methane and compost production from organic resources Morten Brøgger Kristensen Chief Technology Officer

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1 Aikan Technology methane and compost production from organic resources Morten Brøgger Kristensen Chief Technology Officer

2 Aikan is innovated from experience Solum has been operating the Danish Aikan plant BioVækst successfully for more than 10 Years ton of separately collected municipal solid waste has been transformed to biogas and compost BioVækst is a 50/50 split private public partnership based on well defined roles and common decisions We have been focusing on creation of value through development of: environmental performance, robustness and great flexibility We collaborate with leading Danish universities on many research and development issues to keep a science based approach

3 Four Danish ministers of environment have paid attention to us; including the present European commissionaire for climate

4 We are focused on a strategy for waste Avoid Reduce Waste Hierarchy Strategy Reuse Recover Recycling with energy recovery Incineration with energy recovery Dispose (Landfill)

5 Fra affald til værdi

6 Aikan Technology

7 The Aikan Technology Process Solid organic matter is made soluble by microbial enzymatic degradation Volatile organic matter is transformed to methane by bacteria Resistant organic matter is sanitized and transformed into Compost

8 Layout for a complete Aikan plant for anaerobic digestion and composting

9 Scalable modular designs Reception and pre-treatment; flexible pre-treatment Process modules; more Reactor tank capacity; more Maturation boxes; 5-10-more Odor treatment; module based too Energy exploitation units; gas-upgrading; CHP etc.

10 Mass balances in general what goes in comes out! All in- and outputs must be analyzed for Organic Solids, Non-Organic Solids and Water Harmful substances or chemical components must always be accounted for or separated by an efficient collection schemes Plant performance must account for output products and outlets to the environment Standard mass balance figures does not exist. We always base a mass balance on feedstock characterizing since: Mass is Money!

11 Aikan products and energy from 1 MG of Biodegradable Municipal Solid Waste (BMSW) 80 Nm 3 biogas (70 % methane), waste potential is 180 Nm 3 biogas Biogas is flexible: Production and sale of electricity and heat (up to 50/50) Upgrading to Methane for transportation etc. Grid transportation to other energy supplier etc. 350 kg of 0-10 mm compost Good organic fertilizer with high content of NPK Sanitized Reduced risk of odor problems Stabilized organic matter

12 A mass balance based on data from the Danish plant Water Organic Dry Matter Massbalance Non-Organic Dry Matter 17% Residual Waste for other treatment * Residual Waste for other treatment * (3.400 ton) Biogas (1.700 ton) Via ventilationair (2.320 ton) Via ventilationair (9.280 ton) 44% 3,9% 88% 88% 67% 50% 96,1% 12% 12% Solid Waste and Feedstock 6% 28% Compost ( ton) 42% (6.620 ton) 27% 30% 6% 50% 53% 49% 19% Pre-treatment 36% 32% Composting in Process 34% Composting in Maturation 51% 14% 15% Modules 17% Boxes 30% Screening of compost In processmodules Degasified biomass Fresh (sanitized, not mature compost) Compost with structure ( ton) ( ton) ( ton) ( ton) 0% Structure material 5% (3.320 ton) 65% 0,0% 0% 30% 0,0% Fertilizer (0 ton) 0,0% 0,0% To reaktortank Biogas Phase (0 ton) Slurry or other fluid 7% Recycled feedstocks 63% Structurematerials 0% (0 ton) 7% 30% (4.980 kg) 63% 0,0% 30% 0,0% Recycled Structurematerials (4.980 ton) * Plastics, Metals, Glass, Stones and RDF

13 Odor Management Odor is an inevitable subject linked to degradation of volatile organic matter To avoid trouble with neighbors and subsequently authorities odor must have the highest priority Managing Odor must be based on a twofold strategy: Planning for a well-designed Plant Getting a well-functioning and educated operation team

14 Aikan Odor Management Enclosed system for both biogas and compost production Integrated treatment of exhaust air from reception, critical workspaces and all processes via vaporizer and bio-filtration Registered odor levels for all the individual steps has been build into the odor management system Education and training of staff prior to start up Operation manual with equal focus on production and odor management

15 Ongoing R&D activities in 2014 Hydrolysis improvements; 2StageBiogas project Enhancing from 80 m 3 towards 180 m 3 of biogas Full integration with wet systems for manure (or sewage) treatment; Aikan Agri Testing new feedstock at our full scale, trail facilities in Denmark Testing biogas potential of specific wastes

16 2StageBiogas a project with Aalborg University Copenhagen supported by EnerginetDK Target to reach 80% of theoretical potentials of the first step hydrolysis Different preparation methods for the waste Different process regimes Enzyme addition Variation of Temperature during hydrolysis To be published 2015

17 Aikan Agri Standard Wet System Additional Aikan Agri Components Report from the Danish EPA to be found at

18 Basic understanding of feedstock Waste Composition Water Content Mineral Dry Matter Not Biodegradable Organic matter Biodegradeable Organic Matter 20 0 per ton of BOD per ton of VS per ton of TS per ton of waste Biogas Methane Biogas Methane Biogas Methane Biogas Methane

19 Biowaste management strategies Source Separation: of biowaste or separation of: plastics, glass, metals, painted wood, cloth, rubber, electronics, batteries etc. etc. To gain quality recycling source separation is needed for some fractions Since % of MSW is often Biowaste it s a good place to start.

20 The sustainability of proper Biowaste handling Biowaste is carbon dioxide fixation from the air and nutrient fixation from the soil made possible by the power of the sun thus a truly renewable resource A clean fraction of biowaste is producing good quality compost Phosphor is essential to food production and known clean mineral deposits will only last for years thus it is now time to recycle All resources are getting scarcer day by day. Thus the price of good recycled products will increase Biogas is a flexible energy form that can be used for transportation, electricity production and stored Compost recycles phosphor, nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients, postpone CO 2 release to the atmosphere and ease soil structure

21 Summarizing Aikan Technology features o Proven Technology o Competitive price level o Unique design o Robust o Scalable o Flexible o Biogas o Compost o Effective space utilization o Odor Management more than 10 years of concrete operating experience negotiations have shown that Aikan compete nicely with other systems protected 3 step process integrating AD and Composting can handle even MSW due to a simple tough preand after-treatment the modular design secure that no present extra investments needed to secure future needs can be optimized to local price structure focusing on the most valuable in- and output streams at least 70% of methane The remaining solids are sanitized and matured A complete handling of all waste streams gives an optimal, integrated use of space Built-In odor management system, based on experience and analysis

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