GPIO with ATmega328 (Arduino board)

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1 GPIO with ATmega328 (Arduino board) This is pin configuration for the ATmega328 in PDIP28 package, which is used in Arduino Uno. The I/O pins are organized to ports. Ports are named port B, port C, etc. Port contains 8 pins. The notation PC6 means pin 6 on port C, etc. The pins are numbered from 0, so each port contains pins 0 thru 7. Not all pins are available in all packages, so you may see some ports with less than 8 pins. The Arduino Uno board uses different names for the I/O pins - they are not organized into ports but simply numbered from 0 up. For example, digital pin 0, digital pin 1, etc. Here is the mapping of Arduino names to the ports and pins of the MCU (The picture shows ATmega168 used in earlier Arduinos, but the pins are the same on the ATmega328p used in new Arduinos). 1

2 How to work with the I/O pins Each port is controlled by 3 registers: PORTx DDRx PINx Where x is the name of the port. For example, for port B the registers will be named PORTB, DDRB, PINB. This is description of the PORTB registers from the ATmega328 datasheet. 2

3 PORTB Writing to bits in this register drives the respective pin to high or low state if the pin is configured as output. If the pin in configured as input, writing 1 enables internal pull up resistor, writing 0 disables the resistor. DDRB The bits in this register select the direction of the pins. Writing 1 sets the pin as output, writing 0 makes the pin input. PINB This register can be read to obtain the state of the inputs (if pin is configured as input). If we read logic one from the bit, it means there is the high voltage (e.g. 5 V) at the pin. Example 1 - Turn on the LED in Arduino Uno board. The LED is connected to digital pin 13, which is pin PB5. DDRB = 0x20; // set the bit 5 to 1 (set the PB5 pin as output) PORTB = 0x20; // set the bit 5 to 1 (drive the PB5 high > turn LED on) 3

4 Example 2 - Read state of button connected to digital pin 2 (PD2) // We do not need to set the pin as input; it is input by default. But to be on the safe side DDRD &= ~(0x04); PORTD = 0x04; // clear bit 2 in DDRD register > set PD2 as input // set bit 2 > enable pull up resistor on PD2 If ( (PIND & 0x04) == 0 ) // if the button is pressed, we read logic zero and the condition will be true ; // do something when button is pressed Note To make the program easier to read, instead of using the masks such as DDRB = 0x20; we can use: DDRB = (1 << DDB5); Or macro _BV (bit value): DDRB = _BV(5); Trying the programs in CodeBlocks IDE We can use Arduino project without any additional set-up; the register definitions are included thru some basic header file. Here is example program for Arduino project: #include <Arduino.h> /* This program demonstrates use of direct port access to blink the LED The on-board LED on Arduino digital pin 13 is in fact connected to pin PB5 of the ATmega328 MCU. */ void setup() // Set the pin PB5 as output (onboard LED on Arduino Uno). // Any of these lines will do the job //DDRB = 0x20; //DDRB = (1 << DDB5); 4

5 DDRB = _BV(5); void loop() // Set pin PB5 high (logic one) > turn LED on //PORTB = 0x20; //PORTB = (1 << PORTB5); PORTB = _BV(5); delay(1000); // wait for a second // Set pin PB5 low (logic zero) > turn LED off //PORTB &= ~(0x20); //PORTB &= ~(1 << PORTB5); PORTB &= ~(_BV(5)); delay(1000); // wait for a second Creating the program in plain C We can also write the program in standard C language without the Arduino libraries. Use the AVR project type in CodeBlocks. Select AVR as the project type In the wizard leave most of the settings at default values, but select the atmega328p MCU as shown below: 5

6 Here is the example program which blinks on-board LED #include <avr/io.h> // we need to create our own delay function void mydelay(void); int main(void) // Insert code // Set the pin PB5 as output (onboard LED on Arduino Uno). // Any of these lines will do the job //DDRB = 0x20; //DDRB = (1 << DDB5); DDRB = _BV(5); while(1) // Set pin PB5 high (logic once) > turn LED on //PORTB = 0x20; 6

7 //PORTB = (1 << PORTB5); PORTB = _BV(5); mydelay(); // wait a little // Set pin PB5 low (logic zero) > turn LED off //PORTB &= ~(0x20); //PORTB &= ~(1 << PORTB5); PORTB &= ~(_BV(5)); mydelay(); return 0; // wait a little void mydelay(void) unsigned int n = 0xFFFF; while (n > 0 ) n--; Copy the above code to your main.c file Build the project Load the project to Arduino board as follows: o In Tools menu select Arduino Builder o In Arduino builder window click the Load Sketch/HEX and select the.hex file for your project. This file is the output of the build process. It is located in \bin\debug folder in your project. For example, if your project is named test, the file will be located in \test\bin\debug\test.hex o Click the COMx button to load the program to board (same as when loading normal Arduino program) Now the program should be downloaded and run. Interesting experiment Try to compare the speed of the Arduino s digitalwrite functions when toggling output pin with the speed of direct register version. 7

8 Here is example code for measuring the time with Arduino functions. After measuring this, try to replace digitalwrite with writing to PORTB register. You can use any pin number, no need to actually toggle (and torture ) an LED! #include <Arduino.h> void setup() Serial.begin(9600); // initialize the digital pin as an output. // Pin 13 has an LED connected on most Arduino boards: pinmode(2, OUTPUT); void loop() int i; unsigned long start, stop; i = 500; start = micros(); while ( i-- > 0) digitalwrite(2, HIGH); digitalwrite(2, LOW); stop = micros(); // Print the number of microseconds it took to execute digitalwrite 1000-times Serial.print(stop - start); Serial.println(" us"); delay(5000); 8

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