Emergence of a Society in New France: Pages 64 79

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1 Emergence of a Society in New France: Pages The Fur Trade Earlier attempts to set up a colony failed In the early 1500s, N.A= Not as profitable as the King had wanted. However, many countries still sent boats to fish cod in the St Lawrence Golf & in the Grand Banks near NFLD. Fishermen lived on the East coast while they fished drying fish and trading with Aboriginal people. FUR!!!! The Beaver Beaver pelts highly prized and beavers were scarce in Europe. North America had A LOT of beavers. Europe 1580s FUR WAS ALL THE RAGE. Fur hats King realized... N.A.= Fur= $$$$ Plan: Get beaver fur from N.A, sell fur hats to other countries and get gold!!! (Mercantilism: Increase exports) Mercantilism/Triangular Trade Triangular Trade / Mercantilism Mother country (France) takes raw materials to sell in Europe. Makes money for mother country, but colony doesn t profit. Monopolies and Settlements France wants to set up a colony in New France... But has no money. IDEA! He asked wealthy entrepreneurs (business men) to set up colonies. THE DEAL: The wealthy entrepreneurs try to set up colonies for the King of France in return for The rights to be the only people to bring back furs for North America (monopoly) From Trading Colony to permanent Settlement New France started as a trading colony but slowly people started to settle. At first, the territory was used by the first traders who would set up small posts. Pierre Chauvin established the first trading post in Tadoussac (1600). The role of the Aboriginal peoples They were interested in the products had to offer:

2 Metal, Cloths, Guns, etc. They realized the importance of this fur for the Europeans so started to demand a lot more goods in exchange for the fur. QUESTION Which Aboriginal group participated more in the fur trade and why??? Nomadic Algonquians or Sedentary Iroquoians? Answer The nomadic Algonquians Why? Because they survived on hunting. They needed the animals to survive and used their pelts to exchange with the Europeans. The sedentary Iroquois survived with farming and agriculture. The Iroquois would exchange food for furs with the Algonquians but it was for their use only. Alliances The French traded mostly with the Algonquians. In Tadoussac, the French make a trading alliance with the Montagnais. Deal: Guaranteed supply of pelts but the French had to fight against the Montagnais enemy: The Iroquois. Acadia The first monopoly was granted to Pierre Du Gua de Monts. In 1604, he sailed towards the new world and ended up in Acadia(Nova Scotia) and he called his settlement Port Royal. It was the first permanent settlement. Permanent settlements are founded to exploit the fur trade QUEBEC CITY 1608: Champlain founds QUEBEC CITY He builds the L Habitation trading post and fort near Stadacona (Quebec City). This was primarily a center for the fur trade and became a crossroads for commerce. LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION It was easily accessible and well known by the Europeans. Strategic for overlooking the St Lawrence River A good place for trading Trois Rivieres 1634: TROIS RIVIERES Laviolette was sent by Champlain (1634) to establish a trading post upstream at the St. Maurice River. This became the settlement of Trois Rivières. This was also a strategic location

3 The Church and Colonization Catholicism was a major part of the French value system Missionaries In 1611, the Jesuites established themselves in New France. In 1615, the Recollets came to N.F. Evangelization of Aboriginal peoples Main goal of the Catholic Church in NF convert the Aboriginal peoples to Catholicism. Missionaries plan: populate New France with French. This would serve as a model for the Aboriginal people. They could then civilize them and convert them to Christianity. Evangelization of Aboriginal peoples Father Paul Le Jeune made the proposition to found missions close to French settlements. 1638: the first mission at Sillery near QC City. And other missions followed and religious groups follow. Ville Marie Jerome Le Royer created the Société de Notre Dame in The purpose was to set up a settlement at Hochelaga(Montreal). This settlement was to be a religious mission, a place where missionaries would convert Aboriginals. Maisonneuve founded Ville Marie (Montreal) in Advantages The region had many animals (beaver, fox, etc.) that could be trapped for the fur trade Access from the St Lawrence River Disadvantages Near the Iroquois, who the French were at war with. Religious Orders Come into the colony and begin to offer services such as education and health care for the colonists. Jesuits Recollets Ursulines Etc. Champlain s Society Plan In 1618, Champlain presented a few strategies to king to help create permanent settlements in the Saint Lawrence Valley: Entire families immigrate

4 Administration Found cities (Qc city, Mtl, 3 Rivieres) Bring Christianity over Open a route to Asia This idea did not follow through as quickly as Champlain would have liked and the population still remained small. Revitalizing the Settlement The chartered companies did not live up to their responsibilities to settle the colony because this would reduce their profits. France needed to take matters into its own hands. Thus the Company of One Hundred Associates was created. Company of One Hundred Associates 1627 Set up by Cardinal de Richelieu (King Louis XIII s chief minister) Recruited 100 investors and created this company. Same deal as before was made (settle, evangelize, exploit the resources= trade monopoly). Company of One Hundred Associates Obligations: Establish 4000 catholic colonists in 15 years Provide them with the essential living supplies for three years Help craftspeople to set up shop It was responsible for the administration of the colony in the name of the king. The Seigneurial System The French model known as the seigneurial system organized the territory. Land was divided into seigneuries. Owners of the land were called seigneurs Tenants were called censitaires. Seigneuries were sections of land divided along the St. Lawrence river. The Censitaire Rights Granted land + protected by seigneur Able to use local mill/pasture Keeps his profits Sells his land or leaves it for family upon death Duties Clear trees to grow crops 3 4 days of labour owed to seigneur Must use the mill

5 Pay church taxes (tithe) Seigneur has first chance to buy land if up for sale Seigneur Rights Served first at church, buried there Annual rent + taxes 3 4 days of free labour A share of wheat, fish, produced Portion of value of land if sold Can repossess land if not used Duties Be faithful to King Keep account of seigneurie Pay a tax if he sells a seigneurie Build a church + pay tithe Grant concession to tenants Build a mill and roads Hold court for minor disputes Company of 100 associates The problems with the Company of 100 Associates Franco English rivalries Beginning in the 17th century, English settle on the east coast. They had the same goal as France: Acquire territory and resources CONFLICT Franco English Rivalries There were several attacks and the company suffered because of them. Debt: they were unable to send ships to Canada and couldn t fulfill their obligations. Engages To pay debts: Leased monopoly to other traders who also must help to settle the colony. These other traders bring in engages Engage: craftspeople, domestic or agricultural workers. Must stay for three years and then they could stay or leave. 50% of the engages left. Communaute des Habitants 1645: C100A Leased its Monopoly to the CdH

6 PROBLEM: conflit between the leading families and the colonists, as well as wars with the Iroquois : Iroquois wipe out the Huron (trading partners of the French in the Great Lakes). Attack other trade allies of the French. This made trade of fur extremely hard. 1663: Company of One Hundred Associates handed the colony back to France. Company of 100 Associates Company didn t bring settlers as they promised the King. This led to a large, underpopulated & undefended New France.

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