DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT"

Transcription

1 Laboratory Exercise 4. DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT Diffraction Gratings. Determining the Wavelength of Laser Light Using a Diffraction Grating. Refraction. Observation of Atomic Spectra. Theoretical background: A) Diffraction Gratings The principle of operation of a diffraction grating is based on the phenomena diffraction and interference of light. Often diffraction gratings are used to split a beam of white light into its spectral components - beams of monochromatic light, i.e., with some given wavelength λ (or color). As we shall see, the angle at which the different monochromatic beams appear behind the grating depends on its wavelength λ and can be used to determine the latter. Diffraction gratings are made of transparent material with numerous parallel thin lines, etched into their surface. To understand how a diffraction grating works, consider first a flat monochromatic light beam falling on a screen with two slits (Fig1.) Each slit turns into a linear source of light waves. These waves interfere with one another and the places of constructive and destructive interference appear on a screen behind as an "interference pattern", consisting of light spots (maxima) separated by dark regions (minima). Take a point on the screen behind. If the distance from it to the two slits differs by a whole number of wavelengths, then whenever a crest (resp. a trough) of the wave coming from one slit reaches that point, also a crest (resp. a trough) of the wave from the second slit will reach it. (We say that the two waves are in phase.) The resultant wave at this point will have maximal amplitude. The point will be illuminated. This is a point of constructive interference. For points where the above condition does not hold waves from the two different slits arrive in different phases and the resultant wave will have practically zero amplitude. The diffraction grating is based on the same principle except that instead of two slits we have a large number of parallel slits. There is one important simplification - the distance between two neighboring slits is very small ( mm ), while the distance to the screen is of the order of 1-2 m. Let us look at two slits and the beams coming from them and converging to a point on the very 1

2 distant screen (Fig. 2). The two beams are practically parallel. The difference in length of the two beams is d. Constructive interference occurs when d = nλ, where n is an integer. From the right triangle in Fig. 2 one sees that d = a sin ϕ, where a is the distance between two neighboring slits. It is called the constant of the grating and is usually specified by the manufacturer. Thus we have the following condition for the appearance of diffraction maxima: nλ = a sin ϕ It can be seen easily that this same condition holds for any two slits and therefore for the whole grating. In the formula above ϕ is the angle at which diffraction maxima occur, measured from the perpendicular to the grating and n = 0, ±1, ±2,... Obviously for any λ there exists the central maximum (ϕ = 0 ) corresponding to n = 0. The angles at which the other maxima, corresponding to n = ±1, ±2,... appear, depend on λ. Many gratings are especially manufactured, so that only the central maximum and the first maxima to the left and to the right appear. B) Diffraction Through a Single Slit Light passing through a single tiny slit produces a diffraction pattern somewhat similar to that produced by a double slit (Fig 3). Here the light on the screen is streaked with shaded regions. A careful mathematical analysis, using Huygen s principle gives the following formula: d sin θ = λ where d is the width of the slit and θ is the angle between the perpendicular and the first dark spot (minimum). Since the angle θ is usually very small, we have 2

3 sin θ tan θ θ x L and so λ = d x L C) Refraction of Light in Water Suppose we put a diffraction grating on one wall of an empty glass container and shine a laser beam through the grating. Using a screen on the opposite wall of the container, we will observe some distance between the central and the side maxima. If we fill the container with water and repeat the experiment, the distances become smaller (Fig 4). One can look at this phenomenon in two seemingly different ways. On the one hand one can say, that the laser beam was first split and then the angle of the side beams changed on the interface between the two different media (air and water). This bending of light is known as refraction. On the other hand, the same result would be obtained if we had placed the grating inside the tank. We know that the distance between the maxima on the screen is directly proportional to the wavelength λ. Thus smaller distance means that λ decreases when light is traveling through a denser medium (water in our case). Since λ = v, where v is the speed of light in a certain medium and f is the frequency, we find f that v is smaller in a denser medium as well. Light travels faster in air than it does in water. D) Atomic Spectra When the atoms of some gas are excited in some way (say by bombarding them with electrons) they may go into higher energy states (i.e. excited states). After some time the atoms undergo a spontaneous transition to lower energy states emitting light photons with strictly defined energy (and frequency). Each chemical element is characterized by its own discrete set of energy levels and therefore the light that it emits contains specific (characteristic for this particular element) frequencies of light. When this is passed through a diffraction grating, it is spectrally decomposed and we observe the characteristic spectral lines for that element. We can then determine the wavelengths of the light forming the spectral lines knowing the constant of the diffraction grating. Atomic spectra are used to identify the presence of elements in mixtures (that we do not want to decompose chemically) or e. g. in distant stars, intergalactic clouds, etc. On Fig. 5 a series of visible spectral lines of hydrogen is shown, the so-called Balmer series. 3

4 Assignments 1. Determine λ of a laser beam using a single slit mechanism to create diffraction patterns. The use of single slit in our lab has a practical advantage. The slit is wide enough to be measured with a standard micrometer, while the use of a diffraction grating for the determination of λ will require knowledge of the diffraction grating constant a. 2. Determine λ of a laser beam using a diffraction grating with a known a. 3. Determine the refraction index N wa = vwater v air. 4. Observe the brightest spectral lines of H, Hg, O. Determine λ for the 3 brightest lines of hydrogen. 4

5 ANSWER SHEET Laboratory Exercise 4. DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT Name: Date, hour: Instructor s signature: RESULTS Part 1: d = L = x = λ = Part 2: Diffr. grating constant a = sin ϕ = λ = Part 3: sin ϕ water = sin ϕ air = N wa = Part 4: red line: λ = blue-green line: λ = blue-violet line: λ = DISCUSSION: Approximately how many maxima do you observe in the single slit experiment? If you make the slit smaller, do the maxima (and minima) get closer together or further appart? How many maxima do you observe with the diffraction grating you use? To what values of n do they correspond? Try to explain in your own words how we have shown that the bending of light at the interface between air and water is due to the different velocity of light in both media. Which of the lines from Fig. 14 have you observed in the hydrogen spectrum? Which lines are deflected at bigger angle - the red lines or the blue lines? The wavelengths of the spectral lines depends slightly on the temperature and pressure of the air. Why do you suppose this is so? 5

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

More information

Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block. 1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

More information

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it. --Edith Wharton Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

More information

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

More information

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

More information

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

More information

Introduction to spectroscopy

Introduction to spectroscopy Introduction to spectroscopy How do we know what the stars or the Sun are made of? The light of celestial objects contains much information hidden in its detailed color structure. In this lab we will separate

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Light and Spectra. COLOR λ, nm COLOR λ, nm violet 405 yellow 579 blue 436 orange 623 green 492 red 689

Light and Spectra. COLOR λ, nm COLOR λ, nm violet 405 yellow 579 blue 436 orange 623 green 492 red 689 Light and Spectra INTRODUCTION Light and color have intrigued humans since antiquity. In this experiment, you will consider several aspects of light including: a. The visible spectrum of colors (red to

More information

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours) INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes Concepts: (1) Light is a type of energy that travels as waves. [6.2.3.1.1] (2) Laser light is different from traditional light sources and must

More information

INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims

INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims 53 L4 INTERFERENCE Aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished this chapter you should understand how the wave model of light can be used to explain the phenomenon of interference. You should be able to describe

More information

Investigating electromagnetic radiation

Investigating electromagnetic radiation Investigating electromagnetic radiation Announcements: First midterm is 7:30pm on 2/17/09 Problem solving sessions M3-5 and T3-4,5-6. Homework due at 12:50pm on Wednesday. We are covering Chapter 4 this

More information

Refractive Index Measurement Principle

Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive Index Measurement Principle Refractive index measurement principle Introduction Detection of liquid concentrations by optical means was already known in antiquity. The law of refraction was

More information

Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes, Holder, and Variac Flashlight

Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes, Holder, and Variac Flashlight Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom Purpose: To observe the visible spectrum of hydrogen and helium and verify the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes,

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. Chapter 5 Reading Quiz Clickers Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos 5.1 Light in Everyday Life How do we experience light? How do light and matter interact?

More information

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

More information

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,

More information

STOP for science. Light is a wave. Like waves in water, it can be characterized by a wavelength.

STOP for science. Light is a wave. Like waves in water, it can be characterized by a wavelength. INTRODUCTION Most students have encountered rainbows, either spotting them directly on those special days when the raindrops fall while the Sun still finds cloudless regions to peek through, or at least

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

More information

Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday

Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday Friday, February 25, 2011 Chapter 22 Questions - None Multiple-Choice 223 A 224 C 225 B 226 B 227 B 229 D Problems 227 In this double slit experiment we

More information

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning Friday 18 January 2013 Morning AS GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G492/01 Understanding Processes / Experimentation and Data Handling *G411640113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves

5. The Nature of Light. Does Light Travel Infinitely Fast? EMR Travels At Finite Speed. EMR: Electric & Magnetic Waves 5. The Nature of Light Light travels in vacuum at 3.0. 10 8 m/s Light is one form of electromagnetic radiation Continuous radiation: Based on temperature Wien s Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law Light has

More information

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

More information

Electron Energy and Light

Electron Energy and Light Why? Electron Energy and Light How does light reveal the behavior of electrons in an atom? From fireworks to stars, the color of light is useful in finding out what s in matter. The emission of light by

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Practice Quiz 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the wavelength of the longest wavelength light that can

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation Activity 17 Electromagnetic Radiation Why? Electromagnetic radiation, which also is called light, is an amazing phenomenon. It carries energy and has characteristics of both particles and waves. We can

More information

Study Guide for Exam on Light

Study Guide for Exam on Light Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

More information

Emission Spectra of Elements

Emission Spectra of Elements Fall 2003 Emission Spectra of Elements Purpose: To compare and contrast the emission spectra of various gases. Investigate quantitatively the emission spectrum of hydrogen and relate it to Bohr's theory

More information

After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position?

After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position? Light Waves Test Question Bank Standard/Advanced Name: Question 1 (1 point) The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called A. radio waves. B. gamma rays. C. X-rays. D. visible light.

More information

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

More information

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation II The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation The Sun s energy has traveled across space as electromagnetic radiation, and that is the form in which it arrives on Earth. It is this radiation that determines

More information

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology theremino System - Theremino Spectrometer Technology - August 15, 2014 - Page 1 Operation principles By placing a digital camera with a diffraction grating

More information

Photosynthesis - Exercise 6 Objectives

Photosynthesis - Exercise 6 Objectives The purpose of this lab exercise will be to examine several factors involved in photosynthesis. -The effect of the intensity of light (# of photons per time) on the rate of photosynthesis and know how

More information

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

More information

Acousto-optic modulator

Acousto-optic modulator 1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).

More information

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

More information

Laser Viewing Tank P2-7690

Laser Viewing Tank P2-7690 WWW.ARBORSCI.COM Laser Viewing Tank P2-7690 BACKGROUND: Exploring basic optical phenomena with s is highly engaging and more cost-effective than ever before. But beams, themselves, are invisible. Classroom

More information

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec

The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec The He-Ne Laser * I. Introduction The He-Ne laser (Figure 1) uses a low pressure (ca. 1 Torr He, 0.1 Torr Ne) mixture excited by a dc electric discharge. A ballast resistor is placed in series with the

More information

Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

More information

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002

1051-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II. Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 05-232 Imaging Systems Laboratory II Laboratory 4: Basic Lens Design in OSLO April 2 & 4, 2002 Abstract: For designing the optics of an imaging system, one of the main types of tools used today is optical

More information

Periodic Wave Phenomena

Periodic Wave Phenomena Name: Periodic Wave Phenomena 1. The diagram shows radar waves being emitted from a stationary police car and reflected by a moving car back to the police car. The difference in apparent frequency between

More information

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

More information

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

More information

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics 13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of: ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

More information

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer 2B30: PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS FORMAL REPORT: O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer Adam Hill Lab partner: G. Evans Tutor: Dr. Peter Storey 1 Abstract The calibration of a diffraction grating spectrometer

More information

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) 1 of 13 2/17/2016 5:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

More information

Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods

Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the

More information

Physics Open House. Faraday's Law and EM Waves Change in the magnetic field strength in coils generates a current. Electromagnetic Radiation

Physics Open House. Faraday's Law and EM Waves Change in the magnetic field strength in coils generates a current. Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Radiation (How we get most of our information about the cosmos) Examples of electromagnetic radiation: Light Infrared Ultraviolet Microwaves AM radio FM radio TV signals Cell phone signals

More information

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

More information

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

More information

Name Class Date. spectrum. White is not a color, but is a combination of all colors. Black is not a color; it is the absence of all light.

Name Class Date. spectrum. White is not a color, but is a combination of all colors. Black is not a color; it is the absence of all light. Exercises 28.1 The Spectrum (pages 555 556) 1. Isaac Newton was the first person to do a systematic study of color. 2. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about Newton s study of color. a.

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

More information

PHY208FALL2008. Week2HW. Introduction to Two-Source Interference. Due at 11:59pm on Friday, September 12, View Grading Details [ Print ]

PHY208FALL2008. Week2HW. Introduction to Two-Source Interference. Due at 11:59pm on Friday, September 12, View Grading Details [ Print ] Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers PHY208FALL2008 Week2HW Due at 11:59pm on Friday September 12 2008 View Grading Details [ Print ] The following three problems concern interference from two

More information

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The Electromagnetic Spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum 1 Look around you. What do you see? You might say "people, desks, and papers." What you really see is light bouncing off people, desks, and papers. You can only see objects

More information

PhysFest March Holography

PhysFest March Holography PhysFest March 2013 Holography Holography (from the Greek, holos whole + graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms, an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three

More information

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

More information

WHITE LIGHT AND COLORED LIGHT

WHITE LIGHT AND COLORED LIGHT grades K 5 Objective This activity offers two simple ways to demonstrate that white light is made of different colors of light mixed together. The first uses special glasses to reveal the colors that make

More information

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM

1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM 1 of 9 2/9/2010 3:38 PM Chapter 23 Homework Due: 8:00am on Monday, February 8, 2010 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

More information

USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS

USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS Rama Balachandran Riverwood High School Atlanta, GA Karen Porter-Davis Chamblee Charter High School Chamblee, GA Copyright Georgia Institute of Technology 2009

More information

Experiment #2: Determining Sugar Content of a Drink. Objective. Introduction

Experiment #2: Determining Sugar Content of a Drink. Objective. Introduction Experiment #2: Determining Sugar Content of a Drink Objective How much sugar is there in your drink? In this experiment, you will measure the amount of sugar dissolved in a soft drink by using two different

More information

What s so special about the laser?

What s so special about the laser? What s so special about the laser? A guide for taking LaserFest into the classroom. Developed by 2010 SPS SOCK interns Patrick Haddox & Jasdeep Maggo. www.spsnational.org Activity 1: Exploring laser light

More information

Light. Light. Overview. In-class activity. What are waves? In this section: PSC 203. What is it? Your thoughts?

Light. Light. Overview. In-class activity. What are waves? In this section: PSC 203. What is it? Your thoughts? Light PSC 203 Overview In this section: What is light? What is the EM Spectrum? How is light created? What can we learn from light? In-class activity Discuss your answers in groups of 2 Think of as many

More information

Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate.

Code number given on the right hand side of the question paper should be written on the title page of the answerbook by the candidate. Series ONS SET-1 Roll No. Candiates must write code on the title page of the answer book Please check that this question paper contains 16 printed pages. Code number given on the right hand side of the

More information

The Early History of Quantum Mechanics

The Early History of Quantum Mechanics Chapter 2 The Early History of Quantum Mechanics In the early years of the twentieth century, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born,

More information

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation

Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation Chapter 17: Light and Image Formation 1. When light enters a medium with a higher index of refraction it is A. absorbed. B. bent away from the normal. C. bent towards from the normal. D. continues in the

More information

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure A problem arose in Rutherford s nuclear model. A nucleus and electron attract each other; to remain apart the electron must move. The energy of the electron

More information

Using lasers to shed light on musical sound

Using lasers to shed light on musical sound Using lasers to shed light on musical sound By: Talon Holmes and Aaron Zaubi PHY 312 Introduction Ever since the invention of the laser, scientists have been trying to find ways to utilize them to help

More information

Boardworks AS Physics

Boardworks AS Physics Boardworks AS Physics Vectors 24 slides 11 Flash activities Prefixes, scalars and vectors Guide to the SI unit prefixes of orders of magnitude Matching powers of ten to their SI unit prefixes Guide to

More information

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Overview In this activity, students will see how we can use the property of refraction to focus parallel rays of light. Students will observe

More information

What is the essence of waviness? The Wave Model. Waves: examples. Particles. Wave. 1. Ripples on a pond. Think of a leaf, or a cork on the water

What is the essence of waviness? The Wave Model. Waves: examples. Particles. Wave. 1. Ripples on a pond. Think of a leaf, or a cork on the water Chapter 20: Traveling Waves 20.1 The wave model 20.2 One-dimensional waves 20.3 Sinusoidal waves 20.4 Waves in 2- & 3-dimensions 20.5 Sound and Light Waves 20.6 Power and Intensity 20.7 Doppler Effect

More information

Waves and Light Extra Study Questions

Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Short Answer 1. Determine the frequency for each of the following. (a) A bouncing spring completes 10 vibrations in 7.6 s. (b) An atom vibrates 2.5 10 10 times in

More information

Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 4. How are refraction and the speed of wave in different media related?

Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 4. How are refraction and the speed of wave in different media related? Wave Properties Student Worksheet Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 1. A person standing 385 m from a cliff claps her hands loudly, only to hear the sound return

More information

Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT B4: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Analyze the absorbance spectrum of a sample. 2) Calculate the equilibrium constant for

More information

Chapter 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant Energy I

Chapter 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant Energy I Chapter 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant Energy I Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To introduce electromagnetic radiation Section 2.2: To discuss the wave model of radiant energy Section 2.3: To describe

More information

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving.

Note it they ancients had known Newton s first law, the retrograde motion of the planets would have told them that the Earth was moving. 6/24 Discussion of the first law. The first law appears to be contained within the second and it is. Why state it? Newton s laws are not always valid they are not valid in, say, an accelerating automobile.

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

FTIR Instrumentation

FTIR Instrumentation FTIR Instrumentation Adopted from the FTIR lab instruction by H.-N. Hsieh, New Jersey Institute of Technology: http://www-ec.njit.edu/~hsieh/ene669/ftir.html 1. IR Instrumentation Two types of instrumentation

More information

Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction by a single slit

Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction by a single slit Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction y a single slit Lecture aims to explain: 1. Diffraction prolem asics (reminder) 2. Calculation of the diffraction integral for a long slit 3. Diffraction pattern produced

More information

NNIN Nanotechnology Education

NNIN Nanotechnology Education NNIN Nanotechnology Education Lesson 1: Refraction Tank Teacher s Preparatory Guide Purpose: This lab will help students understand and measure the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction of a beam

More information

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

More information

9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi. Course Description

9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi. Course Description 9 th Grade Physical Science Springfield Local Schools Common Course Syllabi Course Description The purpose of the Physical Science course is to satisfy the Ohio Core science graduation requirement. The

More information