Chapter 12 Cytoskeleton

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1 Chapter 12 Cytoskeleton

2 Microtubules

3 Microtubules usually grow out of an organizing structure

4 Microtubules are hollow tubes of tubuln 13 subunits

5 Tubulin polymerizes from nucleation site on a centrosome

6 Each microtubule filaments grows and shrinks independently of its neighbors shrink growth

7 GTP hydrolysis controls the growth of microtubules

8 The selective stabilization of microtubules can polarize a cell Organizing center

9 polymerization depolymerization polymerization depolymerization

10 Microtubules transport cargo along a nerve cell axon

11 Organelles move along microtubules at different speeds 0 ms 0.4 ms 0.8 ms 1.2 ms 1.6 ms

12 Motor proteins move along microtubules using their globular heads dimer ATP-dependent walking

13 Different motor proteins transport cargo along microtubules

14 Golgi apparatus Microtubules help to arrange the organelles in a eucaryotic cell ER ER Golgi apparatus Microtubule Nucleus Centrosome Microtubules Outward Microtubules Inward

15 Video-enhanced microscopy of cytoplasm squeezed from a squid giant axon reveals the motion of organelles Small vesicles Mitochondrion

16 A motor protein causes microtubule gliding Kinesin + Microtubule + ATP

17 Video microscopy can be used to track the movement of a single kinesin molecule

18 A single molecule of kinesin moves along a microtubule tail Kinesin head Kinesin-GFP microtubule 0.3 m/sec

19 Hairlike cilia coat the surface of many eucaryotic cells The ciliated epithelium on the surface of the human respiratory tract

20 A cilium beats by performing a repetitive cycle of movements consisting of a power stroke followed by a recovery stroke sec/cycle

21 Flagella propel a cell using a repetitive wavelike motion

22 9+2 array Microtubules in a cilium or flagella are arranged in a array

23 The movement of dynein causes the flagellum to bend Sliding Bending

24 Actin filaments

25 Actin filaments allow eucaryotic cells to adopt a variety of shapes and perform a variety of functions Microvilli Contractile bundles (stress fibers) Lamellipodia (sheetlike) Filopodia (fingerlike) Contractile ring

26 Actin filaments are thin, flexible protein threads Actin filament (two-stranded helix)

27 ATP hydrolysis decreases the stability of the actin polymer

28 Actin-binding proteins control the behavior of actin filaments in vertebrate cells

29 Forces generated in the actin-rich cortex move a cell forward

30 Actin filaments allows animal cell to migrate Toward the plus end of the filaments

31 A web of actin filaments pushes the leading edges of a lamellipodium forward

32 Actin filaments in lamellipodia

33 Actin filament dynamics

34 Formins help drive the elongation of actin filaments

35 The short tail of a myosin-i molecule contains sites that bind to various components of the cell, including membranes 1 head 1 tail Plus end

36 Activation of GTP-binding proteins has a dramatic effect on the organization of actin filaments in fibroblasts cortex contractile bundles (stress fibers) lamellipodium filapodia

37 Myosin-II molecules can associate with one another to form myosin filaments A bipolar myosin filament

38 Even small bipolar filaments composed of myosin-ii molecules can slide actin filaments over each other, thus mediating local shortening of an actin filament bundle

39 Muscle Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus Several muscle fibers Single muscle fiber (cell) Plasma membrane Nuclei Myofibril Light band Dark band Light band Z line Sarcomere Thick filaments (myosin) Thin filaments (actin) Z line Sarcomere Z line

40 A skeletal muscle cell is packed with myofibrils, ach of which consists of a repeating chain of sarcomeres

41 The contractile apparatus of skeletal muscle

42 Sarcomeres are the contractile units of muscle Myosin II

43 Muscles contract by a sliding-filament mechanism

44 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide along thick filaments Relaxed muscle Z Sarcomere Dark band Z Contracting muscle Fully contracted muscle 35% shorten Contracted sarcomere The sliding-filament model of muscle contraction

45 A myosin molecule walks along an actin filament through a cycle of structural changes Power stroke

46 The mechanism of filament sliding

47 How a motor neuron stimulates muscle contraction Motor neuron axon Action potential Mitochondrion Synaptic terminal T tubule Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Myofibril Plasma membrane Sarcomere Ca 2 released from ER

48 T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum surround the myofibrils

49 In skeletal muscle, contraction involve Ca 2+ signaling

50 How a motor neurons stimulates muscle contraction

51 Thin filament, showing the interactions among actin, regulatory proteins, and Ca 2+ Myosin-binding sites blocked Tropomyosin Actin Ca 2 -binding sites Troponin complex Ca 2 floods the cytoplasmic fluid Myosin-binding sites exposed Myosin-binding site

52 Skeletal muscle contraction is controlled by troponin

53 The cytoskeleton gives a cell its shape and allows the cell to organize its internal components Microtubules Actin filaments Nucleus

54 Intermediate filaments

55 Intermediate filaments form a strong, durable network in the cytoplasm of the cell Intermediate keratin filaments

56 Intermediate filaments are like ropes made of long, twisted strands of protein Central rod domain Globular region

57 Intermediate filaments strengthen animal cells Desmosome

58 Intermediate filaments can be divided into several categories

59 Plectin aids in the bunding of intermediate filaments and links these filaments to other cytoskeletal protein network Plectin Intermediate filament Microtubule

60 Intermediate filaments support and strengthen the nuclear envelope lamin

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