NUTS & DRIED FRUITS GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/2016

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1 NUTS & DRIED FRUITS GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/2016

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3 INTRODUCTION WORLD PRODUCTION HISTORICAL TREND SUPPLY VALUE WORLD PRODUCTION BY ZONES ALMONDS AMAZONIA (BRAZIL) NUTS CASHEWS HAZELNUTS MACADAMIAS PECANS PINE NUTS PISTACHIOS WALNUTS PEANUTS DATES DRIED APRICOTS DRIED FIGS DRIED GRAPES PRUNES INC STATISTICS DATABASE Table of contents

4 Acknowledgements We would like to express the deepest gratitude to the national and regional organizations who have provided the INC with statistics: Aegean Exporters Association, African Cashew Alliance, Almond Board of Australia, Almond Board of California, Australian Macadamia Society, Brazilian Association of Macadamia Nuts, Brazilian Cashew Nut Association, California Dried Plum Board, California Walnut Board and Commission, Cashew Export Promotion Council of India, Chile Prunes Association, ChileNut, China Chamber of Commerce for Imports and Exports of Foodstuffs, Global Cashew Council, Greek Nut Association, Iran Dried Fruits Exporters Association, Iran Pistachio Association, Southern African Macadamia Growers Association, South African Subtropical Growers Association, Tree Nut Growers Association of Malawi, Ukrainian Nut Growers Association, Vietnam Cashew Association, as well as the members of the INC Statistics Committee. We would not have been able to complete this book without their support.

5 INTRODUCTION The International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation (INC) is the International source for information on nuts and dried fruits for: Health, Nutrition, Food Safety, Statistics, Government Standards and Government regulations regarding trade barriers and trade quality standards. The INC was founded in 1983 with the mission of providing new opportunities for increasing global consumption of almonds, Amazonia (Brazil) nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, walnuts, peanuts, dates, dried apricots, dried figs, prunes and dried grapes, by: Providing a single source of annual statistical information from producing and consuming countries. Ensuring that global quality standards and trading terms are within the framework of existing national and international governmental bodies and do not inhibit trade within the industry. Promoting research and scientific studies. Promoting international cooperation by interacting with public, private, national and international organizations with common goals. Increasing goodwill and mutual understanding of the nut and dried fruit industries by promoting international meetings in producing and consuming countries. It is the purpose of the present review to present worldwide statistics on production, trade and consumption on nuts and dried fruits. The data have been gathered from different information sources, countries and formats. The present collection of statistics will enable stakeholders, Government officials, non-profit organizations and the industry to analyze the nuts and dried fruits production, trade and consumption trend. The present report gathers world production statistics of nuts and dried fruits from 2005 to 2015, and worldwide imports, exports and estimated consumption data until Statistics are classified by product, year, producing country, exports, imports and main transit countries. A consumption study for each product and year for the largest consumer countries is shown. Each product is classified by: Production: total metric tons produced from 2005 to 2015, main producing countries in 2015, and five years average. Exports: total metric tons exported from the main producing countries and eventually reexported from transit countries between 2004 and Imports: the twenty largest importers between 2004 and Consumption: it is the apparent availability during the time period in the twenty main consuming countries and this may generate discrepancies in the real consumption per capita. Some countries are identified as transit points or processors, i.e. India and Vietnam are important processors of cashews, and Germany and Denmark are known for their marzipan production. The consumption survey is presented for the twenty largest consuming countries in: Total metric tons consumed between 2010 and Consumption per capita in kilograms per year: total volume consumed through the total population of the country (population census according to the UN Statistics Division). consumption per capita in kilograms per year: total volume consumed through the estimated percentage of population that is considered as regular consumers of the specific nut or dried fruit. Data sources from the INC database, the DESA/UNSD United Nations Comtrade Database, the US Department of Agriculture and the World Bank. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

6 WORLD PRODUCTION WORLD TREE NUT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS 1,200,000 1,000, , , , , ,113 1,109, , , , , , , , Est. 488, , , ,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 91, ,709 28,714 46,399 26,450 29,965 20, Est. 19,575 0 Almonds Kernel Basis Cashews Kernel Basis Walnuts Kernel Basis Pistachios Inshell Basis Hazelnuts Kernel Basis 0 Pecans Kernel Basis Macadamias Kernel Basis Brazil Nuts Kernel Basis Pine Nuts Kernel Basis In season 2015/16, tree nuts production achieved almost 3.78 million metric tons, 5 percent up from 2014/15 and 52 percent up compared with 2005/06, which confirms the upward trend over the last ten years. Almonds were the tree nut that experienced the greatest growth, almost doubling its production in only ten years. Hazelnuts were the tree nut that experienced the highest growth in the last season with an increase of 37 percent and achieving 488,000 metric tons. Macadamias ranked third in production growth, in percentage terms, in the last decade, registering an increase of 79 percent. 06 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

7 WORLD TREE NUT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS / Kernel Basis (Except Pistachios In Shell) WORLD DRIED FRUIT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, , Est. Others 1,072,136 C. Ivoire 171,111 India 187,781 China 252,990 Iran 272,180 Turkey 531,180 USA 1,290,878 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , , ,038,547 1,262, , , , , , , ,562 Dried Grapes Table Dates* Prunes Dried Apricots Dried Figs Est. 121,000 * These data relate only to table dates which represent approximately 12% of world production. These dates are presented for sale in packages up to standard. Self consumed dates, processed or sold in bulk are not included. In the last ten years USA has been the world s largest tree nut producing country. USA is followed by Turkey, Iran, China and India. USA was also the country with the highest growth in the last ten years, reporting an increase on its production of 68 percent. China with 50 percent and Turkey with 31 percent have also experienced significant growths in the last decade. In season 2015/16, dried fruit production achieved more than 2.6 million metric tons, that is, 2 percent up from 2014/15 and 21percent up compared with 2005/06. Dried Grapes were the most produced dried fruit in the season 2015/16 with almost 1.3 million metric tons. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

8 WORLD DRIED FRUIT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS WORLD PEANUT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS 3,000,000 45,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, ,000 0 Others 1,039,251 Chile 146,945 China 170,000 S. Arabia 190,000 Iran 290,000 Turkey 355,005 USA 418,250 40,000,000 35,000,000 30,000,000 25,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 5,000,000 0 Others 9,956,000 Argentina 1,283,000 Indonesia 1,130,000 USA 2,804,000 Nigeria 3,000,000 India 4,700,000 China 16,700, Est Est. In 2015/16, USA was the world s largest dried fruit producing country with 418,250 metric tons. USA was followed by Turkey, with a production of 355,000 metric tons in 2015/16 and Iran with 290,000 metric tons. These three countries represented almost the 50 percent of all dried fruits produced in the last ten years. Almost 39.5 million metric tons of peanuts were produced in 2015/16. China was the main producer with almost 17 million metric tons (42 percent of world production), followed by India with 4.7 million metric tons (12 percent) and Nigeria with 3 million metric tons (8 percent). 08 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

9 HISTORICAL TREND WORLD TREE NUT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS / Kernel Basis (Except Pistachios In Shell) WORLD TREE NUT CONSUMPTION / METRIC TONS / Kernel Basis (Except Pistachios In Shell) 2,200,000 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , , Est. Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies Low-Income Economies 2,200,000 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , , Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies Low-Income Economies Low-Income Economies: GNI per capita of $1,045 or less (Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Zimbabwe ) Middle-Income Economies: (includes both Lower-Middle-Income Economies and Upper-Middle-Income Economies) $1,046 to $12,746 (China, Cote d Ivoire, India, South Africa ) High-Income Economies: $12,746 or more (Australia, Chile, Europe, USA ) In these graphs there are classified all economies according to their Gross National Income per capita (using the World Bank Atlas method). In 2006, middle-income countries (MIC) represented the 57 percent of the world tree nut production, 37 percentage points more than high-income countries (HIC). That was the largest difference between both income groups in the last decade. But from that year, the trend changed, MIC followed a negative trend and, in 2011, HIC ranked first in the world production of tree nuts. From there, the situation changed again, and, in this season 2015/16, MIC led again the production market, representing 51 percent of the world tree nut production. Total consumption of tree nuts has grown by 59 percent over the last ten years. Almonds registered the highest growth. Pecans (70 percent), cashews (60 percent) and macadamias (59 percent) followed almonds as the tree nuts that experienced the most significant growth in the last 10 years. HIC led the consumption of tree nuts, accounting for 56 percent of the world total. It should be noted that HIC have increased 17% their consumption of tree nuts in only 5 years. It is worth stressing that MIC have doubled their consumption of tree nuts in the last decade. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

10 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 DISTRIBUTION OF THE TREE NUT CONSUMPTION IN 2014 BY HIGH-INCOME ECONOMIES CASHEWS 16% ALMONDS 42% WALNUTS 15% HAZELNUTS 11% WORLD DRIED FRUIT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS 0 PISTACHIOS 10% PECANS 3% MACADAMIAS 1% BRAZIL NUTS 1% PINE NUTS 1% Est. PISTACHIOS 28% 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 DISTRIBUTION OF THE TREE NUT CONSUMPTION IN 2014 BY MIDDLE-INCOME ECONOMIES CASHEWS 15% WALNUTS 28% ALMONDS 11% WORLD DRIED FRUIT CONSUMPTION / METRIC TONS 0 HAZELNUTS 12% PECANS 4% MACADAMIAS 1% BRAZIL NUTS 0.5% PINE NUTS 0.5% Almonds were clearly the most consumed tree nuts for HIC, accounting for the 42 percent, and followed by cashews, walnuts and hazelnuts. On the other hand, walnuts and pistachios were the tree nuts with the highest consumption rate in MIC due, basically, to the weight of countries like China, Iran, Turkey and Vietnam. MIC have historically led the production of dried fruits. In 2015/16, they produced almost 60 percent of world total, 20 percentages points more than HIC. The largest difference between both economic groups was in 2012/13, when MIC represented the 67 percent of the world market. In 2014, total consumption of dried fruits has been estimated 1 percent higher than the previous year and 22 percent bigger than Dried grapes and table dates, with 32 and 28 percent respectively, have been the dried fruits with the largest growth in the last decade. HIC lead the world dried fruit consumption, although MIC achieved similar rates. It should be noted that, in only ten years, MIC have increased by 47 percent the consumption of dried fruits. Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies Low-Income Economies Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies Low-Income Economies 10 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

11 DISTRIBUTION OF DRIED FRUIT CONSUMPTION IN 2014 BY HIGH-INCOME ECONOMIES DRIED FIGS 8% DRIED APRICOTS 6% DISTRIBUTION OF DRIED FRUIT CONSUMPTION IN 2014 BY MIDDLE-INCOME ECONOMIES DRIED FIGS 4% DRIED APRICOTS 5% PRUNES 4% Dried Grapes were the most consumed dried fruit in both MIC and HIC, achieving the 54% and 48% of the total dried fruit consumed respectively in Table dates ranked second in both income groups, although they played a more important role in MIC. PRUNES 14% DRIED GRAPES 48% DRIED GRAPES 54% Peanuts are basically produced by middle-income economies (MIC) due to the weight of countries like China, India and Nigeria. MIC represent over the 90 percent of world peanut production. DATES 24% DATES 33% MIC also lead the consumption of peanuts. In 2014, MIC accounted for 91 percent of world consumption. On the other hand, HIC consumed, in 2014, more than 2.7 million metric tons of peanuts. WORLD PEANUT PRODUCTION / METRIC TONS ESTIMATED WORLD PEANUT CONSUMPTION / METRIC TONS 33,000,000 33,000,000 30,000,000 27,000,000 24,000,000 21,000,000 18,000,000 15,000,000 12,000,000 9,000,000 6,000,000 3,000, Est. Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies 30,000,000 27,000,000 24,000,000 21,000,000 18,000,000 15,000,000 12,000,000 9,000,000 6,000,000 3,000, Middle -Income Economies High-Income Economies Low-Income Economies GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

12 SUPPLY VALUE 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 In 2015, tree nuts accounted for a supply value of almost 30,000 million dollars, 118 percent up compared with Almonds, with 7,985 million dollars, were the tree nut that registered the highest supply value. It should be pointed that cashews were, proportionally, the tree nuts with the highest growth in supply value, with an increase of 190 percent in less than ten years. Dried fruits totaled a supply value of more than 7,000 million dollars in 2015, that is, 47 percent more than Dried grapes and dates accounted for the 70 percent of the total dried fruit supply value. On the other hand, dried apricots were the dried fruit which experienced the highest growth, with an increase of 115 percent in less than ten years. 10,000 5, Dried Fruit 4,774 5,016 5,454 5,285 6,103 6,946 6,663 7,099 7,726 7,007 Tree Nut 13,679 16,936 18,347 18,810 19,450 21,568 25,657 27,022 33,179 29,759 8,000 Almonds K, 7,985 4,000 7,000 3,500 6,000 5,000 Pistachios IS, 5,762 Cashews K, 5,172 3,000 2,500 Dried Grapes, 2,776 4,000 Walnuts K, 4,322 Hazelnuts K, 3,905 2,000 Dates, 2,091 3,000 1,500 2,000 1, TREE NUT & DRIED FRUIT SUPPLY VALUE $ MILLION TREE NUTS SUPPLY VALUE $ MILLION / Kernel Basis (Except Pistachios Inshell) DRIED FRUITS SUPPLY VALUE $ MILLION Pecans K, 1,221 Macadamias K, 735 Pine Nuts K, 411 Brazil Nuts K, 246 1, Prunes, 949 Dried Apricots, 642 Dried Figs, INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

13 WORLD PRODUCTION BY ZONES DISTRIBUTION OF ESTIMATED TREE NUT PRODUCTION IN 2015 BY GEOGRAPHICAL ZONE AFRICA 10% MIDDLE EAST 15% LATIN AMERICA 5% EUROPE 8% OCEANIA 3% ASIA 24% NORTH AMERICA 35% ESTIMATED TREE NUT PRODUCTION BY ZONE IN 2015 METRIC TONS / Kernel Basis (Except Pistachios In Shell) DISTRIBUTION OF ESTIMATED TREE NUT CONSUMPTION IN 2014 BY GEOGRAPHICAL ZONE EUROPE 25% AFRICA 5% MIDDLE EAST 18% LATIN AMERICA 2% OCEANIA 2% NORTH AMERICA 28% ASIA 20% ESTIMATED DRIED FRUIT PRODUCTION BY ZONE IN 2015 METRIC TONS These graphs represent the world distribution of tree nuts and dried fruits by geographical zone. In 2015/16, North America was the region with the highest production of tree nuts. Almonds were the most produced tree nut in North America, accounting for 66 percent of total production and followed by walnuts and pistachios, with 18 and 10 percent share respectively. Walnuts and pistachios were the most produced tree nuts in Asia, which ranked second in world tree nut production. It should be highlighted that, in 2015, 86 percent of the tree nuts produced in Africa were cashews. Although Europe produced only the 8 percent of tree nuts, it was the second-largest consumer, with 25 percent share. Hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds represented the 96 percent of the tree nuts consumed in this region. 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 0 NORTH AMERICA ASIA MIDDLE EAST AFRICA EUROPE LATIN AMERICA OCEANIA Almonds Brazil Nuts Cashews Hazelnuts Macadamias Pecans Pine Nuts Pistachios Walnuts 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 0 MIDDLE EAST ASIA NORTH AMERICA LATIN AMERICA AFRICA EUROPE OCEANIA Dried Apricots Dried Figs Dried Grapes Prunes Table Dates* * The data in this chart concern only dates that have undergone a conditioning and presented for sale as such. They do not include dates for industrial or artisanal processing. Also are excluded dates consumed in bulk without undergoing conditioning. Therefore, these data represent only about 12% of gross world production of dates. Middle East, with the 48 percent of total, clearly led the world production of dried fruits. Table dates and dried grapes were the main dried fruits produced in this region, representing the 53 and 32 percent of the world total. On the other hand, almost the 80 percent of world table date production were located in Middle East. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

14 ALMONDS PRODUCTION In season 2015/16, world production of almonds achieved almost 1,110,000 metric tons (kernel basis), 4 percent up compared to the previous season and 93 percent up compared with 2005/06, which confirms the upward trend over the last years. The United States of America with 856,000 metric tons (), Australia with 80,500 and Spain with 64,500 remain the major producers, representing the 90 percent of world s almond production in 2015/16. 52,500 13,000 13,000 15,000 15,000 64,500 80, ESTIMATED ALMOND PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 855,594 USA* 77% Australia 7% Spain 6% Iran 1% Tunisia 1% Turkey 1% Chile 1% Others 6% *USA Crop accounts for 2.0% inedible & process loss. 5 YEAR AVERAGE ALMOND PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS WORLD ALMOND PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS +93% OVER , , , , , ,113 1,130,266 1,072,174 1,094,714 1,064,050 1,109, Est. 53,200 9,800 13,300 14,000 16,400 52,250 64, ,073 USA 80% Australia 6% Spain 5% Iran 2% Turkey 1% Tunisia 1% Chile 1% Others 4% In the northern hemisphere, almonds are harvested from August thru October. In the southern hemisphere, almonds are harvested from February thru March. 14 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

15 TRADE FLOWS More than 742,000 of almonds (shelled + inshell (KB, Kernel Basis)) were exported in 2014, that is, 80 percent more than the 412,250 exported in In 2014, USA was the main exporting country. The top destinations of US almonds were Spain, accounting for 14% of the total, followed by Germany, India and China with the 10%, 9% and 8% respectively. 51,413 68, WORLD ALMOND EXPORTS SHELLED + INSHELL (KB) / METRIC TONS 13,252 45,969 14, ,596 USA 74% Spain 9% Australia 7% Germany 2% Netherlands 2% Others 6% Spain was the second-largest exporter. Its exports went, principally, to Germany (28%), Italy (18%) and France (15%). WORLD ALMOND EXPORTS SHELLED + INSHELL (KB) / METRIC TONS 5 YEARS AVERAGE ALMOND EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS +80% OVER , , , , , , , , , , ,454 66,366 11,426 12,816 24,735 62, ,326 USA 76% Spain 8% Australia 3% Netherlands 2% Germany 2% Others 9% GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

16 ALMONDS IMPORTS / SHELLED + INSHELL (KB)* /METRIC TONS COUNTRY Growth ( ) Germany 66,847 69,054 69,284 71,090 72,715 74,029 79,856 82,541 83,502 91,760 88,938 22,091 Spain 63,843 59,558 57,356 58,217 69,244 75,869 63,025 77,358 70,164 84,413 84,964 21,122 India 40,403 44,029 49,147 36,977 34,358 36,506 42,595 50,962 94,566 46,580 60,482 20,079 China 10,744 9,805 18,011 16,056 33,728 46,246 46,060 57, ,417 47,466 50,807 40,063 UAE 11,609 10,841 15,489 14,948 15,763 31,520 34,832 36,435 38,706 41,699 49,815 38,206 Italy 29,153 34,401 27,330 32,033 24,203 28,417 29,849 35,109 33,677 39,024 39,465 10,312 France 32,029 37,775 30,978 32,008 29,466 33,058 31,741 31,130 32,280 40,527 35,946 3,917 Vietnam ,909 2,885 4,982 13,040 7,518 19,494 32,731 14,743 31,161 31,156 Japan 30,197 29,505 25,333 27,022 27,378 22,549 25,602 25,154 32,868 32,707 28,681-1,516 Netherlands 23,409 28,031 24,881 29,546 18,741 22,654 24,412 25,113 25,622 30,835 28,339 4,930 Canada 13,883 12,740 14,824 19,112 19,171 20,491 21,132 25,235 24,639 25,429 26,235 12,353 Korea Rep 5,386 4,661 5,274 5,385 6,533 10,467 10,817 14,233 22,031 21,520 25,364 19,978 UK 13,396 15,709 18,266 16,299 15,609 12,020 16,884 15,620 20,133 21,648 22,616 9,220 Turkey 2,947 4,259 6,343 4,699 10,952 14,917 19,903 19,843 36,506 23,723 18,044 15,097 Belgium 13,330 12,721 12,246 18,748 16,504 12,043 14,405 13,658 13,371 14,671 15,177 1,847 USA 1,111 1,028 1,639 1,661 1,366 1,496 1,680 4,131 7,160 4,260 12,850 11,739 Russian Fed. 14,674 14,797 7,640 6,422 8,812 10,536 13,333 17,410 20,265 21,700 10,318-4,356 Mexico 4,255 4,756 4,621 5,645 4,638 6,848 7,800 6,984 8,532 9,758 8,974 4,719 Saudi Arabia 1,896 2,329 2,649 4,293 4,047 4,937 6,286 7,265 9,813 6,696 7,619 5,723 Algeria 869 1,255 2,070 2,158 3,510 7,113 5,000 5,316 7,567 6,868 4,218 3,349 Others 32,266 34,027 66,233 94,226 90, , , ,636 57, , ,144 68,878 TOTAL 412, , , , , , , , , , , ,906 * Inshell converted into Kernel Basis based on 35% shell. 16 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

17 COUNTRY Consumption ESTIMATED WORLD ALMOND CONSUMPTION, KERNEL BASIS consumption/ USA 265, , , , , Spain 45, , , , , Germany 71, , , , , India 42, , , , , China 31, , , , , UAE 34, , , , , Italy 29, , , , , France 29, , , , , Japan 21, , , , , Australia 25, , , , , Canada 20, , , , , Korea Rep 10, , , , , Russian Fed. 13, , , , , Vietnam 12, , , , , Tunisia 14, , , , , Iran 12, , , , , Netherlands 10, , , , , Turkey 21, , , , , Greece 11, , , , , Chile 13, , , , , UK 13, , , , , WORLD TOTAL 800, , ,095, ,101, ,054, Total consumption expressed in Kg per person. Based on UN Statistics Division population census. Based on the estimated percentage of population consuming the specific product. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

18 BRAZIL NUTS PRODUCTION World production of Amazonia (Brazil) nuts in 2015/16 was almost 30,000 metric tons (kernel basis). Bolivia accounted for 22,000, representing the 73% of world production, followed by Peru with 4,500 (15% share) and Brazil with almost 3,500 (12% share). 4, ESTIMATED BRAZIL NUT PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 3,465 Bolivia 73% Peru 15% Brazil 12% The Amazonia (Brazil) nut is the most economically important plan product that is harvested sustainably in the Amazonian rain forest. Close to 70 percent of the world s supply comes from the Pando region, an area that only represents 3 percent of the Amazon forest. 22,000 5 YEAR AVERAGE BRAZIL NUT EXPORTS KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS WORLD BRAZIL NUT PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 3,701 Bolivia 76% +12% OVER ,700 28,900 33,500 27,900 21,490 26,450 23,673 28,880 26,850 28,500 29,965 2,983 20,800 Peru 13% Brazil 11% Est. 18 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

19 EXPORTS More than 38,000 of Amazonia (Brazil) nuts were exported in 2014, 64 percent up compared with Bolivia was the main exporting country in Its exports went mainly to the United Kingdom (25%), USA (22%), Germany (19%) and Netherlands (12%). 1,549 1,797 1, WORLD BRAZIL NUT EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 1,352 1,433 2,866 Bolivia 62% Peru 11% Netherlands* 5% Germany* 4% On the other hand, almost 70% of Peru s exports (the second largest exporter) went to the USA. 4,099 23,554 Guinea 4% UK 4% Thailand 4% Others 6% *Transit country WORLD BRAZIL NUT EXPORT SHELLED / METRIC TONS 5 YEARS AVERAGE BRAZIL NUT EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS +64% OVER ,273 28,454 26,717 33,150 26,643 28,075 28,279 30,756 30,729 31,929 38,179 1,608 2,209 3, ,530 2,068 Bolivia 63% Peru 11% Netherlands* 7% UK 5% Guinea 5% Germany* 3% Others 6% ,052 *Transit country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

20 BRAZIL NUTS IMPORTS / SHELLED /METRIC TONS COUNTRY Growth ( ) USA 8,775 6,443 7,762 9,644 8,140 8,848 7,732 6,553 7,969 7,647 8, UK 6,161 7,715 7,876 9,034 7,548 7,123 6,956 6,836 5,382 6,203 6, Germany 1,273 2,064 2,024 1,620 1,446 2,595 4,888 5,204 3,978 5,430 5,768 4,495 Netherlands* 1,315 1,283 1,638 2,074 1,516 2,474 1,888 2,548 2,275 2,634 3,525 2,210 Australia , ,399 1,381 1,350 1,111 1,631 1,572 1, China ,319 1,309 Canada Italy 774 1,179 1,043 1, Colombia Russian Fed Brazil France Spain New Zealand Israel Belgium* , Sweden South Africa Others 651 5, ,471 1, ,937 2,399 2,840 2,250 4,324 3,673 TOTAL 23,273 28,454 26,717 33,150 26,643 28,075 31,799 30,756 30,729 31,929 38,179 14,906 * Transit country 20 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

21 COUNTRY ESTIMATED WORLD BRAZIL NUTS CONSUMPTION. KERNEL BASIS consumption/ USA 7, , , , , Germany 3, , , , , UK 5, , , , , Australia 1, , , , , China , Canada Colombia Russian Fed New Zealand France Israel Spain Italy Sweden South Africa Czech Rep Ireland Denmark Switzerland Norway WORLD TOTAL 29, , , , , Total consumption expressed in Kg per person. Based on UN Statistics Division population census. Based on the estimated percentage of population consuming the specific product. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

22 CASHEWS PRODUCTION India led the production of cashews in 2015/16 with a crop of 172,719 metric tons (kernel basis), which represented the 23 percent of global production, followed by Côte d Ivoire (171,111, 23 %) and Vietnam (113,095, 15 %). 40, ESTIMATED CASHEW PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 19,048 12,000 8,333 33,000 West Africa 46% Global production of cashews in 2015/16 reached 738,861 metric tons, an increase of 3 percent from the previous season. It should be noted that the important growth in 2014 is partly explained by Ivory Coast, which increased its crop in 55 percent in only one season. East and West Africa are exporting almost all their production in inshell raw cashew nuts to India, Vietnam and Brazil to be shelled and processed there. 113, , ,666 India 23% Vietnam 15% East Africa 5% Brazil 5% Cambodia 3% Indonesia 2% Others 1% 5 YEAR AVERAGE CASHEW PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS WORLD CASHEW PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 14,809 13,778 15,377 31,200 West Africa 41% +43% OVER , , , , , , , , , , ,861 40,822 91,610 India 26% Vietnam 15% East Africa 6% Brazil 5% Cambodia 2% Indonesia 2% Est. 166, ,159 Others 3% 22 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

23 EXPORTS With 503,713 (shelled) exported in 2014, cashews increased their exports in 70 percentage points in only ten years. Vietnam and India clearly led the exports of cashew kernels with more than 289,000 and 116,500 respectively. USA was the main destination of both Vietnam and India s exports, representing the 32% of total Vietnam s exports and 25% of total India s exports. 26, WORLD CASHEW EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 5,920 3,908 22,101 7,990 8,273 17, , ,814 Vietnam* 58% India* 23% Netherlands** 5% Brazil 3% Indonesia 2% Germany** 2% Cote Ivoire 1% Belgium 1% Others 5% * Processing country ** Transit country WORLD CASHEW EXPORTS KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 5 YEARS AVERAGE CASHEW EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS +70% OVER , , , , , , , , , , ,713 5,227 4,862 27,189 7,901 Vietnam* 49% 11,384 India* 27% 23,110 Brazil 6% 26,398 Netherlands** 5% Tanzania 3% Ghana 2% Indonesia 1% Nigeria 1% , ,688 Others 6% * Processing country ** Transit country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

24 CASHEWS IMPORTS / SHELLED /METRIC TONS COUNTRY Growth ( ) USA 129, , , , , , , , , , ,673 7,604 China 15,233 21,555 24,759 27,414 27,615 40,011 42,504 41,332 51,156 53,291 52,280 37,047 Netherlands* 25,283 32,074 35,560 41,003 39,675 41,654 42,985 45,741 41,777 31,160 48,890 23,607 Germany* 17,446 20,903 19,642 23,063 15,598 19,690 22,521 23,694 30,271 27,924 31,639 14,193 UAE* 7,892 7,598 9,604 13,621 17,399 22,835 21,714 35,427 14,085 25,113 25,161 17,269 UK 13,344 14,171 12,999 17,470 14,297 15,996 15,523 12,974 14,135 14,035 17,931 4,587 Australia 10,258 13,033 14,443 14,553 14,075 13,759 14,158 14,160 15,695 15,794 16,725 6,467 Canada 10,460 1,599 8,502 10,364 5,190 9,356 9,336 9,723 12,300 11,965 13,138 2,678 Russian Fed. 4,031 6,576 7,023 7,882 8,893 5,894 6,351 8,542 10,146 10,060 12,240 8,209 Japan 6,880 8,574 4,666 5,733 6,180 6,232 7,590 8,018 7,580 8,146 11,523 4,643 France 6,762 6,273 7,677 8,842 10,312 8,471 8,316 9,588 8,498 9,044 10,342 3,580 Thailand 745 1,199 1,388 1,595 2,322 3,210 3,119 4,542 5,964 7,369 8,188 7,443 Italy 3,516 3,993 4,778 3,572 3,628 4,506 5,765 5,344 5,856 5,269 7,999 4,483 Saudi Arabia 2,948 5,919 4,587 4,595 3,458 5,139 5,273 4,447 6,203 5,311 7,977 5,029 Belgium 2,977 4,651 4,107 4,763 3,477 5,630 4,764 5,037 3,767 6,894 5,375 2,398 Spain 3,133 1,462 3,897 4,659 3,075 4,996 4,726 5,064 4,764 5,047 4,730 1,597 Israel 1,761 4,129 2,170 1,950 2,454 3,075 2,991 2,579 4,041 2,840 4,493 2,732 India** 8,261 11,163 1,058 2,332 13,082 7,204 9,294 21,997 11,635 6,689 4,275-3,986 Singapore 1,621 4,597 1,714 1,839 1,601 2,595 3,014 4,990 2,344 2,414 3,900 2,279 New Zealand 1,205 2,116 1,340 1,976 1,766 1,985 2,187 1,984 2,405 2,651 2,896 1,691 Others 24,056 36,155 33,710 49,774 55,673 55,777 80,928 46,650 40,098 54,788 77,338 53,282 TOTAL 296, , , , , , , , , , , ,832 *Transit country ** Processing country 24 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

25 COUNTRY ESTIMATED WORLD CASHEWS CONSUMPTION, KERNEL BASIS consumption/ India 250, , , , , USA 130, , , , , China 42, , , , , Germany 18, , , , , Netherlands 17, , , , , Cambodia 12, , , , , Australia 14, , , , , UK 13, , , , , Russian Fed. 6, , , , , Canada 9, , , , , Japan 7, , , , , France 8, , , , , Thailand 3, , , , , Saudi Arabia 5, , , , , Italy 4, , , , , Indonesia 9, , , , , Spain 4, , , , , Israel 2, , , , , New Zealand 1, , , , , Malaysia 1, , , , , WORLD TOTAL 469, , , , , Total consumption expressed in Kg per person. Based on UN Statistics Division population census. Based on the estimated percentage of population consuming the specific product. GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

26 HAZELNUTS PRODUCTION World production of hazelnuts in 2015 achieved 488,110 metric tons (kernel basis), up 37 percent from the previous season and 19 percent up compared with Turkey clearly led the hazelnuts production with a crop of 342,500 metric tons (kernel basis) in 2015, which represented the 70 percent of total production. Italy, with a crop of 58,500 (12 percent of total), was the second largest producer. 24,000 58, ESTIMATED HAZELNUT PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 9,000 4,800 6,750 10,560 11,500 16,000 4, ,500 Turkey 70% Italy 12% Georgia 5% Azerbaijan 3% USA 2% Spain 2% Chile 2% France 1% Iran 1% Others 2% 2015 ESTIMATED HAZELNUT PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS /METRIC TONS 5 YEAR AVERAGE HAZELNUT PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS +19% OVER , , , , , , , , , , , Est. 14,026 14,080 16,773 49,356 15,873 9, ,500 Turkey 72% Italy 12% Azerbaijan 4% Georgia 3% USA 3% Spain 2% Others 4% 26 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

27 EXPORTS Hazelnuts exports in 2014 achieved more than 219,000 metric tons, 14% more compared to the preceding year and 12% more than in Turkey led the world exports of hazelnuts, with a total shipment of 147,000 metric tons. Italy was the principal destination of Turkey s hazelnut, importing 54,417, which represented the 37% of Turkey s exports. Georgia was the second largest exporter, with almost 19,000, being Belgium the main destination. 11,838 18,317 8,601 2,181 3,148 3,487 5,899 18, WORLD HAZELNUT EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 147,010 Turkey 67% Georgia 9% Italy 8% Azerbaijan 5% Germany* 3% Netherlands* 2% USA 1% Spain 1% Others 4% *Transit country WORLD HAZELNUT EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 5 YEARS AVERAGE HAZELNUT EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS -15% OVER , , , , , , , , , , , ,741 5,871 2,344 2,722 2,800 4,442 10,771 15,181 17, ,467 Turkey 71% Georgia 8% Italy 7% Azerbaijan 5% Germany* 2% Czech Republic 1% Netherlands* 1% Spain 1% USA 1% Others 3% *Transit country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

28 HAZELNUTS IMPORTS / SHELLED /METRIC TONS COUNTRY Growth ( ) Italy* 34,701 68,139 76,623 58,536 54,711 49,154 40,211 44,847 47,395 53,966 59,646 24,945 Germany* 76,772 66,175 68,706 78,891 67,501 34,762 31,049 34,221 28,553 39,505 35,529-41,243 France 24,517 21,109 23,304 29,318 19,518 15,809 27,894 28,984 28,892 26,997 20,477-4,040 Canada 800 1, ,291 5,377 4,848 7,910 10,222 11,120 10,123 10,111 9,311 Switzerland 12,237 12,376 12,083 12,065 11,609 10,032 9,482 9,551 8,751 10,037 9,761-2,476 Russian Fed. 9,848 8,359 9,967 12,592 13,486 9,022 11,016 13,922 13,179 9,187 11,270 1,422 Poland 1,688 1,905 1,582 9,833 6,084 6,556 6,987 7,483 10,312 8,842 8,077 6,389 Belgium* 15,365 13,870 14,918 13,741 13,800 6,755 7,536 11,050 6,972 7,303 6,736-8,629 Spain 841 1, ,636 5,745 5,403 5,184 4,748 5,248 5,759 4,301 3,460 USA 4,930 4,188 5,228 4,618 4,749 1,801 2,912 2,227 3,238 4,384 2,634-2,296 Netherlands 12,034 9,097 9,478 8,926 7,371 3,035 3,416 3,511 3,555 3,762 3,742-8,292 Iraq ,376 2,157 2,341 2,167 3,155 2,053 2,043 Australia 2,307 2,536 2,126 1,695 1,752 1,503 2,333 2,271 2,807 2,923 2, Ukraine 3,804 3,472 4,626 4,997 6,165 1,978 2,039 2,467 2,697 2,902 1,626-2,178 Austria 1,670 1,525 1,093 8,379 8,528 2,395 2,599 3,179 2,531 2,889 3,467 1,797 Egypt 2,085 1,431 2,315 2,565 2,990 2,969 3,896 2,130 3,578 2,773 2, Czech Republic 614 1,080 1,511 1,599 1,789 1,857 1,754 2,283 1,948 2,494 1,872 1,258 Brazil 2,452 2,309 1,926 1,375 1,772 2,312 2,321 2,541 2,801 2,385 3, UK ,454 5,166 1,508 2,023 2,150 2,023 2,150 2,112 1,543 Greece ,739 2,920 2,610 2,242 2,147 2,150 2,049 1,555 1,078 Others 11,835 12,914 12,498 24,071 26,643 18,243 20,942 20,635 25,514 42,211 26,726 14,891 TOTAL 219, , , , , , , , , , , *Processing country 28 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

29 COUNTRY ESTIMATED WORLD HAZELNUTS CONSUMPTION, KERNEL BASIS consumption/ Italy* 67, , , , , Turkey 45, , , , , Germany* 27, , , , , France 26, , , , , USA 11, , , , , Russian Fed. 11, , , , , Spain 12, , , , , Switzerland* 9, , , , , Canada 7, , , , , Poland 6, , , , , Belgium 6, , , , , Brazil 2, , , , , Australia 2, , , , , Egypt 3, , , , , UK 1, , , , , Ukraine 2, , , , , Azerbaijan 1, , , , , Greece 2, , , , , Israel 1, , , , , WORLD TOTAL 291, , , , , Total consumption expressed in kg per person. Based on UN Statistics Division population census. Based on the estimated percentage of population that is considered as regular consumer of hazelnuts. * Transit Country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

30 MACADAMIAS PRODUCTION The world production of macadamias has increased 78% in the last ten years, achieving 46,399 (kernel basis) in Australia was the largest producer with 13,530 metric tons (kernel basis), followed by South Africa (12,900 ), Kenya (8,846 ), USA (3,600 ) and Malawi (1,781 ). These countries accounted for the 88 percent of world production. 1,250 1,835 1,781 3, ESTIMATED MACADAMIA PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS 1,407 1,250 13,530 Australia 29% South Africa 28% Kenya 19% USA 8% Malawi 4% Guatemala 4% 8,846 12,900 China 3% Brazil 2% Others 3% 5 YEAR AVERAGE MACADAMIA PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS WORLD MACADAMIA PRODUCTION KERNEL BASIS / METRIC TONS +78% OVER ,021 28,109 26,495 27,951 27,639 28,714 29,484 36,906 37,497 41,687 46, Est. 1,246 1,093 1,210 1,734 1,740 3,843 5,230 11,632 10,666 South Africa 30% Australia 28% Kenya 14% USA 10% Malawi 5% Guatemala 4% China 3% Brazil 3% Others 3% 30 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

31 EXPORTS A total of 31,000 of shelled macadamias were exported in This was 52% up on the year before and 131% up compared with South Africa was the top exporter of shelled macadamias with the USA as the principal destination accounting for 43% of all South African kernel exports. Australia was the second ranked kernel exporter with Europe being the principal destination. 1,262 1,334 2,120 1,173 2, WORLD MACADAMIA EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 1,313 3,114 6,355 5,465 5,956 South Africa 21% Australia 19% Netherlands** 18% China* 10% USA 9% Tanzania 7% Malawi 4% Guatemala 4% Germany 4% Others 4% * Processing country ** Transit country WORLD MACADAMIA EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS +131% OVER ,452 15,774 14,684 25,993 27,113 31,260 34,612 36,193 34,096 20,359 31, ,147 1,028 1,428 1,441 1,641 1,717 5 YEARS AVERAGE MACADAMIA EXPORTS SHELLED / METRIC TONS 3,029 3,927 9,254 5,647 South Africa 30% Australia 18% China* 13% Netherlands** 10% USA 5% Guatemala 5% Tanzania 5% Zimbabwe 5% Malawi 3% Others 6% * Processing country ** Transit country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

32 MACADAMIAS IMPORTS / SHELLED /METRIC TONS COUNTRY Growth ( ) USA ,659 6,994 8,034 6,810 3,827 6,464 6,675 9,332 5,207 China* ,739 3,727 5,229 7,459 7,937 10,207 3,941 4,264 3,647 Spain ,950 1, ,651 2,651 Germany 2,735 3,398 2,172 3,037 3,394 3,638 4,721 4,005 1,503 2,022 2, Australia ,006 1, ,260 1, ,714 2,194 1,786 Canada , , ,154 1,912 Japan 7,344 7,435 6,331 4,962 2,278 2,840 2,374 2,104 2,187 2,001 1,976-5,368 Netherlands** ,180 2,017 1,985 3,011 1,247 1,151 1,675 1,532 Vietnam ,649 1,520 3,267 2,514 5,780 6,944-1,648 1,549 South Africa Luxembourg , Belgium , UK Singapore Korea Rep Italy France Malaysia Thailand Costa Rica Others ,197 1,672 1,402 1,784 2,067 2,858 1,638 3,146 2,814 TOTAL 12,968 14,054 11,693 26,268 27,558 31,601 34,642 36,044 34,429 20,359 31,037 18,069 *Processing country **Transit Country 32 INC INTERNATIONAL NUT AND DRIED FRUIT COUNCIL

33 COUNTRY ESTIMATED WORLD MACADAMIA CONSUMPTION, KERNEL BASIS consumption/ USA 9, , , , , Kenya , , , , Australia 6, , , , , China 4, , , , , Canada , , Japan 2, , , , , Germany 3, , , , Brazil , , Luxembourg* Malawi 1, , , UK Spain Singapore Korea Rep New Zealand France Italy Malaysia Thailand Costa Rica WORLD TOTAL 29, , , , , Total consumption expressed in Kg per person. Based on Un Statistics Division population census. Based on the estimated percentage of population that is considered as regular consumer of macadamias. *Processing country GLOBAL STATISTICAL REVIEW 2015/

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