D. Hypothesis E. Independent Variable F. Dependent Variable

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1 Unit 1 Vocabulary: A. Technology B. Chemistry C. Scientific Method D. Hypothesis E. Independent Variable F. Dependent Variable G. Scientific Theory H. Scientific Laws I. Scientific Model A The use of knowledge to solve practical problems. D A proposed question or prediction that can be tested. G A conclusion or answer to a scientific question based on evidence collected in an experiment. H A description of observed patterns in nature with no attempt at explanation. B The study of the composition of matter. E The part of an experiment that is changed to see how it will affect the other parts of the experiment. F The part of an experiment that is measured to see how it responded to changes in the experiment. I A representation of a scientific concept that make it easier to understand. C An organized plan for gathering and presenting information. List the steps of the scientific method in order: 1. Observations 2. Hypothesis 3. Experiment 4. Analyze Data 5. Develop a scientific theory

2 Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. A 1. How are science and technology related? a. Technology is a branch of natural science. b. Science is a branch of technology. c. Advances in science may lead to advances in technology and vice versa. d. Science and technology are not related. C 2. What happens when the data in an investigation do not support the original hypothesis? a. The scientist gives up and starts an investigation on a new topic. b. The data must be incorrect and are thrown out. c. The hypothesis will be revised. d. The data are altered so that they support the original hypothesis. B 3. Which of the following statements is true about scientific theories? a. Scientific theories become scientific laws. b. Scientific theories are never proven. c. Scientific theories become hypotheses. d. Scientific theories summarize patterns found in nature. B 4. Why are scientific models important? a. They prove scientific theories. b. They help visualize things that are very complex, very large, or very small. c. They make it harder to understand things. d. They never change. MOUTHWASH: The makers of brand A mouthwash want to prove that their mouthwash kills more bacteria than the other 4 leading brands of mouthwash. They organize 60 test subjects into 6 groups of 10 test subjects. The data for the experiment is shown below. mouthwash used time mouthwash was in mouth # of bacteria in mouth (average) none 135 A 60 sec. 23 B 60 sec. 170 C 60 sec. 84 D 60 sec. 39 E 60 sec. 81 Independent variable: Type of Mouthwash Dependent variable: # of Bacteria Constants: Time in mouth Control Group: No mouthwash

3 Put the following numbers into scientific notation: x x 10-6 Use your calculator to solve the following mathematical operation: (4.45 x 10 3 ) (3.64 x 10 6 )= 1.62 x (3.49 x 10-2 ) / (6.75 x 10 5 )= 5.17 x 10-8 List three different pieces of equipment and what you would use it for. Beaker heating, mixing Graduated Cylinder measuring volume Scale Measuring mass. Many others look at your lab equipment booklet

4 Unit 2 Vocabulary A. Pure Substance B. Atom C. Compound D. Heterogeneous Mixture E. Homogeneous Mixture F. Physical Property G. Physical Change H. Chemical Property I. Chemical Change A Types of matter that cannot be separated by physical means. E A type of matter that is well mixed and can be separated by physical means. C A form of matter that can only be separated by chemical means. A The smallest unit of matter. I A change in matter that only occurs during a chemical reaction. H A property of matter that can only be observed when a chemical change is occurring. F A property of matter that describes observable characteristics of a substance. D A type of matter that is unevenly mixed and can be separated by physical means. G A change in matter that does not affect the chemical composition of the substance. Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. D 1. Water is a compound because it a. can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen. b. has a fixed composition. c. is made of water atoms joined together. d. both a and b A 2. Which of the following is a characteristic of a mixture? a. can have varying properties b. has a fixed composition c. contains no pure substances d. both a and b

5 A 3. Which of the following is a physical change? a. sawing a piece of wood in half b. burning a piece of wood c. rust forming on an iron fence d. a copper roof changing color from red to green D 4. Which of the following is evidence of a chemical change? a. Iron changes color when heated. b. Gas bubbles form in boiling water. c. Balls of wax form when melted wax is poured into ice water. d. A gas forms when vinegar and baking soda are mixed. Put a P next to the physical properties and a C next to the chemical properties: C Formation of a gas when mixed with HCl C Changes color when mixed with Acetic Acid P Malleability P Conductivity P Density P Color Categorize each of the following substances as an element (E), compound (C), heterogeneous mixture (HM), or homogeneous mixture (OM). E Copper C Carbon Dioxide HM Seawater HM A Big Mac C Ice OM Milk HM Lucky Charms HM Sand Label each of the following as the appropriate state of matter. A Gas B Liquid C Solid Which of the particles are moving the fastest? Gas

6 What is the relationship between temperature and the movement of particles? As temperature increases, particles move faster Describe Charles Law and Boyle s Law. Draw a graph that illustrates the laws. Charles Law states as volume increases, temperature increases Boyles Law states as volume increases pressure decreases 2) 2.5 cm =.0025 Dm 3) 0.973mm = m 4) 4.98 g = 4980 Kg 5) 47.8 HL =.0478 dl

7 Unit Answers given in class Vocabulary Nucleus Protons Electrons Neutrons Atomic Mass (Mass #) Atomic Number Isotope Orbitals Valence Electrons A particle that has no charge The part of the atom where all of the mass of the atom is contained Positively charge particles found in the atom Atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom The sum of all the protons in an atom The electrons that are located in the outer most energy level Regions of space where an electron is likely to be found A particle that has no mass Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. J.J. Thomson s experiments provided evidence that an atom a. is the smallest particle of matter. b. contains negatively charged particles. c. has a negative charge. d. has a positive charge. 2. Rutherford s gold foil experiment provided evidence for which of the following statements? a. Negative and positive charges are spread evenly throughout an atom. b. Alpha particles have a positive charge. c. Gold is not as dense as previously thought. d. There is a dense, positively charged mass in the center of an atom.

8 3. Suppose an atom has a mass number of 35. Which statement is true beyond any doubt? a. The atom has an odd number of neutrons. b. The atomic number is less than 17. c. The atom is not an isotope. d. The number of protons in the nucleus does not equal the number of neutrons. 4. Which statement is true about oxygen-17 and oxygen-18? a. They do not have the same number of protons. b. Their atoms have an identical mass. c. They are isotopes of oxygen. d. The have the same mass number. List one element that fits the following criteria: Has 12 protons Is a neutral atom with 14 electrons A member of the halogen family A metal A non-metal A metalloid A member of the noble gas family Has 5 electrons in its outer shell How many protons, neutrons and electrons does an atom have if it has a mass of 18 an atomic number of 9 and a charge of -1. Protons Neutrons Electrons

9 UNIT 4 Vocabulary Ionic bond Covalent bond Metallic bond Label each of the following compounds as Ionic (I) or Covalent (C). And name the compound NaCl C 4 Cl 3 Ca 3 P 2 P 3 O 5 Balance the following equations: Al 2 O 3 Al + O 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Write the formulas for the following compounds: Lead (II) Bromide Aluminum Nitride Tricarbon Tetraoxide Magnesium Fluoride

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