THE STUDY OF BURNING FOODS. By Jason H ABSTRACT

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1 THE STUDY OF BURNING FOODS By Jason H 11-1 ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the raise in temperature in C of water per g of different types of food. Calorimetry is the study of heat capacity, there are two types of food calories, large ones and small ones, 1 gram of fat has 9 calories and 1 gram of proteins or a carbohydrate give off less heat than fat and has calories, and temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of something. The way this experiment was conducted was food was burned under a pot with water in it and the temperature of the water was recorded. Cheetos heated the water up the most per gram and peanuts heated it up the least. The main thing that changes the raise in temperature of the water per g was the way things were made. INTRODUCTION Calorimetry is the study of heat capacity. The capacity of heat measured is expressed in calories. Calorimetry and food Calorimetry are considered the same thing. Basically they are except for what type of calorie they use. Food nutritionists use food Calorimetry. There are two types of food calories, large ones and small ones. One-thousand small food calories are equal to one large food calorie. A food cal is the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree C..1 kj is equal to one large cal. And a small cal is.19 J. Nutritionists measure the energy content of food in food calories.

2 1 gram of high energy fat has 9 calories.1 gram of low energy proteins or carbohydrates has calories. That means low fat foods have less of a heat capacity than other high fat foods. Foods with a lot of fat have a lot more than other low fat foods. Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of something. It s measured with a thermometer or a temperature probe. A thermometer is a thin tube that can read the temperature of anything. Inside thermometers there is a certain type of liquid that expands and contracts at a specific rate. When it is cold outside, the molecules in the liquid don t move around that much allowing them to stay at the bottom. As the temperature gets higher the molecules move around more and the liquid expands and since there is only way to go is up then the liquid rises to the top of the tube. On the thermometer there are markings that show the temperature. Sometimes a thermometer can tell the temperature in both F and C or one or the other. A temperature probe is something that records the temperature like a thermometer but it is digital. It also records the temperature over a certain period of time. It shows the temperature in a line graph on a computer using special programs. A large part of the world uses the Celsius for temperature measurements. Another scale is the Kelvin scale which is used for scientific or engineering purposes. Finally there is the Fahrenheit scale and only a few countries use it. Temperature is what the result of particles moving. Temperature increases as the motion increases. Many physical properties of materials such as solid liquid and gas change as their motion increases and so does their energy resulting in heat. The concept of temperature comes from the idea of measuring hotness and coldness. In the case of two bodies at different temperatures heat will flow from the hotter to the colder one until their temperatures are identical and thermal equilibrium is reached. The thermal equilibrium is when two substances in physical contact with each other exchange no heat energy. Two substances in the thermal equilibrium are at the same temperature.

3 Fire is actually a chemical reaction. Fire is the light and heat given off when something burns. Things catch fire when they get to their ignition temperature. They burn because they react with oxygen in the air. Once something is on fire it continues to burn because of the heat it produces. A fire needs three things to keep burning, fuel, heat and oxygen. If it doesn t have one of these things then it will stop burning. Drake Richards, at Cary Academy, has studied burning junk food. By burning marshmallows, peanuts, cashews, and popcorn and monitoring the amount the temperature of the water rose, Richards determined the difference in temperature of the water after burning. He found that cashews made the temperature rise greatly. He also found that marshmallows, peanuts, and popcorn make the water above it rise at around the same rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS In these experiments Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, Lays Original, peanuts, Doritos ranch, Doritos spicy nacho, Lays baked, Lays barbecue, a metal pot, two forks, liter, a ring stand, and a temperature probe were used. In the first experiment 1, A glass bowl with 1 ml. of water was on a ring stand. A temperature probe was measuring the temperature. There was food that had its weight measured on two bent forks as shown in the diagram below (see figure 1). The food was ignited with a lighter. The temperature rise was recorded and the amount it rose was divided by the number of grams it weighed. The same procedure was repeated 3 times and an average was taken. This was done with Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, peanuts, and Lays Original.

4 Figure 1 shows the way the experiment was set up In the second experiment the same method from the first experiment was used but with 1 Cheeto, Cheetos, and 3 Cheetos instead of Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, peanuts, and Lays Original. In the third experiment the same method from the first experiment was used but with Doritos nacho cheese, Doritos ranch, and Doritos spicy nacho were burned instead of Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, peanuts, and Lays Original. In the fourth experiment the same method as the first one was used but Lays original, Lays baked, and Lays barbecue instead of Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, peanuts, and Lays Original.

5 Temperature Change (C/g) In the fifth experiment the same method as the first one was used but Cheetos with the cheese scraped off were used instead of Cheetos, Doritos nacho cheese, peanuts, and Lays Original. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In experiment 1, Cheetos were found to increase the temperature of the water by the most (see figure ). Peanuts, Lays, and Doritos were found to increase the temperature of the water by about the same amount (5- C). The reason why Cheetos burned the hottest was that their airy inside allowed oxygen to get to the flame quickly resulting in a hotter flame. While the others still burned their flame wasn t as hot Peanuts Cheetos Lays Original Doritos Nacho Type of Food Figure. Shows the rises in temperature of water per g as different things were burned under it. The raise in water temperature decreased as more Cheetos were added (see figure 3). The reason was that as more Cheetos were added it was much harder for oxygen to get to the underside of the flame. It had to go through more layers of Cheetos to get to the flame. That means that the added energy of the extra Cheetos makes the flame burn longer not hotter. Original

6 TemperatureCchange (c/g) Cheeto Cheeto 3 Cheeto Number of Cheetos Figure 3. Shows the rises in temperature of water per g as different amounts of Cheetos were burned under it. Spicy Nacho flavored Doritos increased the temperature by a lot more than the Nacho and Cool Ranch (see figure ). The reason was that the Nacho and Cool Ranch Doritos had less flavorings than the Spicy Dorito. For example the Nacho Dorito had one layer of cheese but the spicy Dorito has the regular cheese and then spicy stuff that adds to the heat

7 Temperature Change (c/g) Original Barbecue Baked Type of Lays Chip Figure. Shows the rises in temperature of water per g as different types of Doritos were burned under it. Regular Lays raised the heat of the water by the most (see figure 5). The reason was that it had more grease than barbecue and baked. The reason is that the regular are fried. Barbecue is also fried but then things are added to it and those things soak up the grease and then fall off so there is less grease total on the Barbecue Lays chip. The baked have a tiny bit of grease because they are baked not fried.

8 Temperature Change (c/g) Temperature Change (c/g) Original Barbecue Baked Type of Lays Chip Figure 5. Shows the rises in temperature of water per g as different types of lays were burned under it. Burning a Cheeto with the cheese scraped off increased the temperature of the water. It increased the temperature of the water per g by 11 1/3 C(see figure ) Cheeto With the Cheese Scraped Off Figure. Shows the rises in temperature of water per g as Cheetos with the cheese scraped off were burned under it.

9 CONCLUSION Cheetos heated the water up the most per gram and peanuts heated it up the least. The reason my experiment is important to the world is that you could use a Cheeto design to make something very flammable. Yes, the hypothesis that was made was correct for every experiment. A follow up experiment would be to use different types of brands. CITATIONS Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. Calorimetry" 1.. : 1. ebsco host. Web. February 1. Ganeri, Anita. Indoor science. London: evens brothers limited Print Hall, Prentice. Science explorer motion forces and energy. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.. Print. How Stuff Works. "How does fire work. Discovery kids How Stuff Works. Web. February 1. Jerry Coffey. "What is temperature." universe today. Flame Stop Inc., SEPTEMBER 15, 1. Web. February 1 Landis, Fred. "Temperature" 1. : 1. ebsco host. Web. February 1. Tom Harris. "How Fire Works" how stuff works. Web. February 1 Stein, Sarah. The Body Book. New York: Workman Publishing Company Inc Print.

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