Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

3 Nuclear Stability and Decay Nuclear stability depends on its ratio. Determine the n ø /p + ratio for the following: He-4 N-14 O-16 Pb-206 U-235 Radiation generally occurs in all elements after element # WHY? Too many Mass Defect Is the difference between the sums of the mass of individual. in an atom compared to the of the same atom reported in the periodic table. The actual mass is always than the experimental mass whenever the nucleus contains more than one particle. This difference in mass is converted into that holds the nucleus together and can be released in reactions. Energy is when the nucleus throws out or radiates Is why matter is in nuclear reactions. Mass Energy equivalence: the concept that any has an associated and vice versa, where Band of Stability F.28.6 pg.845. nuclei are stable with n ø /p + ratio of Up to atomic, a ratio of 1 : 1 works. For larger atoms (atomic# ), a ratio of 1 : 1.5 is needed need more n ø glue to hold nucleus together. n ø /p + ratio > 1.5 results in. Determine the n ø /p + ratio for the following: C-12 C-14 Tc-101 Where is C-14 relative to C-12 on the band of stability? HINT: Is C-14 located above, within, or below the B.O.S.? Example 1 3

4 The band of stability is above the line on the graph that has a slope of 1. What does this indicate about the number of protons and neutrons in the majority of elements? HINT: Compare the B.O.S. to the line with slope = 1 Example 2 What type of decay would stabilize an atom of U-238? HINT: Need to get rid of some of the 92 p + s in the Uranium nucleus to get to atomic #82 (STABLE). Example 3 A nuclide has 90 neutrons and 60 protons. What type of decay will this nuclide undergo? HINT: What is the proton/neutron ratio? Example 4 Some radioisotope X has 60 protons and 60 neutrons. What type of radioactive decay would it most likely undergo? HINT: 60/60 = 1.0 Big atom above atomic #20!!! Example 5 Example 6 Identify the region of the graph associated with beta emission. HINT: Too many neutron to proton ratio = high n ø /p + ratio. Identify the region of the graph associated with the emission of alpha particles. HINT: Need to get rid of p +. Example 7 4

5 Example 8 Identify the region of the graph associated with electron capture OR positron emission. HINT: Electron capture AND positron emission both happen to make more n ø s Section 28.2 PART II. Half-Life (t 1/2 ) & Transmutation There is a characteristic rate of the nucleus in every radioisotope. t 1/2 is the time required for of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay to products. 1 st t 1/2 = 2 nd t 1/2 = 3 rd t 1/2 = 4 th t 1/2 = 5 th t 1/2 = of Example 1 C-14 has a t 1/2 of 5730 years. If a medical anthropologist determines that a sample of human bone has only 25% of its original C-14 remaining, how old would the human bone be (approximately)? Example 2 Tc-104 has a t 1/2 of 18 minutes. If a sample originally contained 1.00g of Tc- 104, how many grams would remain after 1 ½ hours? t 1/2 Used for Transmutation Reactions C-14 t 1/2 = Tc-104 t 1/2 = U-238 t 1/2 =. the and/or of the nucleus of one element into the nucleus of another element. By nuclear OR forced of the nucleus such as Fermi National Accelerator Lab or the Hadron Collider!!! Rutherford transmutated N-14 into F-18 by bombarding it with an, which quickly decomposed into the more stable O-17 and a proton. Write the nuclear equation for the above! 5

6 Transuranium Elements Means Uranium and man-made. Most use as the building block. Example: U-238 is bombarded with a neutron; the product is unstable and goes through beta decay; this product is unstable and goes through beta decay as well; finally a somewhat stable element results what element is it? Section 28.3 Fission and Fusion of Atomic Nuclei Objectives: Compare nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, and comment on their potential as sources of energy. Describe the methods used in nuclear power plants to produce and control fission reactions Nuclear Fission The of the nuclei of radioisotopes into smaller fragments when bombarded with neutrons. U-235 and Pu-239 are two most common. radioisotopes. F pg.853 Neutron gun (fires n ø s ) fissionable U-235 unstable U-238, Kr-91, Ba-142, more neutrons U-235 CHAIN RXN!!! Nuclear Powerplants F.28.12, pg.854 KNOW & UNDERSTAND THE DIAGRAM!!! Neutron Moderation down the neutrons so that they may be absorbed by the nucleus of a radioisotope H 2 O or C. Neutron Absorption neutrons control rods of Cd. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 6

8 First nuclear test, Trinity in New Mexico, 16 July 1945 First nuclear weapon used by the U.S. on Hiroshima, 6 August ~140,000 dead Second nuclear weapon used by the U.S. on Nagasaki, 9 August ~74,000 dead At least 4 major false alarms of nuclear weapon release since then, most recent ~29,000 nuclear weapons held by 8 countries. Wikipedia Wikipedia - Figure 4. One major means by which fallout and nuclear debris are transferred through the atmosphere to people is via the production and consumption of dairy products. Fallout descends onto vegetation, which is eaten by dairy animals. The fallout passes into the animals' milk, which is prepared for human consumption. This pathway is the single largest means by which people in the U.S. were exposed to iodine-131 from fallout generated by nuclear weapons testing. Figure adapted from the National Cancer Institute; illustration by Barbara Aulicino American Scientist Online - 8

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms

CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations

Topic 13 National 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Nuclear Chemistry In this topic you will learn about radioactive elements whose atoms are so unstable that they have to release radiation in order to become

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Why? Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fission and fusion are two processes that alter the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear fission provides the energy in nuclear power plants and fusion is the source of the sun s

The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom

1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei.

CHAPTER 13 1. What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei 2. Stable nuclei (that is, nonradioactive nuclei) have mass

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation Marc R. Roussel Nuclear reactions Ordinary chemical reactions do not involve the nuclei, so we can balance these reactions by making sure that

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves

1 General Chemistry II Jasperse Nuclear Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involved The

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Big Bang 1. How old is the Universe? 2. Name and describe the three subatomic particles. 3. Nuclear fusion reactions power stars. Name 2 elements that can be formed in

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically

Structure and Properties of Atoms

PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

Unit 1 Practice Test. Matching

Unit 1 Practice Test Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. proton d. electron b. nucleus e. neutron c. atom 1. the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis )

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp. Given the nuclear equation: H + X 6 3 Li + 4 He The particle repr esented by X is 9 4 Li 9 4 Be 0 5 Be 0 6 C. Which isotope will spontaneously decay and emit particles with

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Describe and give an example of artificial (induced) transmutation Construct and complete nuclear reaction equations Artificial transmutation is the changing or manipulation

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

CHAPTER 0 2 SECTION Nuclear Changes Nuclear Fission and Fusion KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What holds the nucleus of an atom together? What happens when the nucleus

22.1 Nuclear Reactions

In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making

Inside the Atom. Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person?

chapter 14 3 Inside the Atom section 2 The Nucleus Before You Read Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? What You ll Learn what radioactive

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity.

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure

Development of the Atomic Bomb

Chapter 28 Nuclear Fission Fission, Fusion, Binding Energy, and Half Life How would we write this Nuclear Reaction? Uranium Isotopes Naturally occurring Uranium contains two major isotopes Uranium-238

Main properties of atoms and nucleus

Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom

Which of these atoms are isotopes of the same element? (2) The process by which nuclei join to form a larger nucleus is called

Q. (a) The diagrams represent three atoms, X, Y and Z. Which of these atoms are isotopes of the same element? Give a reason for your answer. In a star, nuclei of atom X join to form nuclei of atom Y. Complete

Production and Decay of Radioisotopes A resource for NSW HSC Chemistry and Physics Teachers and Students November 2011 Production and Decay of Radioisotopes This document covers a number of outcomes from

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay

Introduction The Nucleus Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Decay Almost any phrase that has the word nuclear in it has a bad reputation. The term conjures up images of mushroom clouds and radioactive mutants. It

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

Chapter 17: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 7: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry Problems: -20, 24-30, 32-46, 49-70, 74-88, 99-0 7.2 THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY In 896, a French physicist named Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium-containing

CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006

Name CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Multiple Choice (5 points each) Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank provided 1. An aqueous

Masses in Atomic Units

Nuclear Composition - the forces binding protons and neutrons in the nucleus are much stronger (binding energy of MeV) than the forces binding electrons to the atom (binding energy of ev) - the constituents

P4 Learning Outcomes. Recall that electrostatics can be useful for spraying: spray painting crop spraying.

Objectives. Recognise that when some materials are rubbed they attract other objects: certain types of dusting brushes become charged and attract dust as they pass over it. Recognise that insulating materials

Nuclear Fuels and Fission

Nuclear Fuels and Fission 1 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2011 2 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2011 How do we get energy from atoms? 3 of 33 Boardworks Ltd 2011 Atoms contain huge amounts of energy in their nuclei. There

Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life.

PHY 192 Half Life 1 Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life. Introduction This experiment will once again use the apparatus of the first experiment, this time to measure radiation intensity as a function

NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 28 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. (Part 1) 28-1 1997, A.J. Girondi

NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 8 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (Part ) 8-997, A.J. Girondi NOTICE OF RIGHTS All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted

Radiation and the Universe Higher Exam revision questions and answers Madeley High School Q.The names of three different processes are given in List A. Where these processes happen is given in List B.

Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 16 275 Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry Review Skills 16.1 The Nucleus and Radioactivity Nuclear Stability Types of Radioactive Emissions Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Equations Rates of Radioactive

Radioactivity & Particles Introduction... 2 Atomic structure... 2 How are these particles arranged?... 2 Atomic notation... 4 Isotopes... 4 What is radioactivity?... 5 Types of Radiation: alpha, beta and

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy - energy from the atomic nucleus. Nuclear fission (i.e. splitting of nuclei) and nuclear fusion (i.e. combining of nuclei) release enormous amounts of energy. Number of protons determines

Q1. (a) The diagram shows an aircraft and the horizontal forces acting on it as it moves along a runway. The resultant force on the aircraft is zero.

Q. (a) The diagram shows an aircraft and the horizontal forces acting on it as it moves along a runway. The resultant force on the aircraft is zero. (i) What is meant by the term resultant force?......

fission and fusion: a Physics kit

half-life Number of particles left The half-life of an element tells us how long it will take for half of the nuclei in a sample of an unstable element to decay. So, after one half-life, only half of the

Time for the Class Evaluation and Final Exam Preparationi

Time for the Class Evaluation and Final Exam Preparationi Please provide your input. The deadline is May 1 st, i.e. next Sunday. All students should have received an e-mail instruction. If you haven t,

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes

Instructors Guide: Atoms and Their Isotopes Standards Connections Connections to NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation C.3.a.1 Fundamental structures of atoms and molecules. C.3.b.27 Applications

Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Physics Level 2. Resource title: Atomic FAQ. Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics

Exemplar for internal assessment resource 2.5B Physics for Achievement Standard 91172 Exemplar for Internal Assessment Resource Physics Level 2 Resource title: Atomic FAQ This exemplar supports assessment

For convenience, we may consider an atom in two parts: the nucleus and the electrons.

Atomic structure A. Introduction: In 1808, an English scientist called John Dalton proposed an atomic theory based on experimental findings. (1) Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.

Name Date Period. Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY

Name Date Period Concepts to know for the Unit 3 test: Chemistry: Unit 3 - Atoms Test Review KEY 1. Summarize the major experimental evidence that led to the development of various atomic models, both

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter In your textbook, read about the philosophers, John Dalton, and defining the atom. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Ancient

Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems. Chapter 2

Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems Chapter 2 Core Case Study: Carrying Out a Controlled Scientific Experiment F. Herbert Bormann, Gene Likens, et al.: Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in NH (U.S.) Compared

Nuclear Chain Reaction

P h y s i c s Q u e s t A c t i v i t i e s Bonus Activity Nuclear Chain Reaction Observe fission reactions similar to those in a nuclear reactor. Instructions 1. Arrange the dominoes in a similar formation

Nuclear fission. -Fission: what is it? -The main steps toward nuclear energy -How does fission work? -Chain reactions

Nuclear fission -Fission: what is it? -The main steps toward nuclear energy -How does fission work? -Chain reactions What is nuclear fission? Nuclear fission is when a nucleus break into two or more nuclei.

Nuclear Power. The True meaning Of Nuclear Power On Earth

Nuclear Power The True meaning Of Nuclear Power On Earth Basics of Fission Nuclear Fission is the division of generally large and unstable elements (like uranium and plutonium) into smaller elements Nuclear

Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 1. The number of electrons in an atom of atomic number Z and mass number A is 1) A 2) Z 3) A+Z 4) A-Z 2. The repulsive force between the positively charged protons does

Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay

Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay The late 18s and early 19s were a period of intense research into the new nuclear realm of physics. In 1896 Henri Becquerel found that a sample of uranium he was doing

7.1 Fission Fission Demonstration

Fission Demonstration Grade Level 5-12 Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI, NGSS) 5-PS1-1, 5-PS1-3, 5-ESS3-1, 3-5 ETS1-1, MS-PS1-4, MS- PS1-5, MS-PS3-1, MS-PS3-2, MS-PS3-4, MS-PS3-5, HS- PS1-1, HS-PS1-8 Time

Physics 1104 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions

Physics 114 Midterm 2 Review: Solutions These review sheets cover only selected topics from the chemical and nuclear energy chapters and are not meant to be a comprehensive review. Topics covered in these

Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety Module 1 Radiation Safety Fundamentals Atomic Structure Atoms are composed of a variety of subatomic particles. The three of interest to Health Physics

Chapter NP-5. Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 NUCLEAR REACTIONS 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS

Chapter NP-5 Nuclear Physics Nuclear Reactions TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES 1.0 2.0 NEUTRON INTERACTIONS 2.1 ELASTIC SCATTERING 2.2 INELASTIC SCATTERING 2.3 RADIATIVE CAPTURE 2.4 PARTICLE

SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Lesson Topics Covered SCH 3UI Unit 2 Outline Up to Quiz #1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 Note: History of Atomic Theory progression of understanding of composition of matter; ancient Greeks and

Nuclear fission and fusion

Nuclear fission and fusion P2 62 minutes 62 marks Page of 23 Q. Nuclear power stations use the energy released from nuclear fuels to generate electricity. (a) Which substance do the majority of nuclear

Nuclear power plants

S t r o n a 1 Aneta Kucharczyk Nuclear power plants The article is intended for high school students having chemistry classes at both beginner and advanced level. The material described in this paper can

The Structure of the Atom

The Structure of the Atom Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter Section 4.2 Defining the Atom Section 4.3 How Atoms Differ Section 4.4 Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay Click a hyperlink or folder tab

Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

Atomic Concepts Review

1. Which phrase describes an atom? A) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged protons B) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by positively charged electrons C) a positively charged

Lecture 40 Chapter 34 Nuclear Fission & Fusion Nuclear Power

Lecture 40 Chapter 34 Nuclear Fission & Fusion Nuclear Power Final Exam - Monday Dec. 20, 1045-1315 Review Lecture - Mon. Dec. 13 7-Dec-10 Short-Range Strong Nuclear Force The strong force is most effective

RADIOACTIVE DECAY. In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay.

ctivity BP RDIOCTIVE DECY Section 8: RDIOCTIVE DECY In this section, we describe radioactivity - how unstable nuclei can decay - and the laws governing radioactive decay. Radioactive Decay Naturally occurring

Subatomic Particles. Nuclear Energy. Mass and Energy. Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Energy Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission Assignment: All the problems with blue codes or answers on Page 530 1957, the first nuclear power plant near Pittsburgh, PA. Seabrook

Note: Due to the characteristics of my word processor, and for time efficiency, I have written isotopes in the form of A XZ

PHY 1160C Homewk Chapter 30: Nuclear Physics Ch 30: 1, 2, 13, 20, 22, 25, 40, 46, 49 Note: Due to the characteristics of my wd process, and f time efficiency, I have written isotopes in the fm of A XZ

PHYA5/1. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2011. Unit 5 Nuclear and Thermal Physics Section A

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examinerʼs Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examinerʼs Initials General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2011 Question 1 2 Mark Physics

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fuel A nuclear fuel pellet contains about 4 grams of fuel It produces the same amount of energy as a ton of coal or 50 gallons of gasoline It s fairly cheap

24. The Nucleus atomic number nucleons mass number Protons and Neutrons isotopes

4. The Nucleus The last several chapters have shown that an understanding of the behavior of atomic electrons can lead to an understanding of the regularities associated with chemical reactions as well

Stable isotope. Relative atomic mass. Mole fraction 121 Sb 120.903 81 0.5721 123 Sb 122.904 21 0.4279. Antimony isotopes in Earth/planetary science

Stable isotope Relative atomic mass Mole fraction 121 Sb 120.903 81 0.5721 123 Sb 122.904 21 0.4279 Antimony isotopes in Earth/planetary science Molecules, atoms, and ions of the stable isotopes of antimony

CHAPTER 11. Nuclear Chemistry

CHAPTER 11 Nuclear Chemistry 11.0 Introduction 11.5 Nuclear Fission 11.1 The Nucleus 11.6 Nuclear Fusion 11.2 Nuclear Reactions and Radioactivity 11.7 Origin of the Heavy Elements 11.3 Kinetics of Radioactivity

Industrial tracers - Finding leaks and blockages

Cancer Treatment Alpha radiation is used to treat various forms of cancer. This process, called unsealed source radiotherapy, involves inserting tiny amounts of radium-226 into cancerous organs. The alpha

Lesson 45: Fission & Fusion

Lesson 45: Fission & Fusion Start talking to someone about nuclear energy, and they ll probably think of two things: nuclear bombs, and the towers of a nuclear power plant like on the Simpsons. Most people

More general mathematical solution: T half T half. = 0.25 This is the fraction left after 25 years.

Physics 07 Problem 2. O. A. Pringle Tritium has a half-life of 2.5 y against beta decay. What fraction of a sample will remain undecayed after 25 y? Simple solution: time (y) # of half-lives fraction left

Generating Heat. Outline Generating Heat Fuel for Fission Heat to Electricity Homework

Nuclear Power The uranium-235 isotope reacts with a neutron to generate an unstable isotope, uranium-236. The heat that results from the fission of uranium-236 can be used to generate electricity. Nearly

Radioactive Isotopes, their Application in Biomedical Research MODULE 30 RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES 30.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter we have seen about radioactivity and its types. In this topic we

Applications & Review This isn t an x ray; it s a bone scan. Radioactive nuclei were used to show the presence of arthritis in a woman s hands. How was this image created? Warming Up A 60 kg laboratory

a) Conservation of Mass states that mass cannot be created or destroyed. b) Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

7 Fission In 1939 Hahn and Strassman, while bombarding U-235 nuclei with neutrons, discovered that sometimes U-235 splits into two nuclei of medium mass. There are two important results: 1. Energy is produced.

Fission, Fusion, Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs

Fission, Fusion, Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs Nuclear Fission: nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter

Pre-lab The Origin of the Elements

name Pre-lab The Origin of the Elements Introduction Have you ever wondered where all the matter around us comes from? It must have been created somewhere in this universe. In this exercise you will learn

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Energy

Introduction Nuclear : Nuclear As we discussed in the last activity, energy is released when isotopes decay. This energy can either be in the form of electromagnetic radiation or the kinetic energy of

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852

Discovery Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 44223 Fax: 1-330-253-4489 Call

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission

Chapter 7: The Fires of Nuclear Fission What is nuclear fission? Is using nuclear energy safe for humans and the environment? Is nuclear energy better to use than electric generated energy? What happens

and Limits an Atom s Mass?

Active Chemistry The Periodic Table Activity 9 What Determines and Limits an Atom s Mass? Activity 9 What Determines and Limits an Atom s Mass? GOALS In this activity you will: Investigate the composition

Atom The Discovery of. Atom. Rutherford s Model of the Atom. Particles. Isotopes. Chapter 8: Composition of the

Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles Rutherford s Model of the Atom Atomic Number and Isotopes Chapter 8: Composition of the Atom The Discovery of Subatomic Particles

Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780)

Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Week of September 27, 2010 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780) The University of Toledo Instructor: Randy Ellingson Gamma Ray Production: Co 60 60 60 27Co28Ni *

Merit Badge Workbook This workbook can help you but you still need to read the merit badge pamphlet. The work space provided for each requirement should be used by the Scout to make notes for discussing