4 Pointillism Technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are applied in patterns to form an image. At normal viewing distance, the dots are irresolvable, and thus blend.
5 Revisit: 2-slit Interference Look at the case where the screen is far away: D d & D. Nearly parallel rays d r is the path length difference. From before: Interference maxima where the path length difference is: r d sin( m ) m, m 0, 1, 2,. But, the slits have some finite width a! The intensities of these interference maxima are modulated by an envelope single-slit diffraction function.
6 I( )/I(0) N nm. d 9000 nm. a 2400 nm. λ/a=1/ (degrees) Actual patterns are the pink curves. λ/a=1/2 I( )/I(0) N nm. d 9000 nm. a 1200 nm source interference: Maxima: sin( n ) n/d, n 0, 1, 2, Minima: sin( n ) (n ½)/d, n 0, 1, 2, Here d is the spacing between slit centers. Single-slit diffraction envelope: Minima: sin( m ) m/a, m 0, m 1, 2, Here a is the slit width (degrees)
7 N-slit Interference d Principal maxima: occur where the path difference between rays from adjacent slits is an integer # of wavelengths. sin( n ) n/d, n 0, 1, 2, Here d is the spacing between slit centers.
8 N-slit Interference d Interference minima: Interference minima occur where sin( s ) s/(nd), s 0, s 1, 2,, except when s/n is an integer (position of principal maxima). Here d is the spacing between slit centers, and N is the number of slits. -> (N 1) minima between any two consecutive principal maxima.
9 N-slit Interference d Subsidiary maxima: There are also (N 2) subsidiary maxima between any two consecutive principal maxima. These are much dimmer than the principal maxima.
10 N-slit Interference d Single-slit diffraction envelope: Finally, if each slit has width a, then these interference patterns are modulated by a single-slit envelope function with minima at: sin( m ) m/a, m 1, 2, m 0
11 N-slit: Effect of increasing N N=6 N=30
12 N-slit: Effect of increasing slit width a λ/a=1/2 Actual patterns are the pink curves. λ/a=1/4 Single slit envelope functions are the blue curves.
13 In the following equations, d represents center-to-center slit spacing, a represents slit width, λ represents the wavelength of normally incident plane waves, and N represents the # of slits. d m m m 0, 1, 2, d sin m m 2 1 m 0, 1, 2, asinn n, n 1, 2, Nd sins s, s 1, 2, A.. B.. C.. D.. E. None of the above. except when s/n is an integer Which of the above gives angles of intensity principal maxima?
14 In the following equations, d represents center-to-center slit spacing, a represents slit width, λ represents the wavelength of normally incident plane waves, and N represents the # of slits. d m m m 0, 1, 2, d sin m m 2 1 m 0, 1, 2, asinn n, n 1, 2, Nd sins s, s 1, 2, A.. B.. C.. D.. E. None of the above. except when s/n is an integer Which of the above gives angles of intensity subsidiary maxima?
15 In the following equations, d represents center-to-center slit spacing, a represents slit width, λ represents the wavelength of normally incident plane waves, and N represents the # of slits. d m m m 0, 1, 2, d sin m m 2 1 m 0, 1, 2, asinn n, n 1, 2, Nd sins s, s 1, 2, A.. B.. C.. D.. E.,, and. except when s/n is an integer Which of the above give(s) angles of intensity minima?
16 Diffraction gratings: Have a very large number N of equally spaced slits. Interference maxima are very narrow and occur where N=30 sin( n ) n/d, n 0, 1, 2,, where d is the distance between slit centers. For a given value of n, different wavelengths will diffract at different angles and, because the maxima are very narrow, gratings can be used to analyze the wavelength composition of light.
17 CD as Diffraction Grating: Interference The tracks of a compact disc act as a diffraction grating Nominal track separation on a CD is 1.6 micrometers, corresponding to about 625 tracks per millimeter. This is in the range of ordinary laboratory diffraction gratings. For red light of wavelength 600 nm, this would give a first order diffraction maximum at about 22
18 In the following equations, d represents center-to-center slit spacing, a represents slit width, λ represents the wavelength of normally incident plane waves, and N represents the # of slits. d m m m 0, 1, 2, d sin m m 2 1 m 0, 1, 2, asinn n, n 1, 2, Nd sins s, s 1, 2, A.. B.. C.. D.. E. None of the above. except when s/n is an integer Which of the above could be used to derive an expression for the angular width of a principal maximum of a diffraction grating?
21 Giant Blue Morpho Some butterflies have the most striking iridescent blue wings, such as the blue morpho of South America Blueness in butterflies is caused by optical interference. The scales have multilayering that reflects light waves so that they travel different distance
22 Iridescence Iridescence is an optical phenomenon of surfaces in which hue changes in correspondence with the angle from which a surface is viewed Caused by multiple reflections from two or more surfaces in which phase shift and interference of the reflections modulates the incidental light.
23 X-ray (Bragg) Diffraction: X rays are EM waves whose wavelengths are 1 Å m. -> atomic diameters. In a crystalline solid the regular array of atoms forms a 3- dimensional diffraction grating for x rays.
24 X-ray (Bragg) Diffraction (cont.): If an x-ray beam is sent into a crystal it is scattered (redirected) by the crystal structure. In some directions scattered waves undergo destructive interference resulting in intensity minima. In other directions scattered waves undergo constructive interference resulting in intensity maxima. This scattering process is complicated but intensity maxima turn out to occur in directions as if the incoming x rays were reflected by a family of parallel reflecting planes that extend through the atoms within the crystal & that contain regular arrays of the atoms.
25 X-ray (Bragg) Diffraction:
26 Bragg Diffraction Diffraction from a three dimensional periodic structure such as atoms in a crystal is called Bragg diffraction. Each dot in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystal's atomic structure.
27 X-Ray Diffraction at Cornell: CESR/CHESS High-energy X-ray diffraction was used to pinpoint some 5 million atoms in the protective protein coat used by hundreds of viruses. Credit: J. Pan & Y.J. Tao
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