# Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog

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1 Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog Instrumentation and Control Overview When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the basic operating principles behind the instrumentation and control common to your unit. You will be able to identify various instrumentation components and discuss the ways instrumentation systems collect and transmit information. Discuss the importance of instrumentation and control. Define the following common plant process variables: o Pressure o Temperature o Flow o Level o Analytical Describe basic function of process instrumentation. Explain the relationship between common process variables. Define terms associated with process instrumentation: o Differential (delta Δ) o Local control o Remote control o Control loop o Electronic o Pneumatic o Analog o Digital Principles of Temperature When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss the principles of temperature measurement and heat transfer. Define temperature and explain the difference between temperature and heat. Recognize different temperature scales and list their basic units of measurement. Describe the three methods to transfer heat. Define the following terms associated with temperature: o Conduction o Convection o Radiation

2 Principles of Pressure When you complete this lesson, you will understand pressure and how it is measured. You will be able to apply conversion formulas to convert readings from one standard pressure scale to another. Define pressure and list the basic units of pressure measurement. Discuss the formula used to calculate pressure. List the factors and conditions that affect pressure. Explain how Boyle s Law and Charles Law relate to pressure. Recognize common pressure measurement scales and demonstrate your ability to calculate conversion between them Principles of Level When you complete this lesson, you will be able to explain the concept of level and describe how it is measured. Define Level. Explain the difference between continuous and singlepoint level detection. List the basic units of level measurement. Define the following terms associated with level measurement: o Innage o Ullage (outage) o Level o Interface o Meniscus o Buoyancy Principles of Flow When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify the principles behind flow and fluid dynamics, and understand how flow is measured in the process industry. Define flow and flow rate. List the basic units of flow measurement. Discuss the properties of fluids and the dynamics behind the movement of a fluid. Explain how the Reynolds Number indicates laminar or turbulent flow Temperature Instruments When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify various temperature measuring and sensing devices, and describe their operation. Identify types of thermometers and discuss the principles behind their operation. Explain the differences between operation of direct and indirect temperature measurement devices. Describe the basic operation of resistance temperature detector (RTD). Define the following terms associated with temperature o Measurement o Thermocouple o Fluid thermometer Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 2

3 o o o o o o Thermowell Bimetallic thermometer Resistance temperature detector Pyrometer Thermometer Temperature gauge Pressure Measuring Devices When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify and describe the operation of various pressure sensing and measurement devices. Describe basic operation of manometers, pressure gauges, and differential pressure cells. Identify the difference between direct and indirect pressure measurement devices. Describe the basic operation of a pressure transmitter. Define terms associated with pressure measurement. o Manometer o Bourdon tube o Diaphragm o Bellows o Transmitter Level Measuring Devices When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify various level sensing and measurement devices, and describe their basic operation. Describe the basic operation of common level sensing and measurement devices. Define the following terms associated with level measurement: o Sight glass o Float o Tape/Tape gauge o Differential pressure cells o Bubbler o Displacer o Ultrasonic/Radar o Nuclear o Load cell o Probes o Level Switches Flow Measuring Devices When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify and describe the basic operation of various flow sensing and measurement devices that directly or indirectly measure flow. Describe common direct flow measurement devices and discuss their operation. Describe common indirect flow measurement devices and discuss their Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 3

4 operation. Define the following terms associated with flow measurement: o Venturi o Tube velocity o Orifice plate o Flow nozzle o Pitot tube o Straightening vanes o Rotameter o Differential pressure o Mass flow meter Multimeters When you complete this lesson, you will be able to correctly use a volt ohm meter (VOM) and a digital multimeter (DMM). Describe the multimeter s function and operation. Discuss multimeter specifications. Identify the symbols on a multimeter Oscilloscopes When you complete this lesson, you will understand how to use the controls of an oscilloscope for the purpose of measuring electrical signals. You will also be able to set an oscilloscope to measure voltage, frequency, time, and phase shift. Describe how oscilloscopes work. Identify the differences between analog & digital oscilloscopes. Discuss waveform types and measuring waveform parameters. Demonstrate how to use the basic controls of an oscilloscope and take simple measurements Power Supplies When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify the main sections of a DC power supply and describe the types of regulation and regulators. You will also understand how a linear regulator works and be able to troubleshoot power supply problems. Describe a block diagram of a DC power supply. Explain the difference between line regulation and load regulation. Recognize the difference between linear and switching power supplies. Discuss how to setup and use a power supply. Explain the process for troubleshooting power supplies. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 4

5 Signal Generators When you complete this lesson, you will understand the basic controls and operations of a signal generator. You ll be able to use the device to generate basic waveforms for troubleshooting. Describe how signal generators work. Identify types of electrical waveforms. Describe waveform parameters. Discuss operation of basic signal generator controls. Demonstrate how to use a signal generator to generate simple waveforms Thermometers and Calibrators When you complete this lesson, you will understand the basic function and operation of thermometers. Explain the difference between contact and non-contact sensors. Describe the operating principles behind the following: o Radiation thermometers o Thermocouples o Resistive temperature devices o Thermistors Discuss the types of available calibrators, and identify the sensors they validate Manometers When you complete this lesson, you will understand how different types of manometers function and will be able to read them. Identify types of manometers. Recognize and identify the factors that affect manometer accuracy. Explain how to read the pressure on a manometer Pressure and Vacuum Calibrators When you complete this lesson, you will be able to understand how pressure and vacuum calibrators operate and how to use them. Explain the use of a dead weight calibrator. Explain the use of a variator. Explain the use of an aspirator bulb. Explain the use of a hand pump. Explain the use of pneumatic calibrators. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 5

6 Megohmmeters When you complete this lesson, you will be able to select, set up, and safely use a megohmmeter. Define insulation and identify factors that degrade its quality. Describe different types of megohmmeter tests and how to select the correct megohmmeter for the job. Identify safety issues to consider when using a megohmmeter. Describe how to attach the leads to the system. Discuss how a megohmmeter works and demonstrate the steps to take a reading Analytical Instruments When you complete this lesson, you will be able to correctly identify analytical variables and explain the processes for measuring them. You will be able to explain analysis and describe the basic operation of direct and indirect analysis measurement devices. Identify the units of measurement for analytical variables. Describe basic operation of analytical measurement devices. Recognize the general purpose of analytical measurement. Define terms associated with analytical Measurement. o Analyzer o Concentration o Conductivity o Moisture o ph o Humidity o Dew point Introduction to Analytical Testing When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify and describe the function of several key analyzers commonly found in plants. Explain the use of analyzers in a plant. Identify and describe the operation of the following commonly used analyzers: o Hydrometer o Vibrating u-tube density analyzer o Nuclear radiation density analyzer o Slurry density analyzer o Hydrostatic pressure density analyzer o Falling piston viscosity analyzer o Rotating spindle viscosity analyzer o Rheometer Describe how these analyzers contribute to the overall safety and efficiency of a plant. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 6

7 Calibration Overview I When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe basic calibration methods and equipment. Discuss the three-point and five-point methods of calibration. Identify pneumatic and analog calibration equipment. Discuss calibrating procedures for electronic, pneumatic, and analog calibration equipment. Define: o Calibration o Noisy signal o I/P Transducer o Zero o Span (Range) o Live Zero Calibration Overview II When you complete this lesson, you will be able to explain methods used to calibrate transducers, control valve positioners, and smart instruments. Discuss common methods of calibration. Explain how to calibrate transducers and transmitters. Describe smart instruments and common troubleshooting methods. Discuss the steps to calibrate controllers and control valve positioners. Define: o Smart instruments o Impulse leg Introduction to Troubleshooting When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe basic troubleshooting techniques for temperature, pressure, level, and flow equipment in the plant. List available resources that will help you troubleshoot a problem. Describe the best way to read a gauge. Define: o Linearity o Hysteresis o Repeatability o Parallax Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 7

8 Instrument Troubleshooting When you complete this lesson, you will be able to explain the basic steps used in instrument troubleshooting. Identify common causes of instrument malfunctions. Discuss the value of troubleshooting, and outline the steps employed in successful troubleshooting. Identify common sensors, and discuss the malfunctions often associated with each of them. List the basic steps for troubleshooting an instrument on a control loop P&ID Basics When you complete this lesson, you will have the skills necessary to read a P&ID. You will be able to identify symbols and function labels, as well as describe how the components are related. Define P&ID, and discuss its importance to the facility. Identify who uses the P&ID. List the types of information typically found on a P&ID, and describe where each of the following is located on the drawing: o Title block o Main drawing o Line schedules o Equipment descriptions o Issue descriptions o Notes o Zone numbers Describe a master sheet and identify commonly used symbols. Identify instruments, control loops, line designations, and piping on the P&ID. Trace the course of a process, from beginning to end Reading a P&ID When you complete this lesson, you will be able to use a P&ID to identify instrumentation, common equipment, and symbols used in your area. You will also be able to describe how components are related. Identify symbols for selected vessels, compressors, heat exchangers, valves, and pumps. Interpret examples of P&ID numbering systems used for labeling equipment. Explain why instruments and control loops are important for plant safety and operation. Identify instrument symbols. Describe how the instruments in control loops are related and named on a P&ID. Identify piping and determine information about a pipeline including: o Material in the line o Size of the pipe o Line number, and o Whether the line is insulated or traced. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 8

9 Recognize the different types of lines including pneumatic, hydraulic, electric, and signal lines Electrical Drawings When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify the different types of electrical drawings and describe how each is used. You will also be able to identify the devices and components and their relationships to each other. Describe the purpose of an electrical drawing. Describe what kind of information is found in the title block. Describe the revision block, reference block, and legend block. Describe how the drawing grid and grid coordinates help locate components. Identify symbols commonly used in electrical drawings. Explain why device numbers are used in electrical drawings. Describe the purpose of each of the following: o Block drawing o One-line diagram o Wiring diagram o Schematic diagram o Connection diagram o Interconnection diagram o Raceway diagram o Cable schedule o Logic diagram o Identify symbols used in logic diagrams Logic Diagrams When you complete this lesson, you will be able to identify different types of number systems as they relate to computers, and describe how each is used. You will also be able to identify devices and components and explain their relationship to each other. Identify the purpose of a logic diagram. Describe what kind of information is found in the title block. Describe the revision block, reference block, and legend block. Explain how the drawing grid and grid coordinates help locate components. Identify the basic elements associated with logic function and their symbols. Identify and define the following terms: o Logic Gates o Boolean Logic o Truth Tables Industrial Print Reading Overview When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the different types of drawings used by plant employees to design, repair, and maintain equipment in the power plant. In addition, you will have the skills necessary to determine which type of drawing should be used to acquire the specific information directing a specific project. Explain the purpose drawings and schematics serve in an industrial setting. Describe seven categories most industrial drawings fall under. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 9

10 Discuss the purpose of a civil drawing. Describe two types of construction drawings that are commonly used in power plants when new buildings or large equipment are constructed. Describe the use of mechanical drawings by plant mechanics as part of their jobs. Explain the purpose of electrical diagrams Introduction to Automated Control When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss the basic design and function of automated control loops. Describe the main elements employed in an automated control loop. Explain the difference between open and closed control loops. Identify ways in which an operator might interact with a control system Pneumatic and Electronic Control System When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the design and function of typical pneumatic and electronic control systems used in industrial facilities. Identify pneumatic control system components. Explain pneumatic signal transmission ranges. Describe a typical pneumatic control room layout. Identify electronic control system components. Describe some precautions taken when using electronic instruments in hazardous environments. Identify how some filed devices are used in electronic control systems. Describe a typical electronic control room layout. Identify advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic and electronic systems Signal Transmission When you complete this lesson, you will be able to provide a general overview of how mechanical, analog, digital, air, current, voltage, frequencies, pulses, tones, fiber optics, and wireless systems are used to transmit signals in industrial control loops. You will also be able to convert measured values into corresponding transmission values, and transmitted values back into measured values. Compare analog and digital signal transmission. Describe the operation of pneumatic signal transmission systems. Identify several varieties of electric signal transmission systems. Describe the following types of signal transmission: o Mechanical o Optical o Wireless Explain how to convert between measured values and transmitted values. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 10

11 Basic Principles of Industrial Transmitters When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the basic function and operation of pneumatic and electric transmitters. You will also understand the formula relating transmitter outputs to inputs. Explain the need for transmission of process signals in industrial facilities. Describe the basic operation of each of the following: o Pneumatic transmitters o Electrical transmitters o Variable inductance transmitters Calculate transmitter outputs from a given input Smart Transmitters When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the basic design and features of smart transmitters. Describe the basic operation of a smart transmitter. List some advantages of smart transmitters. List some disadvantages of smart transmitters. Discuss the additional capabilities supplied by intelligent transmitters Transducers When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss the function of a transducer and describe types of conversions that transducers perform. You will also be able to explain the operating principles behind the most common types of transducers. List various types of transducers and identify their function. Describe I/P transducer operating mechanics. Describe P/I transducer operating mechanics. Discuss the basic principle behind capacitive pressure transducer operation. Define stress and strain; explain how their relationship is used in a variable resistance sensor. Discuss the basic operating principle behind variable frequency sensor operation. Identify the purpose of A/D (analog to digital) and D/A (digital to analog) converters Controller Control Modes When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the design and function of four main control modes used by industrial controllers. Describe each of the following controller modes: o On-off control mode o Proportional control mode o Integral, or reset, control mode o Derivative, or rate, control mode Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 11

12 Explain how each mode works to keep a process at its desired value or setpoint Operation of Automatic- Manual Transfer Stations When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the basic design, function, and use of an automatic-manual transfer station. Identify the purpose and describe the operation of an automatic-manual transfer station. Describe the function of the transfer switch. Identify some means of comparing manual and controller output signals. Describe what is meant by transfer balancing. Explain how to transfer control from manual to automatic. Explain how to transfer control from automatic to manual Final Control Elements When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the basic design and function of various types of final control elements used in control loops in industrial facilities. Describe a final control element. Explain how control valves and their actuators are used as final control elements. Identify types of dampers used as final control elements. Describe common variable speed drives that may be used as final control elements. Explain how modulating power controllers are used as final control elements Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the design and function of the major components of a PLC. In addition, you will be able to convert numbers from decimal to binary, binary coded decimal, and hexadecimal. Describe the purpose of each of the major PLC components. Discuss basic PLC operation. Describe the internal structure of the CPU. Describe the internal architecture of a typical PLC. Identify typical input and output devices. Discuss the function of the I/O (input/output) modules. Identify types of signals used by PLC and discuss how they are handled. Define ladder logic and explain its use. Discuss how binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbering systems are used in PLC programming. Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 12

13 Input/Output I/O Processing When you complete this lesson, you will be able to discuss I/O error checking and its impact on communications and function. In addition, you ll be able to identify the various types and structure of PLC memory and describe how memory interacts with the peripheral I/O. Describe various error checking methods. Compare volatile and nonvolatile memory and provide example types of each. Describe data table structure within the CPU memory. Discuss the addressing of the I/O modules. Describe memory maps and their function. Describe I/O module structure Inputs and Outputs When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the design and function of I/O (input/output) interfaces and the equipment used to produce and communicate I/O data. List some types of discrete I/O (input/output) interfaces. Describe AC/DC and DC/AC conversion in I/O modules. Discuss DC sinking and sourcing. Describe the use of transistor-transistor logic (TTL). Discuss register/bcd modules and multiplexing. List some types of analog input devices. Describe the use of A/D and D/A converters. Identify the functions of transducers in input field devices. Discuss single-ended and differential configurations PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) Programming Instructions When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the functions of the programming instructions most commonly used in PLC programming. Identify two types of ladder logic. List commonly used Boolean logic functions. Discuss the use of individual instructions and function blocks in ladder logic. Describe the following types of instructions: o Ladder relay instructions o Timer instructions o Counter instructions o Program/flow instructions o Arithmetic instructions Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 13

14 PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) Networks When you complete this lesson, you will be able to describe the functions of the programming instructions most commonly used in PLC programming. Discuss the use of individual instructions and function blocks in ladder logic. Describe the following types of instructions: o Data manipulation instructions o Data transfer instructions o Special function instructions o Network communication instructions Super U Industrial Instrumentation Course Catalog 14

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