Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

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1 Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for making her flowers bloom. She purchases three different kinds of plant food and put the food on flowers at her home. She uses the same amount of plant food and water on each flower plant, and makes sure all of the flowers get the same amount of sunlight each day. After two weeks, she counts how many blooms each flower had. a. The Independent Variable is: b. The Dependent Variable is: c. The Title of the experiment is: d. Holly s Hypothesis is: e. Identify 2 constants in Holly s experiment: f. Does Holly s experiment have a control? g. If there is no control, what would be a good control for Holly s experiment? 2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a scientific theory? 3. What is the difference between a theory and a law in science? 4. List the steps of the scientific method:

2 Unit 2: The Chemistry of Life The Nature of Matter Write the symbols for the following elements: a) Carbon = Sulfur = b) Potassium = Nitrogen = c) Hydrogen = Phosphorus = d) Sodium = Iron = e) Oxygen = Chlorine = f) Copper = 2. What is the chemical formula for? 3. What are the 4 most common elements in biological molecules? 4. What are the three particles that make up an atom, and their charges? 5. Which type of bond is stronger: Ionic or Covalent? 6. What happens to the electrons in each type of bond (Ionic or Covalent)? 7. What type of bond (covalent or ionic) holds molecules together? 8. How can you determine the number of protons in an atom? 9. How can you determine the number of neutrons in an atom? 10. What is an ion? 11. What is an isotope? 12. ph measures the concentration of in solution. 13. Pure water has a ph of. An acid should have a ph (above/below) 7, and a base should have a ph (above/below) The ph scale goes from a low of to a high of. 15. A chemical that changes color, based on the ph of the solution it is added to, is called.

3 Properties of Water 16. List the Properties of Water and provide an example for each. Property Example 17. Label the partial positive and partial negative charges in the drawing below, and draw the hydrogen bond with a dotted line. 18. Know the definitions of: Specific Heat: Polar:

4 Macromolecules 19. Label the drawing below. Which is the monomer, and which is the polymer? 20. Put the following in order from SMALLEST to LARGEST: a. Nitrogen atom, protein, amino acid (hint: find a picture of an amino acid) b. Oxygen atom, starch, glucose, sucrose 21. What are the four macromolecules, their monomers, functions, and examples? Macromolecule Monomer Function Example

5 22. Fill in the table below. MOLECULE What is it? Which macromolecule is it a part of? What elements are present? WORD BANK: 23. The word Carbohydrate means waters of carbon. Explain what that means. 24. Organic compounds contain. CIRCLE the organic compounds in the list below: H2O2 CH4 proteins fatty acids H2O glucose O2 25. What type of bond holds amino acids together? 26. Add the following words to your macromolecule chart (#22) if you have not already. Starch Glucose Quick energy long-term energy storage Monosaccharide Disaccharide cellulose Glycerol Polysaccharide lactose fructose Sucrose fatty acid fats, oils transport Amino acid Insulation enzymes

6 27. Pictured below are some of the 20 amino acids that make up which kind of macromolecule?. CIRCLE the amino groups. BOX the carboxyl groups. Put TRIANGLES around the R groups (or side chains). Which part of the amino acid is different in every amino acid? **Reminder: you don t have to memorize the names or structures of the 20 amino acids for your Benchmark! Just be familiar with the components of the amino acid. Each of the following tests can detect the presence of a different macromolecule. Which macromolecule is detected by each test? Biuret: Iodine: Benedict s: Sudan III:

7 Enzymes 28. What is an enzyme? 29. How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions? 30. Draw a rough sketch of an enzyme and substrate. Label the active site. What happens at the active site of the enzyme? 31. There are thousands of enzymes in your body helping chemical reactions go faster right now. Is the enzyme used up or can it be used many times? 32. List the four ways to control an enzymatic reaction. How do each of these methods work? a. b. c. d. 33. What happens when you denature an enzyme? 34. From the Lactaid website: Lactose intolerance: A deficiency of a natural enzyme called lactase in the body which can cause symptoms of gas, bloating and diarrhea when foods with lactose are eaten. Lactase is needed to fully digest lactose, a sugar found mainly in dairy products. a. What is the substrate? b. What is the name of the enzyme?

8 Unit 3: Cells and their Organelles 35. What is a cell? 36. Put these in order from smallest to largest: Organ, Tissue, Cell, Organism, Organ System 37. What are the three components of Cell Theory? 38. What are the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? 39. What are the key differences between plant and animal cells? 40. List the 12 cell parts/organelles we learned in class, with their functions. Be sure to study your notes so that you are able to label these parts on a picture of a cell!

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