EXPERIMENT 4: MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR RC CIRCUIT


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1 Kathmandu University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103) EXPERIMENT 4: MEASUREMENT OF REACTANCE OFFERED BY CAPACITOR IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY FOR RC CIRCUIT Objectives: i) Familiarization with function of function generator and oscilloscope. ii) Measurement of Reactance and power factor of RC Circuit Materials and Equipments Required: Theory: 1. Digital multimeter 2. Function Generator 3. Breadboard 4. Probes [3] 5. Resistors ( 1K) 6. (1µF) 7. Wattmeter Reactance is opposition of a circuit element's to a change of current, caused by the buildup of electric or magnetic fields in the element. In vector analysis, reactance is the imaginary part of electrical impedance, used to compute amplitude and phase changes of sinusoidal alternating current going through the circuit element. It is denoted by the symbol. The SI unit of reactance is the ohm. Both reactance and resistance are required to calculate the impedance, although in some circuits one of these may dominate. Both the magnitude and the phase of the impedance depend on both the resistance and the reactance. A positive reactance implies that the circuit is inductive, where phase of the voltage leads the phase of the current; while a negative reactance implies that the circuit is capacitive, where phase of the voltage lags the phase of the current. A reactance of zero implies the current and voltage are in phase and conversely if the reactance is nonzero then there is a phase difference between the voltage and current
2 Capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the signal frequency and the capacitance. Inductive reactance is proportional to the signal frequency and the inductance. The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power and is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1. Circuit Diagram: A 1 KΩ B 2*Sin(2πft + φ) 1 μf C Fig 1. Circuit connection Procedure: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram of fig. 1 on the breadboard. 2. Set the value of frequency in 50 Hz in the function generator. 3. Adjust the ground of channel 1 and 2 of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope and then set it into DC mode. 4. Observe the waveform of voltage capacitor and compare it with input waveform. Measure the phase difference between input and output waveform. 5. Observe the waveform resistor. Remember that the phase of current is same as that of voltage resistor. 6. Set the Multimeter into AC mode and measure input voltage and voltage capacitor and Resistor and verify the ohm s law in AC circuit. This value gives RMS value of sinusoidal AC. 7. Repeat experiment for different frequency with step size of Observe the waveform capacitor for triangular and square input. 9. Set the frequency to 500 Hz and repeat experiment for the capacitor value 470nF, 4.7µF, 10 µf, 47 µf and 100 µf.
3 Observations: i) Draw the input voltage waveform and waveform of voltage capacitor 1µF for (Sinusoidal) wave input of 1 KHz with peak to peak voltage 6V. T/4 T/2 3T/4 T 5T/4 3T/2 7T/4 2T Figure 1 ii) Draw the input voltage waveform and waveform of voltage capacitor 1µF for (Square) wave input of 1 KHz with peak to peak voltage 6V. T/4 T/2 3T/4 T 5T/4 3T/2 7T/4 2T Figure 2 iii) Draw the input voltage waveform and waveform of voltage capacitor 1µF for (Triangular) wave input of 1 KHz with peak to peak voltage 6V.
4 T/4 T/2 3T/4 T 5T/4 3T/2 7T/4 2T Figure 3 Input peak voltage (V) = 3V Input RMS voltage=. Frequency in Hz Resistor (V R ) (V c ) Reactance of (X C ) X C =(V C *R/( ) Reactance from calculation (X C =1/(2*π*f*C)) measurement Cos( phase difference between resistor and input) Calc Cos (Tan 1 ( / value C 1 µf 10 µf 100 µf Resistor (V R ) (V c ) Reactance of (X C ) X C =(V C *R/( ) Reactance from calculation (X C =1/(2*π*f*C)) measurement Cos( phase difference between resistor and input) Calc Cos (Tan 1 ( /
5 Conclusions and Inference: Exercises: 1) Sketch and interpret the graph of Output voltage of capacitor versus input frequency. 2) Sketch and interpret the graph of Output voltage of capacitor versus capacitor value. 3) Verify the Ohm s law for AC circuit, i.e., V Total = 4) What happens when the output is taken resistor? 5) Draw the phasor diagram for f=1khz and show that V=V R +V C (Bold quantities show phasor quantity) Instructor s Signature Performance Date Submission Date
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