BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 7: Processes: Predation. 2. The basic nature of interactions within and between trophic levels:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 7: Processes: Predation. 2. The basic nature of interactions within and between trophic levels:"

Transcription

1 Lecture 7: Processes: Predation 1. Lecture summary: Horizontal & vertical interactions. Vertical interactions: Predation: Classifications Defense Henri Rousseau, The sleeping gypsy 1897, MMA, New York Lecture 7: slide 1 2. The basic nature of interactions within and between trophic levels: Horizontal interactions within a trophic level: competition > amensalism > commensalism > mutualism Vertical interactions between trophic levels: Predation / parasitism / herbivory > mutualism Malcolm (1992) Lecture 7: slide 2 3. Summary of ecological interactions: Interaction Species 1 Species 2 a) Horizontal competition - - amensalism - 0 commensalism 0 + mutualism + + b) Vertical predation parasitism herbivory mutualism + + NB neutralism is really an irrelevant 0/0 interaction; and it is also important to realize that herbivores are usually the prey or hosts for predators and parasites Lecture 7: slide 3 1

2 4. Vertical trophic interactions can be divided into two basic kinds: (1) Consumers that do not kill their food these are the parasites which include pathogens and herbivores - neither of which completely consume their food hosts. (2) Consumers that do kill their food these are the predators which include typical animal predators as well as insectivorous plants and seed-eating animals like birds, small mammals and insects. Lecture 7: slide 4 5. Predation: Predation is a +/- or exploitative interaction between consumers and the things they consume. Consumers affect the distribution and abundance of what they consume and vice versa. Predation is consumption of one organism (the prey) by another organism (the predator), in which the prey is alive when the predator first attacks it. This excludes detritivory as feeding on dead organic matter Lecture 7: slide 5 6. Predation Taxonomic classification (trivial): Carnivores consume animals. Herbivores consume plants. Omnivores consume both plants and animals. Lecture 7: slide 6 2

3 7. Predation Functional classification: True predators: kill and consume prey immediately; kill many prey. like lions and seed-eating beetles. Grazers: attack many "prey"; rarely lethal; only partially consume. like sheep and mosquitoes. Parasites: attack few or single "prey"; rarely lethal; only partially consume. micro & macroparasites - measles, tapeworms, gall wasps & aphids. Parasitoids: attack single "prey", always lethal, complete consumption. This is why Begon et al. (2006) consider herbivory as a subset of predation - mostly as plant grazers, but also as plant parasites. Because there are important differences between predators and herbivores, herbivory will be considered in more detail in lecture 11! Lecture 7: slide 7 8. The effect of predation on prey populations: Predators should be harmful to prey populations because they attack and kill individual prey, but this may not be true for 2 reasons: 1) killed individuals may not be a random sample of the population and may be those with lowest fitness (old, young or sick individuals) see Fig ) there may be compensatory changes in growth, survival or reproduction of surviving prey. e.g. recruitment curves in Fig. 5.10b indicate that predation of high density individuals should lead to increased growth and reproduction - but at low density the effect could be reversed (this influences resource harvesting) Lecture 7: slide 8 9. Prey as food resources for Predators: Increased food consumption leads to increased rates of growth, development & birth, and decreased rates of mortality - above a metabolic maintenance threshold and below a satiation threshold Fig (3r d ed.) (a) Linyphiid spider (b) Daphnia water flea. Lecture 7: slide 9 3

4 10. Prey defense: Predator satiation: Predator satiation suggests that some prey may target this as a defense against being consumed - and so they evolve mechanisms to synchronize their peak periods of population abundance: Like periodical cicadas (Magicicada) in which there are twelve, 17-year and three, 13-year broods currently in existence in eastern North America: see cover, Table 1 and Fig. 1 from Heliövaara et al. 1994,Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9(12): 476 Lecture 7: slide Prey defense: Masting: Fruit/seed masting in trees (Fig. 8.11), and inverse density dependence in Fig to show that predators may not track prey food resources when they fluctuate (Fig. 9.12) unless they have short generation times. Nutritional quality: Prey may reduce their nutritional quality by dilution or other means such as toxins or digestibility-reducing chemicals. see protein availability for wildebeest in Fig which argues for predator foraging behaviors; to be considered next time... Lecture 7: slide 11 Figure 9.9: Age classes of Thomson s gazelles lost to predators in the Serengeti Lecture 7: slide 12 4

5 Figure 5.10b: Clover growth rate against leaf area index at different light intensities Lecture 7: slide 13 Trends in Ecology & Evolution (1994) Vol. 9(12) Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada form a complex of 6 species each with 13-year and 17-year life cycles. Broods X & XIX are separated by mtdna genotypes in Fig. 3 below Lecture 7: slide 14 Table 1: (Heliövaara et al. 1994, TREE 9(12):476 Lecture 7: slide 15 5

6 Figure 1: Heliövaara et al. 1994, TREE 9(12):478 Lecture 7: slide 16 Figure 8.11 (3rd ed.): Periodical masting in Scots pine and Norway spruce Lecture 7: slide 17 Figure 8.12 (3rd ed.): Inverse density dependence in weevil attacks on witch hazel fruits Lecture 7: slide 18 6

7 Figure 9.12: Inverse plant and mirid bug numbers in the Negev desert Asphodelus fruits nymphs adults Lecture 7: slide 19 Figure 9.13: Wildebeeste food quality and bone marrow fat in the Serengeti Eaten protein Live males Dead males Available protein Lecture 7: slide 20 7

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

Predator-prey relationships

Predator-prey relationships Predator-prey relationships Can insects hunt for food? When you think of an animal hunting for its food, large animals such as lions may come to mind. But many tiny animals also hunt for their food. For

More information

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS

FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS FOOD CHAINS, FOOD WEBS AND ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS SECTION 1 In an ecosystem, plants capture the sun's energy and use it to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich organic compounds. This process of using

More information

Ecology Module. Module developed with the help of Mrs. Laura Grimm, Dalton Intermediate teacher. Deer Overpopulation Activity

Ecology Module. Module developed with the help of Mrs. Laura Grimm, Dalton Intermediate teacher. Deer Overpopulation Activity Ecology Module Keely Davidson-Bennett NSF STEM Graduate Fellow in K-12 Education, Sugar Creek Watershed Project Ohio State University Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center December 2010 Module

More information

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs

Ecology- an ecosystem: a Biome: o They are either terrestrial or aquatic. rainforests, deserts, coral reefs Topic 17: Ecology Ecology- The environment is an organism s surroundings o It includes:! biotic factors: Ecosystems! abiotic factors: an ecosystem: In order for an ecosystem to maintain life it must: -

More information

Objectives. Key Terms

Objectives. Key Terms Objectives Identify causes and possible results of interspecific competition. Identify some adaptations of predators and prey. Compare and contrast symbiotic relationships. Key Terms interspecific competition

More information

8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review

8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review 8 th Grade Science Organisms and their Environment Review #1 The tree is an example of a in the food web. Producers perform photosynthesis. A: Prey B: Decomposer C: producer D: Herbivore C. Producer #2

More information

Human Population Issues. Unit 4: 人口与环境

Human Population Issues. Unit 4: 人口与环境 Human Population Issues Unit 4: 人口与环境 Population Characteristics Population - Group of individuals inhabiting the same area simultaneously. Natality and Mortality Natality - Number of individuals added

More information

Functional Response Numerical Response Offtake = product of functional and numerical responses Cycles and stability

Functional Response Numerical Response Offtake = product of functional and numerical responses Cycles and stability 1 Predation part 2 Functional Response Numerical Response = product of functional and numerical responses Cycles and stability Last time, used simple models (fixed quota, fixed effort, Lotka-Volterra)

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment. Scientists who study ecology are called ecologists. Because our planet has many

More information

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Why Do Living Things Interact With Each Other? Because, in order to survive, a living organism depends on other living things. Organisms may interact to find food

More information

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 10: ECOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. All of the following are density-dependent factors

More information

Chapter 54: Community Ecology

Chapter 54: Community Ecology Name Period Concept 54.1 Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved. 1. What is a community? List six organisms that would be found in your

More information

BLY 303 Lecture Notes, 2012 (O Brien) V. Predator-Prey Interactions

BLY 303 Lecture Notes, 2012 (O Brien) V. Predator-Prey Interactions BLY 303 Lecture Notes, 2012 (O Brien) V. Predator-Prey Interactions I. Introduction A. Types of predation 1. HERBIVORY: Animal eats plants 2. CARNIVORY: Animal eats animals 3. CANNABALISM: Animal eats

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 14 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Zebras live on the savannas of

More information

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change

5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change How Ecosystems Work CHAPTER 5 1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems 2 The Cycling of Materials 3 How Ecosystems Change READING WARM-UP Before you read this chapter, take a few minutes to answer the following questions

More information

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Interactions in Ecosystems

Study Guide B. Answer Key. Interactions in Ecosystems Interactions in Ecosystems Answer Key SECTION 1. HABITAT AND NICHE 1. a habitat is all of the biotic and abiotic factors in the area where an organism lives, while a niche includes all physical, chemical,

More information

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes

Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Grassland Food Webs: Teacher Notes Alan Henderson ecosystem Objectives After completing this activity students will be able to: Create a food web and identify producers and consumers. Assign organisms

More information

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime What is Entomology? Entomology is the study of insects. Entomologists study bees, ants, beetles,

More information

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5.

Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 4 Use this diagram of a food web to answer questions 1 through 5. coyotes 3. If these organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism

More information

INTERACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS: Video & READINGS: Watch the BrainPop video on Ecosystems

INTERACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS: Video & READINGS: Watch the BrainPop video on Ecosystems INTERACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS: Video & READINGS: Watch the BrainPop video on Ecosystems The two readings below cover many of the same terms and concepts. Read them when you have time. Pay particular attention

More information

Section 3: Trophic Structures

Section 3: Trophic Structures Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Trophic Structure refers to the way in which organisms utilize food resources and hence where energy transfer occurs within an ecosystem.

More information

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers & Decomposers

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers & Decomposers Kansas Prairies s, s & Decomposers Science, Life Science, Reading, Math Materials Vocabulary worksheet Food Chain worksheet Overview To explore the organisms found on a prairie and identify the various

More information

Food Chains (and webs) Flow of energy through an ecosystem Grade 5 Austin Carter, Dale Rucker, Allison Hursey

Food Chains (and webs) Flow of energy through an ecosystem Grade 5 Austin Carter, Dale Rucker, Allison Hursey Food Chains (and webs) Flow of energy through an ecosystem Grade 5 Austin Carter, Dale Rucker, Allison Hursey References: Columbus Public Schools Curriculum Guide- Grade 5 GK-12 Biological Science Lesson

More information

Jennifer Carmack Cannon s Point Unit

Jennifer Carmack Cannon s Point Unit Jennifer Carmack Cannon s Point Unit Unit Organizer: (Approximate Time: 5 days) OVERVIEW: Organisms are dependent upon other organisms for survival. The absence of one organism can disrupt all other organisms

More information

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Sun The Sun The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Plants Plants Plants need the sun to make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name Focus Areas: Pest Control: Biological; Environmental Science, Language Arts Focus Skills: critical thinking, conducting research, observing, graphing, interpreting data Objectives To explore human attitudes

More information

WORKSHEET 19: Shingle beach ecosystems food chains & webs

WORKSHEET 19: Shingle beach ecosystems food chains & webs SHINGLE BEACH ECOSYSTEMS, FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS The community of plants and animals in any habitat interact with the non-living environment, such as the soil and the atmosphere. The combination of

More information

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce.

Ecology. Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Biotic vs. Abiotic Ecology Abiotic Factors: non-living physical and chemical factors which pffect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. Some Abiotic Factors light intensity temperature range

More information

Food Chains and Food Webs

Food Chains and Food Webs Program Support Notes by: Spiro Liacos B.Ed. Produced by: VEA Pty Ltd Commissioning Editor: Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. Executive Producers: Edwina Baden-Powell B.A, CVP. Sandra Frerichs B.Ed, M.Ed. You

More information

14.1. Every organism has a habitat and a niche. A habitat differs from a niche. Interactions in Ecosystems CHAPTER 14.

14.1. Every organism has a habitat and a niche. A habitat differs from a niche. Interactions in Ecosystems CHAPTER 14. SECTION 14.1 HABITAT AND NICHE Study Guide KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche. VOCABULARY habitat ecological niche competitive exclusion ecological equivalent A habitat differs from a

More information

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers, & Decomposers

Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, Consumers, & Decomposers Kansas Prairies Prairie Food Chains & Webs Producers, s, & Decomposers Life Science, Math, Reading, Science Materials Student Worksheet A: Vocabulary Student Worksheet B: Food Chain Overview To explore

More information

CHEETAHS: A PREDATOR S ROLE IN THE ECOSYSYTEM C H E E T A H C O N S E R V A T I O N F U N D

CHEETAHS: A PREDATOR S ROLE IN THE ECOSYSYTEM C H E E T A H C O N S E R V A T I O N F U N D CHEETAHS: A PREDATOR S ROLE IN THE ECOSYSYTEM Background food chains Cats and the Energy Cycle: The speed of a cheetah and the strength of a lion aid them in catching their prey. Big cats are predators

More information

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a

More information

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4

Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Ecology Module B, Anchor 4 Key Concepts: - The biological influences on organisms are called biotic factors. The physical components of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. - Primary producers are

More information

Today you need: textbook, spiral, pen or pencil, worksheet Lesson: Symbiosis day #1

Today you need: textbook, spiral, pen or pencil, worksheet Lesson: Symbiosis day #1 Today you need: textbook, spiral, pen or pencil, worksheet Lesson: Symbiosis day #1 Vocabulary: 1. symbiosis- 2.predation 3. Mutualism- 4. Commensalism- 5. Parasitism- 6. competition Symbiosis Living Together

More information

Principles of Ecology

Principles of Ecology 2 Principles of Ecology section 1 Organisms and Their Relationships Before You Read On the lines below, list the organisms that you have encountered today. You share the same environment with these organisms.

More information

Nutrition and Zoo Animals

Nutrition and Zoo Animals Nutrition and Zoo Animals Nutrition All animals need nutrition to survive. Nutrition can have a large effect on basic health as well as physical and mental development, ability to reproduce, emotions and

More information

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Running Time: 42 minutes Program Description Investigate temperate forests and find some of the most elusive creatures and welladapted plant

More information

Class Insecta - The insects

Class Insecta - The insects A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced

More information

Ecology Symbiotic Relationships

Ecology Symbiotic Relationships Ecology Symbiotic Relationships Overview of the Co-evolution and Relationships Exhibited Among Community Members What does Symbiosis mean? How do we define Symbiosis? Symbiosis in the broadest sense is

More information

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism Worksheets (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level 1 Life cycle of a butterfly P3 2 Am I an insect? P3 3 4 Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism The butterfly

More information

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight.

The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. Energy in Ecosystems: Ecology: Part 2: Energy and Biomass The main source of energy in most ecosystems is sunlight. What is the amount of energy from the sun? 100 W/ft 2 The energy gets transferred through

More information

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore)

Ecological Pyramids. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? 24 kcal Hawk (carnivore) 470 kcal Blue jays (omnivore) Caterpillars (herbivore) Why? Ecological Pyramids How does energy flow through an ecosystem? Every organism in an ecosystem is either eating or being eaten. When cows eat grass, they obtain some of the energy that the grass transferred

More information

This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is

This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is This presentation provides an introduction to insect biology and identification. Gaining an understanding of the biology and life cycle of insects is useful for proper management. 1 In order to appreciate

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection:

Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: Bio EOC Topics for Ecology, Evolution and Natural Selection: UEvolutionU Difference between macroevolution and microevolution Sexual reproduction and natural selection are mechanisms of microevolution

More information

Rain Forests. America's. Web of Life. Rain Forest Ecology. Prince William Network's OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES SUBJECTS

Rain Forests. America's. Web of Life. Rain Forest Ecology. Prince William Network's OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES SUBJECTS Rain Forest Ecology National Science Education Standards Standard C: Life Sciences Populations and ecosystems. Standard C: Life Sciences Diversity and adaptation of organisms. Standard F: Science in Personal

More information

Activity 5 Predator/Prey Interaction Food Chains and Food Webs

Activity 5 Predator/Prey Interaction Food Chains and Food Webs Activity 5 Predator/Prey Interaction Food Chains and Food Webs Objectives Students will investigate predator-prey interactions using a variety of small vertebrate predators. Students will examine prey

More information

Who Knows Utah Animals?

Who Knows Utah Animals? Who Knows Utah Animals? Fourth Grade Core: Standard 5 Objective 2 Identify common plants and animals that inhabit Utah forests, wetlands, and deserts; cite examples of physical features that allow particular

More information

What activities do you think an organism would use bioluminescence for?

What activities do you think an organism would use bioluminescence for? Relationships for Survival: The Role of Bioluminescence overview In these activities, students will focus on ecological relationships and investigate the many ways that species might interact using bioluminescence.

More information

1 Everything Is Connected

1 Everything Is Connected CHAPTER 1 1 Everything Is Connected SECTION Interactions of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What do organisms in an ecosystem depend

More information

AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions

AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions AP Biology Unit I: Ecological Interactions Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth s history. Species extinction rates are rapid at times of ecological stress.

More information

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science

ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science 1. What is ecology the study of? Then and now Questions from page 234 of 2. Why did Maori and European settlers burn forests and drain wetlands? 3. Give figures for four examples of a change that has occurred

More information

SEA OTTER EVOLUTION Miocene Pliocene predators forage

SEA OTTER EVOLUTION Miocene Pliocene predators forage SEA OTTER EVOLUTION No one knows exactly how sea otters evolved, but it is believed that they arose from primitive, fish-eating otter mammals about 5 to 7 million years ago during the late Miocene and

More information

Rainforest Food Web Tropical Rainforests Temperate Rainforests

Rainforest Food Web Tropical Rainforests Temperate Rainforests Rainforest Food Web The list of plants and animals endemic to rainforest biome is exhaustive, and that makes the rainforest food web one of the most complex food webs of the world. Continue reading...

More information

6. Which of the following is not a basic need off all animals a. food b. *friends c. water d. protection from predators. NAME SOL 4.

6. Which of the following is not a basic need off all animals a. food b. *friends c. water d. protection from predators. NAME SOL 4. NAME SOL 4.5 REVIEW - Revised Habitats, Niches and Adaptations POPULATION A group of the same species living in the same place at the same time. COMMUNITY-- All of the populations that live in the same

More information

Barlow s Brain Busters 5 Advanced Higher Environmental Biology

Barlow s Brain Busters 5 Advanced Higher Environmental Biology Barlow s Brain Busters 5 1. Outline the main examples of biotic interactions within an ecosystem. Competition, feeding interactions (autotroph / primary consumer, predator / prey) and symbiotic interactions

More information

Worksheet: The food chain

Worksheet: The food chain Worksheet: The food chain Foundation Phase Grade 1-3 Learning area: Natural Science Specific Aim 2: Investigating phenomena in natural sciences Activity Sheet Activity 1: What is a food chain? Every time

More information

BEARS. Polar Bear Photo by Jerzy Strzelecki

BEARS. Polar Bear Photo by Jerzy Strzelecki BEARS There are technically 8 species of bear which include the Asiatic Black Bear, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Panda Bear, Polar Bear, Sloth Bear, Spectacled Bear, and the Sun Bear. That being said, the North

More information

Parental care and sexual conflict. Email: R.E.van.Dijk@bath.ac.uk

Parental care and sexual conflict. Email: R.E.van.Dijk@bath.ac.uk Parental care and sexual conflict René van Dijk Email: R.E.van.Dijk@bath.ac.uk Papers for 15 November Team 1 Royle,, N. J., I. R. Hartley & G. A. Parker. 2002. Sexual conflict reduces offspring fitness

More information

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships

Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Creating Chains and Webs to Model Ecological Relationships Overview This hands-on activity supports the HHMI short film The Guide and the 2015 Holiday Lectures on Science: Patterns and Processes in Ecology.

More information

Life processes. All animals have to carry out seven life processes. These are: 2. Respiration taking in one gas and getting rid of another

Life processes. All animals have to carry out seven life processes. These are: 2. Respiration taking in one gas and getting rid of another Food chains Life processes All animals have to carry out seven life processes. These are: 1. Movement being able to move its body 2. Respiration taking in one gas and getting rid of another 3. Reproduction

More information

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species.

a. a population. c. an ecosystem. b. a community. d. a species. Name: practice test Score: 0 / 35 (0%) [12 subjective questions not graded] The Biosphere Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the

More information

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor Social Insects Sociality evolved multiple times in insects Much of Earth s fauna consists of social insects They play major roles in entire ecosystems Proliferation of ants and termites associated with

More information

Community Interactions. Chapter 27

Community Interactions. Chapter 27 Community Interactions Chapter 27 Community Interactions An ecological community consists of all the interacting populations in an ecosystem Interactions between populations in a community help limit their

More information

What is a food chain?

What is a food chain? 3 What is a food chain? Learning Intention Understand that plants and animals in a habitat are dependent on each other. National Curriculum Skills Science Interdependence of living organisms in those 2

More information

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.1 ) Energy Flow 1) Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date:

More information

food chains reflect How are these organisms important to one another? organism: a living thing

food chains reflect How are these organisms important to one another? organism: a living thing reflect Different plants and animals live together. Look at the picture of the garden. What organisms live there? Grass, trees, bugs, and birds live there. Fish and frogs live there, too. Can you think

More information

A Guide to Exploring Caterpillars Count! Data

A Guide to Exploring Caterpillars Count! Data A Guide to Exploring Caterpillars Count! Data Whether or not you conducted your own Caterpillars Count! surveys, all of the data submitted by citizen scientists all over the country are available for exploring

More information

www.irishseedsavers.ie Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans.

www.irishseedsavers.ie Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. www.irishseedsavers.ie POND LIFE FACT SHEET Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. A pond is a small body of fresh water shallow enough for sunlight

More information

They take place out in the Park in all weathers; please ensure that your pupils are suitably dressed for the conditions.

They take place out in the Park in all weathers; please ensure that your pupils are suitably dressed for the conditions. HABITAT TALKS General points about these talks: They take place out in the Park in all weathers; please ensure that your pupils are suitably dressed for the conditions. We keep group sizes to a maximum

More information

Evolution and Community Ecology

Evolution and Community Ecology Evolution and Community Ecology Before you read the chapter, answer each question with information you know. After you complete the chapter, re-answer the questions using information you learned. How Do

More information

Course Outline. Parental care and sexual conflict. Papers for 22 October. What is sexual conflict? 10/19/2009

Course Outline. Parental care and sexual conflict. Papers for 22 October. What is sexual conflict? 10/19/2009 Parental and sexual conflict Course Outline 1. Sexual selection * 2. Parent offspring conflict * 3. Sexual conflict over parental René van Dijk Email: R.E.van.Dijk@bath.ac.uk 19 October 2009 4. Genomic

More information

food chain Encyclopedic Entry

food chain Encyclopedic Entry This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry food chain For

More information

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations

Population Ecology. Life History Traits as Evolutionary Adaptations Population Ecology An Overview of Population Ecology Population ecology is the study of factors that affect population: Density Growth A population is a group of individuals of a single species that occupy

More information

NOTE TO TEACHER: It is appropriate to introduce the mitochondria (where energy is made) as a major structure common to all cells.

NOTE TO TEACHER: It is appropriate to introduce the mitochondria (where energy is made) as a major structure common to all cells. 5.2.1 Recall the cell as the smallest unit of life and identify its major structures (including cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and vacuole). Taxonomy level: 1.1 and 1.2-A Remember Factual Knowledge

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 (a) Why are zebra mussels located primarily in areas in the eastern United States rather than in the western United States? One point can be

More information

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference!

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference! Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis Let s look at the difference! What is metamorphosis? Metamorphosis refers to the way that certain organisms develop, grow, and change form. Metamorphosis actually

More information

Is That Mammal a Carnivore, Herbivore or Omnivore?

Is That Mammal a Carnivore, Herbivore or Omnivore? Name: Is That Mammal a Carnivore, by Guy Belleranti A mammal can be a carnivore (meat eater), herbivore (plant eater) or omnivore (meat and plant eater). By looking at the teeth, eye position and feet

More information

8.2 - A Local Ecosystem:

8.2 - A Local Ecosystem: 8.2 - A Local Ecosystem: 1. The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors: Distinguish between the abiotic and biotic factors

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Food Webs & Interaction Webs. Background information on food-getting by organisms:

Food Webs & Interaction Webs. Background information on food-getting by organisms: Food Webs & Interaction Webs Background information on food-getting by organisms: Plants convert solar energy into useable stored sugar energy. These organisms are called autotrophs (auto=self; troph=feeding/energy).

More information

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: 2. Manipulating abundance: 3. Pest and weed control:

BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: 2. Manipulating abundance: 3. Pest and weed control: BIOS 3010: Ecology Lecture 16: Manipulating abundance: Lecture summary: Manipulating abundance: Pest control. Pesticides:» Benefits.» Problems. Biological control. Cultural control. Integrated pest management.

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles

Ecosystem Ecology. Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Ecosystem Ecology Energy Flows and Nutrient Cycles Introduction to Ecosystems Some reflected Some converted to heat Some absorbed PSN Some absorbed by organisms, soils, water Introduction to Ecosystems

More information

NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL Biological Control of Pests, ENTO 675, UH-Manoa, Fall 2000, M. W. Johnson 1 NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL I. DEFINITIONS A. H. S. Smith (1919) first used term "biological control" to signify the

More information

The Soil Food Web and Pest Management

The Soil Food Web and Pest Management The Soil Food Web and Pest Management Mary Barbercheck, Department of Entomology, 501 ASI Building, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 16802 Tel. (814)863-2982 meb34@psu.edu New England Vegetable

More information

8 key ideas in Ecology

8 key ideas in Ecology 8 Key Ideas in Ecology Learning goals for Biology 318 Page 1 of 9 8 key ideas in Ecology 1. Autecology Organismas try to maintain constant internal conditions. a. Salt-water balance (2) b. Light capture

More information

Types of Interactions

Types of Interactions Types of nteractions Look at the seaweed forest shown in Figure 1 below. How many fish do you see? How many seaweed plants do you count? Why do you think there are more members of the seaweed population

More information

Alcock Chapter 6 - Behavioral Adaptations for Survival. Really about predator/prey relationships.

Alcock Chapter 6 - Behavioral Adaptations for Survival. Really about predator/prey relationships. Alcock Chapter 6 - Behavioral Adaptations for Survival. Really about predator/prey relationships. In the larger context, this is one aspect of Behavioral Ecology 1 There are different interactions between

More information

Figure 4. Clown fish and anemone. Figure 5. Sea spider. Page 2 of 6. Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/bio102

Figure 4. Clown fish and anemone. Figure 5. Sea spider. Page 2 of 6. Saylor URL: www.saylor.org/bio102 Symbiosis The phrase symbiotic relationship simply refers to a close ecological relationship between two different species. These relationships differ along a spectrum from positive to negative interactions.

More information

SCORING KEY AND RATING GUIDE

SCORING KEY AND RATING GUIDE FOR TEACHERS ONLY The University of the State of New York Le REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION LIVING ENVIRONMENT Tuesday, August 13, 2002 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only SCORING KEY AND RATING GUIDE Directions

More information

Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves

Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves I. Leaf Structure and Anatomy Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves A. Structural Features of the Leaf Question: How do plants respire? Plants must take in CO 2 from the atmosphere in order to photosynthesize.

More information

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects:

Lesson 1. Objectives: ocus: Subjects: Lesson 1 The Web of Life Objectives: 1. Understand the concept of an ecosystem. 2. Understand the interdependence of members of an ecosystem. Subjects: 1. Ecology 2. Language 3. Art MATERIALS: Copies of

More information

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients

5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients CHAPTER 5 ECOSYSTEMS 5.1 Ecosystems, Energy, and Nutrients Did anyone ever ask you the question: Where do you get your energy? Energy enters our world from the Sun but how does the Sun s energy become

More information

The Mountain Ecosystem by Kimberly M. Hutmacher

The Mountain Ecosystem by Kimberly M. Hutmacher A habitat is where a plant or animal lives and grows. A habitat is part of an ecosystem where lots of different plants and animals live. Mountains, with their many levels are an ecosystem containing many

More information

Mammalian digestive tracts

Mammalian digestive tracts Mammalian digestive tracts Mouth: mastication, some digestive enzymes Esophagus: simple transport tube Stomach: most initial digestion, some physical processing Small intestine: digestion continues, some

More information

2.2 Interactions Among Species

2.2 Interactions Among Species Key Terms ecological niche bog predator prey mutualism parasite ecological niche the way that an organism occupies a position in an ecosystem, including all the necessary biotic and abiotic factors 2.2

More information

4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow?

4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow? 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow? ecosystem Ecosystem is the living and nonliving things and the way they interact in an environment.

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Symbiotic Relationships Grade Seven

Symbiotic Relationships Grade Seven Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain how energy entering the ecosystems as sunlight supports the life of organisms through photosynthesis and the transfer of energy through the

More information