# ME 215 Engineering Materials I

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1 ME 215 Engineering Materials I Chapter 3 Properties in Tension and Compression (Part III) Mechanical Engineering University of Gaziantep Dr. A. Tolga Bozdana

2 True Stress and True Strain For engineering stress (σ) and engineering strain (ε), the original (gauge) dimensions of specimen are employed. However, length and cross-sectional area change in plastic region. True stress (σʹ) and true strain (εʹ) areusedfor accurate definition of plastic behaviour of ductile materials by considering the actual (instantaneous) dimensions. True stress (σʹ) is the force divided by the actual area: By the constancy of volume: V A L A o L o F A, we can obtain: F F L L Lo L F & 1 1 A A L L L A o o o o o 1 F F True strain (εʹ) is change in length with respect to the instant length: L L 0 dl L ln L L & L 1 ln 1 o L o L o A o L A True strain can also be in terms of reduction in area: ln A A o This can be rewritten for cylindrical specimens: 2ln D D o 1

3 True Stress and True Strain Fig. 21 shows conventional vs true stress-strain diagrams for two different steels in which the portion beyond ultimate strength is significant. When necking starts, only way to define the gauge length is to measure it. However, if loads at ultimate and fracture points are recorded, this portion can be approximated by a straight line using the fracture area. Thus, true strain at point of fracture is determined by equation below: R A 1 e R A : reduction in area e : natural logarithm f True Stress ( kg / mm 2 ) ε f : true fracture strain Figure S t S t C22 steel x x 1% Ni Steel True Strain (mm / mm) x True Fracture True Diagram Conventional Diagram x 2

4 True Stress and True Strain There is an approximate linear relationship between true stress and true strain when plotted on log-log scale, as shown in Fig. 22 for various steels. For many materials, the correlation between true stress and true strain has been found to be approximately represented by equation below: K n K : strength coefficient n : strain hardening exponent (i.e. slope of log-log plot) n = 0 (perfectly malleable solid) n = 1 (elastic solid) Figure 22 3

5 Tensile Properties of Steel Alloy content, heat treatment and fabrication (production) process are the variables affecting tensile and other properties of steel. The following factors influence the selection procedure of steels: a. Rigidity is purely a design problem. Elastic modulus of steels falls within the range of * 10 4 kg/mm 2, regardless of composition or form. b. Yield and tensile strength of carbon steels are strongly affected by their carbon content regardless of alloy content. Increasing carbon content will increase yield and tensile strength, but decrease ductility (see Fig. 23). Some designers use tensile strength while others use yield point. Whichever used is modified by a factor of safety to allow uncertainties in stress calculations and possible overloads. Figure 23 4

6 Tensile Properties of Steel c. Heat treatment gives useful and important properties due to hardenability in order to obtain proper combination of strength, ductility and toughness. Heat-treatable steel for non-cylindrical part must be picked based on ruling section-size (i.e. the maximum diameter of round bar in which the specified tensile strength or hardness can be produced by employed heat treatment). S t BHN d. Hardness is related to strength as: where f is a conversion factor ( ) and BHN is the Brinell Hardness Number. Steels with the same hardness usually have the same tensile strengths. e. Ductility of carbon steels decreases as hardness increases. For the same BHN or strength, alloys steels are more ductile than carbon steels. An alloy steel can give better strength, ductility and toughness. Thus, it should be preferred to carbon steel under high stress or impact loading. f. Fabrication process is also significant for the properties of steels. When an annealed steel is cold worked (by rolling, wire drawing or elongation in tension), its strength and hardness increase, but its ductility decreases. f 5

7 Factors Affecting Tension and Compression Tests In tension or compression test, the specimen is subjected to a gradually increasing uniaxial load until failure occurs. The test is fundamentally dynamic, but due to the low speed of testing involved, it is considered to be quasi-static for all practical purposes. There are several factors affecting these tests (e.g. metallurgical factors as well as testing and environmental conditions). Such factors are mainly grouped into two categories: 1. Variables related to test specimen (size and shape effect) 2. Variables related to testing machine (strain rate, rigidity of machine, load and extension measuring device, gripping arrangement) 6

8 Variables Related to Test Specimen In theory, if a material is of uniform quality, the geometrically similar size of specimens would not affect the test results considerably. However, in practice, mechanical properties change with size. This is called size effect, which is observed in fatigue and brittle fracture according to the statistical distribution of defects in microstructure. Different sizes for the same material would give different property values (as in table). 7

9 Shape also affects the results. Fig. 24 shows standard tensile test specimens (TS 138). In case of compression tests, specimens of circular section are used for uniform straining. Height-to-diameter ratio (h/d) is important to avoid buckling and ensure free shear plane in case of brittle materials: Type h/d Purpose Short 0.9 Testing bearing materials Medium 3 General purpose uses Long 8-10 To determine stiffness Variables Related to Test Specimen Figure 24 8

10 Variables Related to Test Specimen Fig. 25a shows how ductility and shape of stress-strain diagram varies with L o /d o ratio. The reduction of area is independent of L o /d o for values of > 2 and drastically reduced for values of < 2. This is called notch sensitivity. The term notch implies any kind of stress concentration effect. Small ratios convert ductile type of stress-strain curves to brittle type (as in Fig. 25b). Stress concentrations are unimportant where static loads are acting on ductile materials. However, brittle materials have limited capacity of plastic flow, so a notch adversely affects strength causing sudden failure. Figure 25 9

11 Variables Related to Testing Machine Fig. 26 illustrates two commonly used testing machines by which tension and compression tests in uniaxial direction can be performed. Electronic version of these testers are also available. Figure 26 Screw (Crosshead) Type Testing Machine Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine 1 Frame 2 Tension space 3 Pump 4 Valve 5 Dynamometer 6 Compression space The factors related to the testing machine are: strain rate and strain history, rigidity of machine, load and extension measuring device, gripping devices. 10

12 Variables Related to Testing Machine Strain rate (dε/dt) is related to the speed of gripping heads. Fig. 27 shows the effect of strain rate (curve shifts upwards at higher speeds). stress High strain rate Low strain rate ASTM, Turkish and DIN standards for appropriate strain rates to be used in testing various materials are given in tables below: Figure 27 strain Various ASTM requirements on strain rate Material ASTM Max. Crosshead Speed (mm/min) Tested Ref. To yield To ultimate Load rate Metallic E mm 0.5 mm per Maximum 70 materials* per mm of mm of gauge kg/mm 2 /min Steel prod.* A370 gauge length above to yield Gray CI A48 length 10 kg/mm 2 Specified Grip Speed (mm/min) Plastics D kg/s Hard rubber D530 Soft rubber D * The values are also recommended in TS 138 Strain rates for metallic materials (DIN) For determination of dσ/dt 1 (kg/mm 2 s) upper yield point dε/dt 0.3 (% / minute) For determination of lower yield point dε/dt 10 (% / minute) For determination of tensile strength (before reaching max. force) dε/dt 40 (% / minute) 11

13 Variables Related to Testing Machine Strain history also modifies the stress-strain diagram. When a material is subjected to a cycle of loading and unloading, some energy is dissipated by the specimen, which is called hysteresis effect. It is an important consideration in the treatment of anelasticity and fatigue. Rigidity of machine contributes to the deformation measurements. Under loading, not only the specimens but also components of machine elongate. Due to the deformation of machine itself, it is also difficult to maintain constant strain rate of the specimen, which again affects the test result. Load and extension measuring device: Mechanical systems with high inertia will cause changes in measurements especially at high speeds when acceleration comes into play. In contrast, electronic systems with negligible inertia always provide the same measurement at all speeds. Hence, it is better to use low inertia measuring devices for accurate results. Similar to rigidity of machine, gripping devices also must be stiff and rigid (i.e. no bending effect on the specimen should occur). 12

14 Variables Related to Testing Machine 13

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