# Science Grade 08 Unit 11 Exemplar Lesson 01: Components of the Universe

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4 5. Point out that there are more than one crest and trough on the diagram. Instruct students to draw a line connecting two adjacent crests or two adjacent troughs. Ask: Unit: 11 Lesson: 01 Suggested Duration: 6 days Students should check their recorded work against the projection. What does this line represent? (The distance between two waves) 6. Instruct students to label the area "wavelength." 7. Instruct students to leave space for additional drawings in their notebooks. Students should record the following in the terms section under their drawing space: Project or write on the board, and say: The distance between two crests or two troughs that are adjacent (sideby-side) is called its wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the more energy the wave has. Wavelengths can be measured in nanometers. This is a unit used to measure very small objects. A nanometer equals 1 billionth of a meter and is written as 10-9 m. Frequency is another term associated with waves. Frequency is the number of wave crests that pass a point during one second. A unit called a Hertz measures frequency. A frequency of one cycle per second is one Hertz (abbreviated as Hz). 8. Instruct students to draw a wave with short wavelengths and a wave with longer wavelengths. Model on the board. Ask/Say: How are wavelength and frequency related? (Shorter wavelengths have higher frequency and more energy; longer wavelengths have lower frequency and less energy.) 9. Instruct students to label which wave has the most energy and explain why in their notebooks. Ask: What are the parts of a wave? (The crest, trough, and wavelength) Which parts of a wave are measured? (The wavelength) How is the energy level of a wave determined? (The wavelength and frequency)the frequency and wavelength of a wave determines how much energy a wave has. 10. Project the Teacher Resource: Anatomy of a Wave. Allow students to correct any error they may have recorded in their notebooks. Instruct students to label the frequency and which wave has more energy. 11. Explain to students that light travels in waves and that understanding properties of light waves helps scientists collect data from objects in our universe; distance, chemical composition, and temperature. 12. Say: We will spend the next few days exploring how scientists use light to determine distances and properties of objects in the universe. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Spectroscopes Suggested Day 3 1. Divide the class into pairs. 2. Distribute materials to each pair of students. 3. Instruct students to follow the instructions on the Teacher Resource: Spectroscopes. 4. Monitor students, and assist as necessary. 5. Explain to students that they are observing the type of light known as the visible spectrum; light that is visible to the human eye. 6. Ask: What are the colors of the visible spectrum (in order)? (Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet) Have you ever observed anything else with this order of colors? (A Materials spectroscope (1 per pair of students) diffraction grating (optional,1 per pair of students) CD (1 per pair of students) bright flashlight (1 per pair of students) colored pencils (1 set per pair of students) prism (optional, 1 per pair of students) Attachments: Teacher Resource: Spectroscopes (1 per pair of students) Last Updated 06/03/13 page 4 of 16

5 rainbow. When the light refracts from water droplets, the colors of the visible spectrum are revealed.) Unit: 11 Lesson: 01 Suggested Duration: 6 days Teacher Resource: Spectral Lines (1 for projection) 1. Instruct students to use colored pencils to draw the order of the visible spectrum in their notebooks. 2. Project the Teacher Resource: Spectral Lines, and discuss the following. Instruct students to record notes in their notebooks: Instructional Note: Galaxies, nebulae, and stars will be studied more specifically in the next lesson. Visible light is the type of light the human eye can see. Each different wavelength of visible light has a different color. These waves combine to make white (visible) light. The colors represent different wavelengths. The color with the longest wavelength is red. The red end of the spectrum has waves with lower frequency and lower energy. The color with the shortest wavelength is violet. The violet end of the spectrum has waves with higher frequency and higher energy. Powerful telescopes are equipped with spectroscopes to determine the color of distant objects in the universe. The patterns of the spectral lines tell us the chemical composition (which elements are present) of objects in the universe. There is a relationship between the spectral colors and the temperature of objects. Red objects are the coolest and violet are the hottest. The colors of the wavelengths of the visible spectrum are represented by spectral lines on a spectrograph. The colors of the spectrum can be used by scientists to determine distances, chemical compositions, and temperatures of objects in the universe such as galaxies, nebulae, and stars (see Instructional Notes). 1. Ask: What is a spectroscope, and what can it tell us about the properties of objects in the universe? A spectroscope is an instrument used to observe light. It splits the light into different wavelengths represented by color. The colors are represented by spectral lines on a spectrograph, and the patterns of the lines tell us which elements are present in objects in the universe. The spectral colors can give us information about the temperature of objects. EXPLAIN The Electromagnetic Spectrum Suggested Day 3 (continued) and 4 1. Project the Teacher Resource: Electromagnetic Spectrum Diagram. 2. Discuss each row beginning with "Penetrates Earth's Atmosphere". Ask: Which types of electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the atmosphere? (Microwaves, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray) Which types of electromagnetic waves can penetrate the atmosphere? (Radio, visible, and a few wavelengths of the infrared range can pass through the atmosphere. Infrared waves are not seen, but felt as heat.) 1. Instruct students to look at the wavelength in meters and the scale for that wavelength. Ask: What do you notice as the size of a wave gets smaller? (The smaller the size, the steeper or closer the wavelengths are.) Do the numbers for wavelength get larger or smaller, as they move to the right? (The numbers get smaller.) Attachments: Teacher Resource: Electromagnetic Spectrum Diagram (1 for projection) Teacher Resource: PowerPoint: This and the Universe Too (from previous activity) STAAR Notes: Supporting Standard (8.8C), exploring how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, is used to gain information about distances and properties of components in the Universe will be assessed under Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space on the STAAR Assessment. 1. Direct students attention to the frequency bar. Ask: Do the numbers indicating frequency get larger or smaller, as they move to the right? (The numbers get larger.) Is there a pattern between wavelength and frequency? (Yes. As the Last Updated 06/03/13 page 5 of 16

7 students to analyze them to determine the elements represented by the strips (see Advance Preparation). Unit: 11 Lesson: 01 Suggested Duration: 6 days EVALUATE Performance Indicator Suggested Day 7 Grade 08 Unit 11 PI 01 Create a layered book, displaying research conducted regarding how astronomers use light and radio waves to show distances and composition of the galaxies, nebulae, and stars of the universe. Standard(s): 8.3D, 8.8A, 8.8C ELPS ELPS.c.1C, ELPS.c.2C, ELPS.c.5B 1. Refer to the Teacher Resource: Performance Indicator Instructions KEY for information on administering the performance assessment. Materials paper (plain or construction, various per class) colored pencils (multiple red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, per class) classroom textbooks or other campus based resources (per class) Attachments: Teacher Resource: Performance Indicator Instructions KEY (1 for projection) Notebooks: Students may access their notebooks to complete the Performance Indicator. Last Updated 06/03/13 page 7 of 16

8 Anatomy of a Wave Wavelength crest to crest or trough to trough Wave a disturbance that transfers energy Crest the highest point of a wave Trough the lowest point of a wave Wavelength the distance between two adjacent crests or troughs Frequency the number of waves that pass a given point in one second; measured in Hertz (Hz) , TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 1

9 Spectroscopes Materials: CD prism (optional) bright flashlight colored pencils spectroscopes diffraction grating (optional) A spectroscope is an instrument used to observe visible light. It splits the light into different wavelengths represented by color. The colors are represented by spectral lines on a spectrograph, and the patterns of the lines tell us which elements are present in objects in the universe. The spectral colors can also give us information about the temperature and distance of objects. Directions: 1. Hold a CD so the silvery side (the one you record on) is facing up. 2. Hold a bright flashlight so that it shines across the surface of the CD. 3. What do you see? Record your observations in your notebook. 4. Look through the spectroscope at the classroom lights. What do you see? Record your observations in your science notebook. 5. Optional: Look through the spectroscope at the classroom lights using the diffraction grating. What do you see? Record your observations in your notebook. 6. Optional: Hold a prism up toward the light, and observe what happens. Shine a flashlight on a prism at different angles, and observe what happens. Record your observations in your notebook. 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 1

10 Spectral Lines Visible light is the type of light the human eye can see. Each different wavelength of visible light has a different color. These waves combine to make white (visible) light. The colors represent different wavelengths. The color with the longest wavelength is red. The red end of the spectrum has waves with lower frequency and lower energy. The color with the shortest wavelength is violet. The violet end of the spectrum has waves with higher frequency and higher energy. Powerful telescopes are equipped with spectroscopes to determine the color of distant objects in the universe. The patterns of the spectral lines tell us the chemical composition (which elements are present) of objects in the universe. There is a relationship between the spectral colors and the temperature of objects. Red objects are the coolest and violet are the hottest. The colors of the wavelengths of the visible spectrum are represented by spectral lines on a spectrograph. The colors of the spectrum can be used by scientists to determine distances, chemical compositions, and temperatures of objects in the universe such as galaxies, nebulae, and stars. 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 1

11 Electromagnetic Spectrum , TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 1

12 Research Light Waves and The Universe How do scientists gain information about objects in the universe? The electromagnetic spectrum represents all of the different types and wavelengths of light. Only a small portion of light, the visible spectrum, is visible to the human eye. Optical telescopes with spectroscopes use visible light to gain information about chemical compositions, temperatures, and distances of galaxies, nebulae, and stars in the universe. This is known as spectroscopy. Since some objects in the universe emit radio waves that cannot be detected by the human eye, scientists also use radio telescopes to gain information about objects in the universe. Chemical Composition Spectroscopy uses visible light to figure out the chemical composition of distant objects in the universe. When light from a galaxy, planet, or star passes through an instrument called a spectroscope, it splits the light into different wavelengths represented by colors. Each different wavelength of visible light has a different color. This is known as the visible spectrum. This can be compared to shining a light through a prism or the formation of a rainbow when light refracts from water droplets. The color with the longest wavelength is red. The red end of the spectrum has waves with lower frequency and lower energy. The color with the shortest wavelength is violet. The violet end of the spectrum has waves with higher frequency and higher energy. When the light is heated or electrically charged, specific chemicals will emit light at particular wavelengths and colors. These wavelengths show up as spectral (emission) lines. This is called chemical fingerprinting. Each element emits different spectral lines, so scientists can look at the lines to determine which elements make up an object. Distance 1. Hold your thumb out at arm s length by completely extending your arm directly in front of you focusing on an object in the far background. 2. Close one eye, and note where your thumb is and how it lines up with the background. 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 4

14 the spectrum. This phenomenon is thought to occur as objects move into and out of gravitational fields of objects in the universe. The occurrence of red shift is used as evidence to support the concept that our universe is still expanding. Radio waves are the longest waves on the electromagnetic spectrum. They do more than transmit radio, TV, and cell phone signals. Radio astronomy uses radio telescopes to study objects that emit the longest wavelengths of light. Light travels at 300,000 km per second (186,000 miles per second). Did you know it takes sunlight approximately eight minutes to reach the Earth? Satellites are used to send beams of radio waves back to Earth from locations of certain objects in space. If scientists know the speed of light (v) and how long it takes light to reach an object from Earth (t), they can figure out the distance (d=vt). Do you remember how speed equals distance divided by time (s=d/t)? In this case, distance equals velocity times time. This concept is how scientists know that the average distance of the Sun from Earth is approximately 93,000 miles. The Sun s distance from Earth is called and astronomical unit (AU). Astronomers take what they know, the AU, and apply it as a tool for measuring distances in space. Temperature There is a relationship between the spectral colors and the temperature of objects. Objects that emit longer wavelengths toward the red end of the spectrum are the coolest. Objects that emit shorter wavelengths toward the violet end of the spectrum are the hottest. Stars with temperatures above 6,000 degrees C are hotter than the Sun and emit most of their light in the blue end of the spectrum. Stars with temperatures below 5,000 degrees C are cooler that the Sun and emit most of their light in the red end of the spectrum. Therefore, hotter objects have shorter wavelengths and more energy. Cooler objects have longer wavelengths and less energy. DO: In your notebook, summarize how scientists use the electromagnetic spectrum to gain information about objects in the universe. 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 3 of 4

15 Terms: Galaxy A group of billions of stars, planets, gas, and dust that is held together by gravity and extends many thousands of light years. The Earth is in the Milky Way galaxy. Nebula (Nebulae plural) A region of space dust or gas that appears as a hazy or bright or dark area in space Star A gaseous mass in space. The Sun is an average sized star. 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 4 of 4

16 Performance Indicator Instructions KEY Performance Indicator Create a layered book, displaying research conducted regarding how astronomers use light and radio waves to show distances and composition of the galaxies, nebulae, and stars of the universe. (8.3D; 8.8A, 8.8C) 1C; 2C; 5B Materials: paper (plain or construction, various per class) colored pencils (multiple red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, per class) classroom textbooks or other campus based resources (per class) Instructional Procedures: 1. There are many varieties of layered books. Choose one, or allow students to pick one on which to record their information. Instruct students to reference their notebooks. 2. Describe how light waves are used to: determine the chemical composition of objects in the universe determine the temperature of objects in the universe measure distances of objects in the universe 2012, TESCCC 06/03/13 page 1 of 1

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