April 8. Physics 272. Spring Prof. Philip von Doetinchem


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1 Physics 272 April 8 Spring Prof. Philip von Doetinchem Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  218
2 LC in parallel Follow a similar idea like in the easy case with L and C in series use Kirchhoff's law Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  219
3 LC in parallel We assume that the system is oscillating with a special frequency Differential equation systems with the oscillations can be solved with an exponential approach Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  220
4 LC in parallel Now we have system of nonlinear equations Let's write it down in matrix form: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  221
5 LC in parallel No general solution exists, only for a special choice of when the determinant of the matrix is zero: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  222
6 LC in parallel If the term under the square root is smaller than zero the system is oscillating This is driven by the choice of L,R,C Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  223
7 LC in parallel Right after closing the switch: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  224
8 LC in parallel Use the following substitutions: Technically any linear combination of sine and cosine solutions to our problem are allowed before taking the initial conditions into account For charge in the capacitor we know that the charge is 0 after closing the switch (t=0): Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  225
9 LC in parallel Using our initial condition: Use this result to calculate the current in the inductor (Kirchhoff's loop rule): Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  226
10 Review Mutual inductance Selfinductance Magnetic field energy RL circuit Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  227
11 Review LC circuit LRC circuit is a realistic approach where inductors and wire have a nonzero resistance The resistance in this case is similar to friction in mechanics Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  228
12 Alternating current Electric power distribution uses alternating current (AC) Transformer can easily be used to step voltage up and down High voltages with low currents are used for longdistance power transmission to keep i2r losses small Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  230
13 RootMeanSquare (rms) values Averaging a sinusoidal current is not very useful average value is 0 Rectified average current is the average of the absolute current I cos t : Another way of describing the alternating current is the rootmeansquare value: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  231
14 Resistor in an AC circuit Current and voltage have both the same dependence on cosine: When current is at maximum voltage is at maximum Current and voltage amplitudes are related in the same way as in a DC circuit Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  232
15 Resistor in an AC circuit Current and voltage have both the same dependence on cosine: When current is at maximum voltage is at maximum Current and voltage amplitudes are related in the same way as in a DC circuit Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  233
16 Inductor in an AC circuit Ideal inductor with zero resistance Potential difference is not caused by dissipation of energy in wire, but by selfinduced emf Voltage across the conductor is proportional to rate change Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  234
17 Inductor in an AC circuit Voltage peaks occur a quarter cycle earlier voltage leads the current by 90deg Inductive reactance: Be careful: current and voltage are out of phase Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  235
18 The meaning of inductive reactance XL is description of the selfinduced emf that opposes any change in current through a conductor More rapid variation in current increases inductive reactance High frequency voltages gives only small currents compared to lowerfrequency voltages This can be used to block high frequency noise Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  236
19 An inductor in an AC circuit Current amplitude in a pure inductor in a radio receiver is 250 A with voltage amplitude 3.6V at frequency 1.6MHz What inductance is needed: Change of current with different frequencies: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  237
20 Capacitor in an AC circuit Capacitor constantly charges and discharges in AC circuit Current into one plate and equal current out of other plate Equal displacement current between plates effectively we can say that alternating current is going through the capacitor Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  238
21 Capacitor in an AC circuit Current has greatest magnitude when the voltage is rising or falling most steeply Voltage lags the current by 90deg Capacitive reactance: Also here: voltage and current are out of phase Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  239
22 The meaning of capacitive reactance With smaller frequency the capacitive reactance becomes higher Capacitors tend to pass high frequency current and to block low frequencies (opposite to inductors) Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  240
23 A resistor and a capacitor in an AC circuit 200 resistor in series with a 5.0 F capacitor Voltage across resistor is 1.2Vcos(2500Hz t) Current in circuit: Capacitive reactance: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  241
24 A resistor and a capacitor in an AC circuit 200W resistor in series with a 5.0mF capacitor Voltage across resistor is 1.2Vcos(2500Hz t) Voltage across capacitor Same current passes through resistor and capacitor, but voltages are different in amplitude and phase Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  242
25 Comparing ac circuit elements Resistor shows no phase difference between voltage and current Inductors and capacitors have +/90deg phase differences between voltage and current Resistance does not depend on the frequency Inductive and capacitive reactances depend on frequency Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  243
26 Comparing ac circuit elements For 0: alternating current case goes over into DC case: no current through capacitor no inductive effect For : current in inductor goes to zero voltage across capacitor becomes zero (no charge build up) Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  244
27 Crossover network for loudspeaker Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  245
28 The LRC series circuit Instantaneous total voltage vad across all three components is equal to the source voltage Elements are connected in series current at any instant is the same at every point in the circuit Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  246
29 The LRC series circuit Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  247
30 The LRC series circuit For any network of resistors, inductors, capacitors: impedance is defined as the ratio of: amplitude voltage/current amplitude Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  248
31 The meaning of impedance and phase angle Impedance is similar to Ohm's law V=IR in DC circuits Impedance Z plays the role of R for AC circuit Alternating currents tend to follow path of least resistance Important for sinusoidally varying voltages: Relations also work when replacing maximum voltages by RMS values Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  249
32 The meaning of impedance and phase angle Impedance depends on R, L, C and In addition to impedance the phase angle between voltage and current is important C Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  250
33 The meaning of impedance and phase angle L=0: C=0: R=0: L=0, C=0: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  251
34 Example for an LRC circuit LRC series circuit with R=300, L=60mH, C=0.5 F sinusoidal voltage with amplitude voltage V=50V at =10,000rad/s Impedance: Amplitude current and phase angle: voltage leads current by 53deg Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  252
35 Example for an LRC circuit LRC series circuit with R=300, L=60mH, C=0.5 F sinusoidal voltage with amplitude voltage V=50V at =10,000rad/s Voltages across components: The total voltage of 50V is not equal to the scalar sum of the individual voltages! Vector sum has to be used Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  253
36 Power in alternatingcurrent circuits Alternating currents are very important for distributing and converting electric energy For a particular moment in time, the power delivered to a circuit element is: Resistor: Voltage and current are in phase energy is always supplied (product of V and I always positive) Power is not constant, average power is: Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  254
37 Power in alternatingcurrent circuits Power in an inductor: Voltage leads current by 90deg average power supplied is zero (no energy transfer over one cycle) Power in a capacitor: Voltage lags the current by 90deg average power supplied is zero Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  255
38 Power in a general AC circuit Power factor cos is important to determine how much current has to be drawn for a given voltage difference Drawing more current is undesirable: i2r losses increase Ideal inductors and capacitors do not absorb net power from the line Lagging current can be corrected for with capacitors in parallel to increase power factor Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  256
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