Entity-Relationship Model (Part I)

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1 Entity-Relationship Model (Part I) Entities, relationships, attributes Examples Keys Cardinality E-R Notation Exercises Peter P. Chen, Father of the Entity-Relationship model 1

2 Entities, relationships, attributes Entity-Relationship diagram Graphical tool to design (logical level) a database relational model Describes the problem as Set of entities, Relationships among them Basic Concepts Entity: thing or object. Attribute: describes the entity. Relationship: association among several entities. 2

3 Bank Database Example Entities, relationships, attributes Bank: handle information related with clients and accounts 3

4 Bank: example Entities, relationships, attributes nombre domicilio numero prestamo cantidad id ciudad cliente Cliente-cuenta prestamo Rectangles represent entity sets. Diamonds represent relationship sets. Lines link attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship sets. Ellipses represent attributes Underline indicates primary key attributes 4

5 Entity Entities, relationships, attributes Model an object or thing An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other Example: specific person, company, event, plant Usually label with a single word Represented by a rectangle An entity set is a set of entities of the same type that share the same properties. Example: set of all persons, companies, trees, holidays Entities have attributes (properties) Attributes characterize entities Two entities may not have identical attributes (all identical) Example: people have names and addresses 5

6 Entities, relationships, attributes Example: Set of entities customer and loan customer-id customer- customer- customer- loan- amount name street city number 6

7 Entities, relationships, attributes Attributes An entity is represented by a set of attributes, that is descriptive properties possessed by all members of an entity set. Example: instructor = (ID, name, street, city, salary ) course= (course_id, title, credits) Domain the set of permitted values for each attribute Attribute types: Simple and composite attributes. Single-valued and multivalued attributes Example: multivalued attribute: phone_numbers Derived attributes Can be computed from other attributes Example: age, given date_of_birth Each attribute must be assigned to an entity Represented by an oval. 7

8 Entities, relationships, attributes Composite Attributes 8

9 Entities, relationships, attributes Example: Set of entities customer and loan customer-id customer- customer- customer- loan- amount name street city number 9

10 Relationship Entities, relationships, attributes A relationship is an association among several entities A relationship set is a set of relation of the same type (among the same entity sets) Represented by a diamond Must be connected to at east 2 lines Links express cardinality (see this later) 10

11 Relationship Sets A relationship is an association among several entities Example: (Peltier) advisor (Einstein) student entity relationship set instructor entity A relationship set is a mathematical relation among n 2 entities, each taken from entity sets {(e 1, e 2, e n ) e 1 E 1, e 2 E 2,, e n E n } where (e 1, e 2,, e n ) is a relationship Example: (44553,22222) advisor Entities, relationships, attributes 11

12 Relationship Set borrower Entities, relationships, attributes customer-id customer- customer- customer- loan- amount name street city number customer loan 12

13 Entities, relationships, attributes Relationship Sets An attribute can also be property of a relationship set. For instance, the depositor relationship set between entity sets customer and account may have the attribute access-date nombre_cliente fecha numero cuenta 13

14 Entities, relationships, attributes Degree of a Relationship Set binary relationship involve two entity sets (or degree two). most relationship sets in a database system are binary. Relationships between more than two entity sets are rare. 3 entities connected by a relationship: Ternary relationship or relationship of degree 3. Example: students work on research projects under the guidance of an instructor. relationship proj_guide is a ternary relationship between instructor, student, and project 14

15 E-R Model: Bank Bank Example 15

16 E-R Model: Bank Bank Example 16

17 University Database Example University Example Entity Sets instructor and student 17

18 Relationship Set advisor University Example 18

19 Keys Keys A super key of an entity set is a set of one or more attributes whose values uniquely determine each entity i.e. customer-name and customer-id. A candidate key of an entity set is a minimal super key Customer-id is candidate key of customer account-number is candidate key of account ID is candidate key of instructor course_id is candidate key of course Although several candidate keys may exist, one of the candidate keys is selected to be the primary key. 19

20 Keys for Relationship Sets Keys The combination of primary keys of the participating entity sets forms a super key of a relationship set. (s_id, i_id) is the super key of advisor NOTE: this means a pair of entity sets can have at most one relationship in a particular relationship set. Example: if we wish to track multiple meeting dates between a student and her advisor, we cannot assume a relationship for each meeting. We can use a multivalued attribute though Must consider the mapping cardinality of the relationship set when deciding what are the candidate keys Need to consider semantics of relationship set in selecting the primary key in case of more than one candidate key 20

21 Cardinality Mapping Cardinalities Constraints Express the number of entities to which another entity can be associated via a relationship set. Represented by an arrow ( one), or a line (, many). For a binary relationship set the mapping cardinality must be one of the following types: One to one One to many Many to one Many to many 21

22 Mapping Cardinalities Cardinality One to one One to one One to many 22

23 Mapping Cardinalities Cardinality Many to one Many to many Note: Some elements in A and B may not be mapped to any elements in the other set 23

24 One to One One to one relationship: A client can be associated to no more than one loan. A loan can be associated to no more than one client. Cardinality 24

25 One to many Cardinality One-to-many relationship: a loan is associated with at most one customer via borrower, a customer is associated with several (including 0) loans via borrower 25

26 What is correct? Cardinality I cannot ask for one loan for a car and another for a house My father and I cannot ask (together) for a loan 26

27 Relationship many to many Cardinality A customer is associated with several (possibly 0) loans via borrower A loan is associated with several (possibly 0) customers via borrower 27

28 Cardinality Participation of an Entity Set in a Relationship Set Total participation (indicated by double line): every entity in the entity set participates in at least one relationship in the relationship set Example:. every loan must have at least one customer associated to it via borrower (participation of loan is total in borrower) Partial participation: some entities in the entity set may not participate in any relationship in the relationship set Example: it is possible that only some of the customers entities are related to the loan entity set through the borrower relationship (participation of customer is partial in borrower) 2005/2006 Tema 2 - Metodología: el modelo entidad-relación 28

29 Summary of ER diagram E-R Notation 29

30 Summary of ER diagram E-R Notation 30

31 Exercise Exercises Booking system for rooms at an university. Requirements are : Should be possible to: get a list with the booked rooms get a list with the books made by a particular person, or a particular day or for a particular room Teachers may book any room, students may book only general purpose rooms (seminar rooms) Users identify with an user name and a password 31

32 Entity or Relationship? Exercises Room Person book 2005/2006 Tema 2 - Metodología: el modelo entidad-relación 32

33 idroom type Exercise name Exercises password Room Person number type username Book EndData StartDate date idbook 2005/2006 Tema 2 - Metodología: el modelo entidad-relación 33

34 Exercises Summary Part I 1. Model the problem to solve as a E-R Schema: Identify entities, attributes, relationships. Identify keys Identify cardinality 2. Exercise: Booking system for rooms at an university 3. Exercise: Final Exam February Vine 34

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