The Shenandoah River also flows south to north. What is a palette? What was the traditional use for a palette in ancient Egypt?

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1 Art 101 History and Appreciation of Art, Web- Based Course Page 1 of 5 Study Guides for Art, A Brief History, fifth edition: by Marilyn Stokstad and Michael W. Cothren Unit III: Egyptian Art Textbook: Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt Pages The gold funerary mask of Tutankhamen weighs 24 pounds. At this writing, gold is valued at $ per ounce. How much is the mask worth for the gold alone? Look at the map on page 50. Egypt is located in what continent? The Nile River flows from South to North. This means that Upper Egypt, where the ground is higher, is at the bottom of the map. Lower Egypt is at the top of the map. This is the delta region where the Nile fans out to meet the Mediterranean Sea. The Shenandoah River also flows south to north. What is a palette? What was the traditional use for a palette in ancient Egypt? On the Palette of Narmer, the king is shown to be larger than the other figures. Why? Using the size of a figure to show its importance is called hieratic scale or symbolic alteration. The word hieratic comes from hierarchy. Define hierarchy from your dictionary. The word scale means a relationship of sizes. In hieratic scale, the people or objects are arranged according to their importance. The most important people are shown larger than the less important ones. The scale of these people, or objects, is altered (distorted from their natural appearance) to symbolize their rank or importance. Hieratic scale is sometimes referred to as symbolic alteration. The imagery of Egyptian art is highly symbolic. On some objects the hieroglyphs (writing) and the decoration flow together, illustrating the close relationship between Egyptian writing and art. On the Palette of Narmer, the king wears the white crown on one side of the Palette and the red crown on the other. What meaning is attributed to this? Explain the symbolism of the falcon and the papyrus blossoms:

2 Unit III: Egyptian Art Textbook: Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt Pages Page 2 of 5 The falcon, Horus, holds a bull s tail the symbol of strength. The intertwined necks of the monster- felines may represent the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. The bull, known for its strength and fertility, represents the king. Representation of the Human Figure In drawing the human figure, what was the Egyptian artist s aim? Were all figures shown in this way? The artistic conventions the author describes are characteristic of conceptual art art that symbolizes what we know about objects, at the expense of visual accuracy. Note: Egyptian art is dominantly conceptual. Funerary Architecture What was the ka? What happened to the ka after the death of the body? Why was it important to provide the ka with a suitable setting? Define Mestaba Define Necropolis Why were the burial grounds located on the west bank of the Nile? Djoser s Funerary Complex at Saqqara Who was Imhotep? What was the purpose of the pyramid?

3 Unit III: Egyptian Art Textbook: Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt Pages Page 3 of 5 Djoser s pyramid was the first in Egypt. How did the form develop from the mestaba? The Great Sphinx is famous. What king does it represent? How does the statue of Khafre project an image of permanence? What is unusual about the stone? Most Egyptian sculpture is frontal. That is, there is only one important viewpoint, and that is the front of the sculpture. Tomb Decoration Egyptian art is dominantly conceptual. Conceptual art shows the object from its most familiar or characteristic angle. Sometimes several viewpoints are combined to create a composite image. How many viewpoints are recalled in the tomb painting, Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt? What was the significance of the hippopotamus hunt? Define uraeus The Middle Kingdom In the sculpture of Senrusret III what features individualize this portrait? The stele of Amenemhat tells what story about the family? How did Egyptian artists of this period regard themselves and their skills?

4 Unit III: Egyptian Art Textbook: Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt Pages Page 4 of 5 What does the word pharaoh mean? New Kingdom What was unusual about Hatshepsut becoming a pharaoh? How do the sculptures of Hatshepsut tell us the importance of tradition in Egyptian culture? Is Hatshepsut buried in her funerary temple? What features added to the beauty and visual interest of Hatshepsut s temple? Temple of Amun Define Pylon The pylon was called the Horizon of Heaven when it was built facing west, because the sun rose between the towers. Define Capital The hypostyle hall is a post and lintel structure. Because the space spanned by the post and lintel is limited to the length of the lintel, a large hall will necessarily be a forest of columns. The engraved surfaces of the temples were brightly painted in antiquity. Define Clerestory Khafre s temple is a post and lintel construction. What was the function of the clerestory windows? (See page 62.) Akhenaten and the Art of the Amarna Period What remarkable change in Egyptian culture was introduced by Amenhotep IV? What symbolized the god of the new religion? What was the new name of Amenhotep IV?

5 Unit III: Egyptian Art Textbook: Chapter 3 Art of Ancient Egypt Pages Page 5 of 5 Why is this period called Amarna? In art, Aten is depicted as a round sun disk sending down long thin rays ending in human hands, some of which hold the ankh (see Egyptian Symbols). In the picture on page 64, why do the hands point to the nostrils of Akhenaten and Nefertiti? How is sunken relief different from the usual relief carvings? Nefertiti, the wife of Akhenaten, was known for her beauty. How do we know that she was, in fact, beautiful? The Sarcophagus of Tutankhamun Considering the religious sanctions against robbing the tomb of a pharaoh, why would anyone do it? The gold in Tutankhamun s inner coffin weighs more than 240 pounds. Who was Osiris and what did he have to do with Egyptian funerals? What was the Book of the Dead? What interest does the creature, Ammit, have in the weighing of the heart of the deceased? Where did the name, Ptolemaic come from? What art style dominated during the Ptolemaic period in Egypt? Fayum portraits are portraits of mummies painted on mummy cases and found in the Fayum necropolis. There are about 900 of them, found so far. Their distinctive style is Roman. Define Encaustic

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