles that the project team members performed. It is not an exaggeration to say that this project called on specialisms from across the Museum, ranging from HR/Personnel through IT to include research and collections management. Figure 1. The work packages associated with the icollections project
4 4 Paterson G et al. Project description Title: icollections: British and Irish Lepidoptera Personnel: Roles in the project Chair: Gordon L J Paterson; Collections management: Geoff Martin, Martin Honey, John Chainey, Blanca Huertas, Theresa Howard, Rob Huxley; QA/QC KE EMu: Darrell Siebert; Workflows: Vladimir Blagoderov, Steve Cafferty; Database/interfaces: Adrian Hine,, Mike Sadka; Data operations and Automated processing of images: Chris Sleep; Research: Steve Brooks, Ian Kitching; Digitisation Team: Sara Albuquerque, Elisa Cane, Robyn Crowther, Lyndsey, Douglas, Joanna Durant, Sophie Ledger, Gerardo Mazzetta, Jasmin Perera, Elisabetta Scialabba, Flavia Toloni, Peter Wing; Georeferencing/GIS: Malcolm Penn, Caitlin McLaughlin, Liz Duffell; Administration and project management: Victoria Carter. Design description: Digitisation process The digitisation process has three stages. The first is imaging. Specimens are photographed in a unit tray specially constructed to allow the specimens to be imaged together with their labels. Fig. 2 shows a specimen in a unit tray ready to be imaged. The label on the right is on an elevated section. The specimen is pinned so that it is approximately at the same height as the labels to avoid the need to refocus on different elements in the tray. Software is used to isolate and copy the image of the labels and this new image is made available for transcription (see below for details). File handling and storage The image files were placed into a shared folder structure organised to represent physical storage location and taxonomy. Once ready, a file system crawling process was invoked to carry out the initial steps: automatically cropping the label section, identifying barcodes and seeding the initial metadata to a database ready to support the transcription step. The files and associated data were then available to be ingested into the Museum s collection management system.
5 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H... 5 Figure 2. Image of a specimen in a unit tray ready to be imaged as part of the digitisation process. The folder structure was organised to minimise the amount of manual entry needed during image capture, which in turn helps to maintain the rate at which the imaging can take place, and reduce the potential for initial capture errors. Fig. 3 shows the data workflow for the icollections project. Figure 3. Workflow associated with the icollections digitisation project. The label information selected to be transcribed was atomised into different fields of a purpose designed MS Access transcription interface (the files were in a MS SQL Server database), focusing mainly on the what (fields for taxonomy and primary type status, if any), when (fields for date of collection and/or emergence), where (site field), and who (fields for collector and registration event). This information was transcribed by
6 6 Paterson G et al. the digitisers without personal interpretation or conjecture. The interface allows the ingestion of multiple images when the information to be transcribed is placed on both sides of the labels; a visual cue warns the digitiser when this is the case. Locality and collector names can be written in many, very different styles or using slightly different spellings (variants), which were first transcribed verbatim and then harmonised (i.e., converted into a standardised format) at a later stage during georeferencing and migration into the NHM s Collections Management System (KE EMu ). Moreover, dates (either Fig. 4 collection or emergence data) on labels were written in different formats and often qualified as such by the use of symbols or abbreviations, so a certain amount of a priori or on-the-job knowledge was necessary to correctly transcribe this information. The interface provided several follow up options relevant to a field when data are illegible, unknown, or uncertain (e.g., Label comments and Admin comments fields); this type of data was scrutinised and interpreted at a later stage by experienced museum curators and researchers. Examples of the range of problems encountered when transcribing specimen labels is given in Fig. 4. An addition problem is that the information on the labels can sometimes be erroneous (e.g., conflicting information on different labels attached to the same specimen) or misleading, requiring further scrutiny by museum curators. Fig. 4 g shows the transcription of faded information from a barely legible label produced with a mimeograph and Fig. 4 h shows a similar type of label in a better conservation state. Fig. 4 (i, j) show labels which are either only partially legible or completely smudged and unclear, e.g. the number in this case is smudged (corresponding to the year that the specimen was collected) but was easily deciphered by zooming in on its corresponding image, as shown in the enlarged detail Fig. 4 (j). It became apparent that the stamped number was 96, and consequently the collection year was assumed to be 1896 (the century was inferred, based on known period of activity for W.M. Reid). Fig. 5 shows an example of erroneous and misleading label information, in this case conflicting information on collecting localities and dates. Resolving such conflicts relied on the knowledge of the curator about the collector in question and whether they had collected other specimens from the same locality or at the same time. These other records can help decide which of the localities was most likely. But it was not always possible to resolve the conflict for some records. Developing interfaces for data capture. Transcription interface. To capture the data on the labels a series of interfaces for transcription were developed. The transcription interface operates against a normalised database, which reduces data capture effort (keyed values are available to all transcribers) and transcription errors (once keyed, data values exist only once in the system, and can be selected as appropriate rather than being re-keyed). Three types of records were selected and had look-up lists developed: taxa, sites (and georeferencing) and Parties collector and/or donor (Figs 6, 7, 8, 9).
7 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H... 7 Figure 4. The label problem. a) and b) Transcription of ambiguous dates as exemplified by two handwritten labels from the locality (town) of Ruislip pertaining to different specimens; the middle number (month) on the date from the left label could be interpreted as February or November, depending on whether the number was written as a Roman numeral or not. The label on the right (b) has been handwritten by the same person and shows unequivocally that the middle number is indeed a Roman numeral but this finding also suggests that the collector also wrote 11 in the other label. c), d), e) and f) Transcription of emergence and collection dates. (c) Collection and emergence dates clearly stated on the handwritten label. (d) Emergence date inferred by known symbols (e.g., crosses and asterisks) and abbreviations or initials (e.g., B. standing for Bred, l. standing for larva ), (e) o standing for ova, or (f) R. standing for reared. g) and h) Transcription of faded information from (g) barely legible label produced with a mimeograph; (h) A similar type of label in a better conservation state. i) and j) Transcription of a barely legible, smudged number (corresponding to the year that the specimen was collected) from a printed label was easily performed by zooming in its corresponding image, as shown in the enlarged detail on the right. It became apparent that the stamped number was 96, and consequently the collection year was assumed to be 1896 (century inferred based on known period of activity for W.M. Reid).
8 8 Paterson G et al. Figure 5. Erroneous labels Figure 6. Label transcription interface.
9 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H... 9 Figure 7. Taxon standardisation inferface. Figure 8. Georeferencing site variant harmonisation interface.
10 10 Paterson G et al. Figure 9. Georeferencing interface The interfaces were designed using MS Access This software was selected for a number of reasons, in particular its flexibility. MS Access 2010 is an excellent front end for MS SQL Server and is a a recognised industry standard with dedicated record handling environment, providing many conveniences and thereby facilitating rapid development. In developing the interfaces great care was taken to experiment with various facets of the interface, for example, changing the colours around the interface fields so that they were more easily recognised and separated. This phase of developing and trialling the interfaces relied on good communication between the digitisation team and the interface developers. It was clear that small changes could achieve large efficiency gains by making the interface more intuitive to use and organising the fields in ways that improve the flow (see). Georeferencing It is important that the entire georeferencing process follows a set of guidelines that are designed to reduce georeferencing error and increase repeatability. The NHM georeferencing guidelines provide clear instructions on how to approach and georeference different spatial locations, e.g. mountains, rivers, when to use "near and the application of standard abbreviations etc., They allowed the team to maintain geographical standards based on WGS 1984 Decimal Degrees and importantly, ensure consistency was carried forward. The guidelines are continuously updated as project digitise other collections across the NHM, so that they provide a clear set of instructions of how to georeference specific localities and their extents, thereby, providing a geographical standard, based on our NHM data and best practise from other similar organisations. Finally, the whole process of georeferencing at the NHM was designed to clean the data, normalisation/harmonisation and map site variants to unambiguous master records
11 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H reducing the number of site records that need to be imported into the collections management data system, standardise while following both NHM and geographical standards (e.g. ISO 2015). This process of reducing duplication and error to produce a site master reduced the final tally of icollection sites georeferenced by approximately 50%. Georeferencing process The Georeferencing process was split into five broad phases. First phase. During this stage only sites with at least 5 specimens collected were georeferenced, (this enables sites with many specimens to be georeferenced quickly, these can account for 60-70% of a collection). Second phase. The team split the remaining data into two parts A-M and N Z, and no more than 15 minutes was spent on each site trying to georeference the data. Third phase. The remaining data were then checked by the senior georeferencer and any queries addressed and the data were then further investigated by the georeferencers and the specific curator /researcher, who provide help on any specific problem locations. Fourth phase. The remaining data were checked that a georeference was not obtainable and these were then noted as a un-georeferenceable in the dataset. The dataset was then checked for accuracy by taking a random 100 sites from the data and compare results. Fifth phase. Data were then exported and ingested into KeEMU by the NHM database team. Digitisation timings and costs The timings to prepare the specimens, image and transcribe label information varied from 0.52 to 4.52 minutes with the modal figure around 2.4 minutes. Estimating the cost of the digitisation process depends on what is included. For example, it is possible to calculate the costs based on the funds needed to hire new staff and buy equipment But it is also possible to calculate the cost per specimen based on an assessment of all the hidden costs such as the time spent on the project by existing staff. This can lead to different estimates of the project cost and ultimately the cost of digitising each specimen. The cost per specimen based only on the hire of new staff and the purchase of new equipment was 1.17 (based on the 2015 NHM salary scales). However, if one also takes into account the time spent by in-house staff to support the project, the expense of refurbishing accommodation, hire of new staff, equipment, etc., then the true cost per specimen is nearer It is important to be clear about what costs are being assessed and included when the cost per specimen is given. Geographic coverage Description: The collections cover most of the British Isles and Ireland. However, there are distinct hotspots particularly along the south coast of England. These reflect the areas
12 12 Paterson G et al. frequented by the main collectors represented in the collections. The densest collecting area is around London and the Home Counties (Fig. 10), which would have been easy to access using public transport particularly as the rail network developed at the end of the Th 19th and early 20 centuries. There is also a secondary focus (b on the map) west of the main area which is the New Forest region. Figure 10. Map giving the specimen distribution within the collections. a- Home Counties around London; b New Forest; c Torbay region and d) Lake District. The latter two localities became popular holiday destinations during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Taxonomic coverage Description: The Project focused on Lepidoptera from the families Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Riodinidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae collectively referred to in the project as butterflies. Fig. 11 shows the percentage breakdown of the different families in the collection. Table 1 (Suppl. material 1) lists the species recoded and the numbers of individuals of each species in the NHMUK collections. Taxonomy follows Agassiz et al All 89 resident, migrant and accidentally introduced species (which include 142 subspecies and 2232 infrasubspecies) were digitised and databased provides the taxonomic coverage and the abundance of the different species and subspecies in the collection. British lepidopterists became interested, perhaps obsessed with variants and aberrations of species. In digitising the collections we decided to try to capture the published variants/ aberrations information as this was likely to be of general interest.
13 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H Table 1. Species in the NHMUK British and Irish butterfly collections together with counts of the numbers of specimens of each species. Agassiz number Scientific name Count Notes Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) Papilio machaon Linnaeus, Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, UK data Erynnis tages (Linnaeus, 1758) Pyrgus armoricanus (Oberthür, 1910) 3 UK data Pyrgus malvae (Linnaeus, 1758) Pyrgus serratulae (Rambur, 1839) 1 UK data Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771) Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer, 1808) Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda, 1761) Thymelicus acteon (Rottemberg, 1775) Hesperia comma (Linnaeus, 1758) Ochlodes sylvanus (Esper, 1779) Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) 1763 Irish specimens not dissected. Recently split into two species the collection has yet to be reidentified Leptidea juvernica Williams, Anthocharis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758) Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758) Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) 2413
14 14 Paterson G et al Pieris napi (Linnaeus, 1758) Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758) Colias croceus (Fourcroy, 1785) Colias hyale (Linnaeus, 1758) Colias alfacariensis Berger, Colias phicomone (Esper, 1780) 1 UK data Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758) Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) 4 4 UK data Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) Lasiommata megera (Linnaeus, 1767) Pararge aegeria (Linnaeus, 1758) Coenonympha tullia (Müller, 1764) Coenonympha pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758) Erebia ligea (Linnaeus, 1758) 5 3 UK data, 2 No data Erebia epiphron (Knoch, 1783) Erebia aethiops (Esper, 1777) Aphantopus hyperantus (Linnaeus, 1758) Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus, 1758) Pyronia tithonus (Linnaeus, 1771) Melanargia galathea (Linnaeus, 1758) Hipparchia semele (Linnaeus, 1758) Hipparchia fagi (Scopoli, 1763) 1 UK data Arethusana arethusa ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) 1 UK data
15 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H Dryas julia (Fabricius, 1775) 1 UK data Heliconius charithonia (Linnaeus, 1767) 1 UK data Boloria euphrosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) Boloria selene ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) Boloria dia (Linnaeus,1767) 1 No data Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) Argynnis paphia (Linnaeus, 1758) Argynnis aglaja (Linnaeus, 1758) Argynnis adippe ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) Argynnis niobe (Linnaeus, 1758) 4 3 UK, 1 no data; Agassiz number B Limenitis camilla (Linnaeus, 1764) Apatura iris (Linnaeus, 1758) Colobura dirce (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 UK data Parthenos sylvia (Cramer, 1775) 1 UK data Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758) Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus, 1758) Vanessa virginiensis (Drury, 1773) Vanessa indica (Herbst, 1794) 1 UK data Hypanartia lethe (Fabricius 1793) 1 UK data Aglais io (Linnaeus, 1758) Aglais urticae (Linnaeus, 1758) Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758) Nymphalis polychloros (Linnaeus, 1758) Nymphalis xanthomelas (Esper, 1781) 1
16 16 Paterson G et al Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) Araschnia levana (Linnaeus, 1758) 10 UK data Junonia oenone (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 UK data Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemberg, 1775) Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) Melitaea athalia (Rottemberg, 1775) Hamearis lucina (Linnaeus, 1758) Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761) Lycaena dispar (Haworth, 1802) UK Lycaena hippothoe (Linnaeus, 1761) 7 6 No data, 1 UK data; Agassiz number B Lycaena virgaureae (Linnaeus, 1758) 8 3 UK, 5 no data; Agassiz number B Thecla betulae (Linnaeus, 1758) Favonius quercus (Linnaeus, 1758) Callophrys rubi (Linnaeus, 1758) Satyrium w-album (Knoch, 1782) Satyrium pruni (Linnaeus, 1758) Deudorix antalus (Hopffer, 1855) 1 UK data, (2 specimens in original list) Rapala schistacea (Moore, 1881) 2 UK data Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767) Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Cupido minimus (Fuessly, 1775) Cupido argiades (Pallas, 1771) 4 2 No data, 2 UK Celastrina argiolus (Linnaeus, 1758) Maculinea arion (Linnaeus, 1758) 1827
17 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H Maculinea alcon ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) 1 UK data Glaucopsyche alexis (Poda, 1761) 2 1 UK data, 1 No data Plebejus argus (Linnaeus, 1758) Aricia Reichenbach, No locality data hence specimens could not be assigned to either A. agestis or A. artaxerxes Aricia agestis ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) Aricia artaxerxes (Fabricius, 1793) Aricia agestis artaxerxes 1637 Bred hybrids Cyaniris semiargus (Rottemberg, 1775) Polyommatus icarus (Rottemberg, 1775) Polyommatus dorylas ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) 2 2 UK data; Agassiz number B Lysandra bellargus (Rottemberg, 1775) Lysandra coridon (Poda, 1761) Lysandra coridon bellargus 3 Naturally occurring hybrids The British and Irish butterfly collections was built up over many years through the purchase of smaller collections and individual collecting. Salmon et al provides a biography of the main collectors in the British Isles and history of butterfly collecting over the past two centuries. Another feature of the collection is the large number of bred specimens. Many of these would have been bred to obtain perfect specimens for the cabinet or a series to show the variation within the species concerned, or to try to obtain a new aberration. Newman 1967 provides an interesting account of this aspect of butterfly collecting.
18 18 Paterson G et al. Figure 11. Chart showing the percentage of specimens belonging to the different families within the British and Irish Lepidoptera collection. Temporal coverage Notes: The NHMUK British and Irish collections span nearly two centuries. The collecting of butterflies became a popular pastime for amateur and professional collectors alike with the main period of collecting spanning the turn of the 20 th century until the mid 1950s (Fig. 12). The decline reflects the change in attitudes to collecting specimens with a greater emphasis on photography and observation in recent years but also a change in Museum policy on collection acquisition. Figure 12. Growth of collections with time.
19 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H Fig. 13 illustrates the link between the time of the year and day of the week and the numbers of butterflies collected, in this case the Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardamines). Further analysis of the temporal data suggests changes in the social conditions in the British Isles. Fig. 13 shows that the main collecting effort (peaks) happened at weekend days Saturday or Sunday - and bank holidays. Butterfly collecting begins around springtime reaching a peak over the spring months with the late May Bank Holiday weekend particularly prominent (Whit Monday). This temporal pattern suggests that there was an increase in leisure time coupled with sufficient disposable income, for at least some of the population, to be able to indulge in hobbies like butterfly collecting. Some preliminary assessment of the collections also suggested that the geographic spread of the specimens collected over the main collecting period follows the development of the rail network and increasingly cheaper fares. Figure 13. The graph indicates the when during the year specimens of the Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardamines) butterfly were collected. The x- axis shows the day of the year while the y-axis indicates the number of specimens collected. Collection data Collection name: icollections British and Irish butterflies Collection identifier: Gordon L J Paterson; Sar a Albuquerque; Vladimir Blagoderov; Steve Brooks, et al. (2016). Dataset: icollections. Curatorial unit: Three large collections bequeat hed to the NHMUK comprise the core of the British and Irish Lepidoptera collection, the Rothschild, Cockayne and Kettlewell collections. Usage rights Use license: Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)
20 20 Paterson G et al. Data resources Data package title: Gordon L J Paterson; Sara Albuquerque; Vladimir Blagoderov; Steve Brooks, et al. (2016). Dataset: icollections. Number of data sets: 1 Data set name: icollections British and Irish butterflies Download URL: Description: Specimen data of British and Irish butterflies giving identification (including aberrations and forms), locality, collector and date of collector (where known). Column label GBIF Catalogue Scientific name Author Type status Locality Country Records Collection Class Family Genus Species Subspecies Project Column description GBIF quality status NHMUK catalogue number Genus and species name Author name and date Type status Geographic locality Country Collector Which NHMUK collection specimen record is from Taxonomic class Lepidopteran family Genus Species Subspecies Project title Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the support given to the project by the Watson Trust, which provided funds to allow for the recuration of the specimens while digitsation was taking place. The support and encouragement of Scientific Steering Group of the NHM is acknowledged. This project was supported by internal NHM funds.
21 icollections Digitising the British and Irish Butterflies in the Natural H Author contributions The team contributed to the general text and specifically according to their specilist input into the project as outlined in Project Description section (above). References Agassiz DL, Beavan SD, Heckford RJ (2013) Checklist of the Lepidoptera of the British Isles. Royal Entomological Society; Field Studies Council (Great Britain), London, 210 pp. [In English]. Brooks SJ, Self AE, Toloni F, Sparks TH (2014) Natural history museum collections provide information on phenological change in British butterflies since the mid-19th century. International J ournal of Biometeorology 58: [In English]. DOI: /s Newman LE (1967) Living with butterflies. John Barker, London, 228 pp. Salmon MA, Marren P, Harley B (2000) The Aurelian legacy: British butterflies and their collectors. University of California Press, 432 pp. Supplementary material Suppl. material 1: List of butterfly species in the NHMUK British and Irish Collections Authors: Paterson, G.L.J. et al Data type: Recods of the numbers of individuals of each British and Irish species Brief description: CSV file alternative to Table 1 Filename: Table 1 final.csv - Download file (5.52 kb)
The State of the UK s Butterflies 215 2 Executive summary World-class citizen science projects provide a comprehensive and statistically robust evidence base to inform this assessment of the state of the
The State of Butterflies in Jersey - The Jersey Butterfly Monitoring Scheme: 2004 to 2013 - STATES OF JERSEY 2015 The State of Butterflies in Jersey First published in Great Britain in 2015 by States of
Butterfly densities on line transects in The Netherlands from 1990-2001 The Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme started in 1990. Today more than 300 sites are recorded yearly, most of them by volunteers.
Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2013; 1(1) : 1-6 Published online January 10, 2013 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/avs) doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20130101.11 Lepidoptera fauna in aegean region of Turkey
Eur. J. Entomol. 111(4: 543 553, 2014 doi: 10.14411/eje.2014.060 ISSN 1210-5759 (print, 1802-8829 (online Generalist-specialist continuum and life history traits of Central European butterflies (Lepidoptera
Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2013; 1(1) : 7-11 Published online January 10, 2013 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/avs) doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20130101.12 Faunistic study on Lepidoptera from different
Ecological Monitoring of and in the valleys of Emmels and Rechterbach within the AMICE project (4) December 2012 Author of the report: Dominik Arens Natagora/BNVS Ostbelgien Medell 162 B-4770 Amel Contents
HUNGARY 5 th 15 th July 2011 Ben Macdonald I. Introduction The Bukk Hills and Aggtelek National Park in Hungary form two of the most spectacular places in Europe to observe quality and quantity of butterflies.
I. General Information Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 1. What is Phenology? 2. What is the Bird Phenology Program (BPP)? 3. How does the BPP work? 4. What is an AOU number? 5. What is the USA- National
Urban Big Data Centre Data services: Guide for researchers December 2014 Version 2.0 Authors: Nick Bailey 1 Introduction... 3 UBDC Data Services... 3 Open Data and the UBDC Open Data portal... 4 Safeguarded
MIDI PYRENEES FRANCE Contact information: email@example.com Website: www.borderlinehols.com focused on the Hautes Pyrénées Species: There are almost 200 species of butterflies and 28 species of day-flying
Symposium Recruiting, Retaining, and Supporting Small Collections in Digitization Initiatives A Symposium to Be Held at the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections annual conference,
Digitisation of the Chalcidoidea collection at the Natural History Museum, London current projects Natalie Dale-Skey Curator Hymenoptera Natural History Museum, London UK Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) Digitisation
(BC) Naturetrek 9-13 July 2011 Mulberry Harbour at sunset Large Tortoiseshell Silver-studded Blue Alcon Blue Report and images compiled by Tom Brereton Naturetrek Cheriton Mill Cheriton Alresford Hampshire
Checklist for a Data Management Plan draft The Consortium Partners involved in data creation and analysis are kindly asked to fill out the form in order to provide information for each datasets that will
Prejeto / Received: 11.11.2013 SHORT COMMUNICATION Sprejeto / Accepted: 19.12.2013 De Prunner s Ringlet Erebia triaria (de Prunner, 1798) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) a new species for the Republic
Nico W. Elfferich Rotterdamse Natuurhistorische Club Is the larval and imaginal signalling of Lycaenidae and other Lepidoptera related to communication with ants? Ellferich, N.W, 1998 - Is the larval and
THE BRITISH LIBRARY Unlocking The Value The British Library s Collection Metadata Strategy 2015-2018 Page 1 of 8 Summary Our vision is that by 2020 the Library s collection metadata assets will be comprehensive,
Problem Description Meeting Scheduling across Heterogeneous Calendar Systems and Organizational Borders Background Using electronic calendars has become the most prominent way of managing personal time.
Project Title: Total Project Budget: Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund 2016 Request for Proposals (RFP) Scientific Asset Management: Digital Preservation for Future Generations Category: Proposed
RESPONSE FROM GBIF TO QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION A. Policy support tools and methodologies developed or used under the Convention and their adequacy, impact and obstacles to their uptake, as well
The Packages... Lite Low cost, entry level live chat software, available for small businesses with a single operator. This option allows unlimited chats, and offers a great range of button images and chat
Training Curriculum Training Team Contents Welcome to Asite Training\...3 Training Techniques\...4 a) Presentation Style Training\...4 b) Classroom Style Training\...5 c) Self Study Learning\...6 Client
Rosetta A white paper on the challenges of sharing observational datasets The Challenges of Sharing Observational Data Observational studies are a critical component of geosciences education and research.
Assessment Policy 1 Introduction This document has been written by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) to provide policy makers, researchers, teacher educators and practitioners with
SLAC-TN-12-017 INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis Cole Adams Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program Wheaton College SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory August 5, 2011 Prepared in partial
Open Research Online The Open University s repository of research publications and other research outputs Using LibQUAL+ R to Identify Commonalities in Customer Satisfaction: The Secret to Success? Journal
Retail Sector Labour Market Review September 2013 Contents Introduction... 3 Economic contribution and performance... 6 What constitutes the retail sector?... 6 Size and number of businesses... 6 Table
Wellcome Library Exhibition Loan Conditions The Wellcome Library regularly lends to exhibitions both in the UK and worldwide. We welcome requests and enquiries from museums, galleries and libraries who
Intro to Data Management Chris Jordan Data Management and Collections Group Texas Advanced Computing Center Why Data Management? Digital research, above all, creates files Lots of files Without a plan,
Annex C Data Quality Statement on Statistics Release: Adults with learning disabilities known to Scottish local authorities 2012 (esay) Data quality The six dimensions of data quality as defined by the
This report is for discussion purposes only, it is not government policy The Clarity of Certificates and Diplomas on the New Zealand Register of Quality Assured Qualifications Patricia Vermillion Peirce
Biological collections at the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge: a unique historical record Start date 7 December 2012 End date 9 December 2012 Venue Madingley Hall, Madingley, Cambridge and University
CPERC Data Management Policy January 2011 Contents 1) NBN Trust guidance on data management 2) Definitions 3) Software used in the data management process 4) Data selection 5) Data formats 6) Digitisation
Version 1.0 klm General Certificate of Education January 2011 Geography A Unit 2 GEOG2 Post-Stand Mark Scheme 3 Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant
HALOGEN RESEARCH DATA MANAGEMENT BENEFITS CASE STUDY 1. BACKGROUND The cross-disciplinary Roots of the British collaboration between scholars in humanities and genetics at the University of Leicester (Wellcome
AHRC COLLABORATIVE DOCTORAL PARTNERSHIP AWARDS AT THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, LONDON (2015) Frequently Asked Questions for Academic Staff and Research Support Staff at Higher Education Institutions
TITLE OF PRESENTATION Informatio Scientifica - Informatio Medicata 2014, 25-26 September 2014 Elsevier s approach to Open Access and latest developments Federica Rosetta, Associate Director Access Relations,
INTRODUCTION This paper provides an outline statement of what we consider to be best practice with respect to the use of reconciliation software used by asset managers. It is not a description of any particular
Interactive Information Visualization in the Digital Flora of Texas Teong Joo Ong 1, John J. Leggett 1, Hugh D. Wilson 2, Stephan L. Hatch 3, Monique D. Reed 2 1 Center for the Study of Digital Libraries,
Distr. GENERAL 8 October 2012 WP. 13 ENGLISH ONLY UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICIANS Seminar on New Frontiers for Statistical Data Collection (Geneva, Switzerland,
The Metadata in the Data Catalogue DBK at the GESIS Data Archive Wolfgang Zenk-Möltgen GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences Wolfgang.Zenk-Moeltgen@gesis.org RatSWD Workshop Metadata and Persistent
HydroDesktop Overview 1. Initial Objectives HydroDesktop (formerly referred to as HIS Desktop) is a new component of the HIS project intended to address the problem of how to obtain, organize and manage
Cambridge English: Preliminary, also known as the Preliminary English Test (PET), is part of a comprehensive range of exams developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment. Cambridge English exams have
Conservation Assessment Module (CAM) beta CAM was developed in collaboration with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Sara Barrios, Alex Roberts & Jean Linsky Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Article created December
IMPLEMENTING BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT IN A DISTRIBUTED ORGANISATION: A CASE STUDY AUTHORS: Patrick Roberts (left) and Mike Stephens (right). Patrick Roberts: Following early experience in the British
11. Monitoring tourism in protected areas 11.1 Why monitor? Monitoring is an essential component of any planning or management process, for without monitoring, managers know nothing about progress towards
JOB DESCRIPTION Job Title: Department/Division: Reports to: Staff reports: Job Purpose: Dimensions: Head of Digital Asset Management Digital Director of Digital Images Manager; Images Cataloguer; Additional
The Purpose of PR 2016 Research Report Contents Introduction Key findings Purpose of PR Tactics Budget Social media, SEO Media Relevance and importance of PR INTRODUCTION FROM XANTHE VAUGHAN WILLIAMS PR
Data Flow Organising action on Research Methods and Data Management Research Methods Support for Collaborative Crop Research Program (CCRP) Projects Funded by the McKnight Foundation Data Flow Organising
NAT. CROAT. VOL. 16 No 2 139 146 ZAGREB June 30, 2007 original scientific paper/izvorni znanstveni rad NEW DATA ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE CROATIAN ENDEMIC BUTTERFLY EREBIA STIRIUS KLEKI LORKOVI], 1955
The Charity First Series STRUCTURING NOT-FOR-PROFIT OPERATIONS IN THE UK Julian Smith and Elizabeth Jones The Charity First series aims to provide practical and straightforward guidance on the challenges
Poverty among ethnic groups how and why does it differ? Peter Kenway and Guy Palmer, New Policy Institute www.jrf.org.uk Contents Introduction and summary 3 1 Poverty rates by ethnic group 9 1 In low income
Essentials of financial A white paper prepared by Software 2012 Table of contents Executive summary...3 Overview of financial...3 What is the purpose of financial?...4 Assessing financial solutions...5
Delverable 6.1: XML mark up tool and services Leading partners: Pensoft, NHM Compiled by: Lyubomir Penev, Vladimir Blagoderov, Teodor Georgiev, Simon Ryrcroft, Benjamen Scott, Sarah Faulwetter November
Distr. GENERAL 25 April 2013 WP.9 ENGLISH ONLY UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN STATISTICIANS EUROPEAN COMMISSION STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (EUROSTAT)
Appendix B Data Quality Dimensions Purpose Dimensions of data quality are fundamental to understanding how to improve data. This appendix summarizes, in chronological order of publication, three foundational
Data Quality Assurance & Quality Control for the National Phenology Database The primary source of observational plant and animal data in the National Phenology Database (NPDb) is a national pool of observers
ACQUISITION AND DISPOSAL POLICY LOCAL STUDIES, ARCHIVES AND MUSEUM SERVICE LONDON BOROUGH OF HILLINGDON 2007-2012 1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The local studies and museum collections were first established
Mathematics Policy 2014 Mathematics Policy Section 1: Introduction Mathematics is a creative and highly inter-connected discipline that has been developed over centuries, providing the solution to some
K-Series Guide: Guide to digitising your document and business processing February 2014 LATEST EDITION Kefron are the Document Kefron & simplifies the document and Information information management world
Fundraising Ireland background Position specification Chief Executive Officer, Fundraising Ireland Established in 2007, Fundraising Ireland is the association for professional fundraisers in Ireland. We
Secured by Design Brand Guidelines Introduction The Secured by Design Logos This document contains guidelines relating to the manner and use of Secured by Design trademark and other intellectual property
Abbey Life Independent Governance Committee Annual Report This is the first annual report of the Abbey Life Assurance Company (Abbey Life) Independent Governance Committee (IGC). We have been appointed
Student Learning Development Presenting numerical data This guide offers practical advice on how to incorporate numerical information into essays, reports, dissertations, posters and presentations. The
Backing the Tourism Sector A Five Point Plan Barbara Hepworth Museum Cornwall Prime Minister David Cameron Millions of overseas tourists visit the UK every year and most take in the sights of London. But
Queensland recordkeeping metadata standard and guideline June 2012 Version 1.1 Queensland State Archives Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts Document details Security
Deakin Research Online Deakin University s institutional research repository DDeakin Research Online Research Online This is the published version (version of record) of: Kelly, Christopher and Dimovski,
Sonatype CLM Server - Dashboard i Sonatype CLM Server - Dashboard Sonatype CLM Server - Dashboard ii Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Accessing the Dashboard 3 3 Viewing CLM Data in the Dashboard 4 3.1 Filters............................................
5 top tips to help you save on travel and expenses Save money Increase control Free up staff Our 5 top tips for saving time and money on T&E Travel and Expenses (T&E) are amongst some of the highest costs
Married only at the weekends? A study of the amount of time spent together by spouses. Reg Gatenby, Office for National Statistics Abstract Studies of time use generally concentrate on the amount of time
1. Introduction www.nerc-bess.net NERC Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) Data Management Strategy 2011-2016 This document aims to provide guidance to all research projects operating
Beyond 2011 Beyond 2011: Population Coverage Survey Field Test 2013 December 2013 Background The Beyond 2011 Programme in the Office for National Statistics (ONS) is currently reviewing options for taking
Corporate 2013 2015 Public confidence in dental regulation www.gdc-uk.org Contents 01 Introduction 02 About this strategy 04 Future opportunities 06 Strategic objectives Our role is to protect the public
Name of museum: Name of governing body: Royal Academy of Arts Council of the Royal Academy of Arts Date on which this policy was approved by governing body: 12 January 2010 Date at which this policy is
Marketing Research Contemporary Themes and Trends Mohammadreza Haji-Basri School of Management and Information System Victoria University PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 800, Australia Abstract To discuss